Using ice – when available – to keep food fresh was a drag, always melting. The new refrigeration units began to change people’s lifestyles from the 1930s on. More fresh and frozen foods from all over the world, all put in that nice white appliance that contained the bitter outdoor cold indoors every day of the year – willingly! You wouldn’t be without refrigeration, or air conditioning, today. Over 200 artefacts to see how they changed.


5 cu.ft. household refrigerator

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Cabinet Refrigerators

Accession # HHCC.2003.001

Five Cubic Foot household, Cabinet Refrigerator With Condensing Unit For Remote Mounting, Kelvinator, Circa 1926.



Item: 5 cu.ft. household refrigerator
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator
Model: See Note #1

Features:
This condensing unit, noisy and dirty, often with the smell of sulphur dioxide was designed for “remote” mounting in the basement of the home, to be reconnected to the refrigerator cabinet with copper tubing

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen: This refrigerator stands as a statement of the earliest, embryonic years of refrigerating technology in Canada. Showing the natural effects of ageing and constant use and repair over its 50 year, active, life span. The condensing unit is in original pristine condition with the exception of the 25 cycle motor replaced at the time of frequency conversion in Ontario in 1948, up to which point the machine had been in constant use. The evaporator is likely not original with this machine, but typical of the brine-tank evaporators used in that period. It was a period in which refrigerators were subject to high maintenance, repair over a long life span.

Industrial Significance:
This specimen tells the stories of the early years of the development of the industry in North America, where the commitment of the Industry was to the inherently noisy, mechanically troubled compression refrigeration cycle, with slow speed, often crudely machined “chunking” compressors, open motor drives and fan cooled “whirring” condensers.The marketing of absorption systems, as an alternative, developed by Electrolux in Europe, and licensed to Servel in Evanseville Ind,. would still be several years away.
The early patent and world-wide registration marks Kelvinator as a pioneer in the field, as well as an aggressive global North American marketer. It had high expectations for industry leadership and domination.


8 cu.ft. household refrigerator

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Cabinet Refrigerators

Accession # HHCC.2003.002

Household, Eight Cubic Cabinet Kelvinator Refrigerator In All Porcelain Cabinet, Kelvinator,1931.



Item: 8 cu.ft. household refrigerator
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator
Model: PK7 See Note #1
Features:
Sliding crispers, egg racks, butter keepers interior cabinet lights and new easy to operate latching systems were the vanguard of many new amenities which would henceforth drive the field, along with “modern” new styling looks. – An added cabinet feature (not shown in the specification sheet) is an “elbow” operated door latch.

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen: The embryonic and early developmental years behind it, Kelvinator’s PK7 marked the beginning of its early growth years in Canada. By the mid 1930’s, in spite of the depression, electric refrigerator had made its mark on the consumer public. By now the electric refrigerator was more stable and quieter in operation with higher speed compressors and spring mounted condensing units and above all new modern styling befitting the period.

Industrial Significance:
The electric refrigerator was, all of a sudden, more attractive in appearance, with gleaming, easy to clean surfaces and fully rounded corners. It clearly had come into its own with its own unique aesthetic. No longer did it appear to the public as a thinly disguised ice box, an image which the public was, by now, quite happy to leave behind. As symbolised here, the PK7 was an important transition point in the development of the industry. Manufactures could see that their continued success would require more than merely well built, efficient and reliable refrigerating machines.
As an increasing number of manufacturers entered the field, the battle for market share was on; customer appeal and features were to become the key to customer sales. One authoritative source reported in 1933 specifications for 24 national manufacturers of household compression cycle refrigerators along with 5 absorption system manufacturers, including Elecrolux of Evansville Ind (See Ref. No. 3.1).


4 cu.ft. household refrigerator

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Cabinet Refrigerators

Accession # HHCC.2003.003

Household, Four Cubic Cabinet Refrigerator, Kelvinator 1934.



Item: 4 cu.ft. household refrigerator
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator
Model: N, See Note #1

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen: This machine symbolises a unique period in the development of the industry. It was part of the first growth period of the household refrigerator as a mass consumer good, moving beyond the embryonic years and the exclusive appeal to the elite market – once believed to be the only market. A second significant growth period would follow the pent up consumer demand of the late 1940’s a consequence of the Second World War. At that time, it was a first-time buyer’s market without trade-ins to be contended with. But for now the industry was targeting the first time buyer of modest means. It was a “refrigerator in every kitchen marketing” – following the lead of ther auto industry.

Industrial Significance:
By the early 1930’s it was realized that the much hoped for growth period of the industry, like that of the automobile industry, would come not from the manufacture and sale of high-end products, but also through the production of much more popularly affordable machines for middle class consumption, ones configured much better for the kitchens of the nation. – This refrigerator represents the early 1930’s market response to “the refrigerator in every kitchen” movement, paralleling the “automobile in every garage” movement of the times. It was originally priced at a low of $216.00 (See Ref. 1.2, Section 2, Form, C4916AA, price list dated Feb. 1 1935), for a replacement price in 1996 dollars of $2,650 – yet still a very sizeable investment for most households.


13 cu.ft. household refrigerator

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Cabinet Refrigerators

Accession # HHCC.2003.004

Household, 13 cubic Foot Refrigerator with Food Freezing Compartment, McClary, 1958.



Item: 13 cu.ft. household refrigerator
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario for General S
Make: McClary,
Model: ZD13-85-1,

Features:
Modern Post World War II design, reminiscent of the design idiom of the day, Moving from the curved lines of the pre-war Art Deco periodNew child-proof safety door lock, response to the loss of life by chidden and the safety promotions taken up by the industry itself ( See early examples of industry safety promotions)

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
As a result, Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen: is an example of a particular genre in the evolution of two temperature refrigeration system engineering for the household. Although the engineering design adopted here would be relatively short lived, it represented a major advance in refrigeration engineering, allowing a full two temperature refrigerator in a single cabinet, with single condensing unit. A a simple, transitional technology, the use of two static evaporators, operating at different temperatures was a major step in the evolution of the home refrigerator.
The advent of the two-temperature refrigerator, one in every kitchen of the nation, would be a goal of the industry, one largely achieved well before the end of the century. The impact on the way Canadians lived and their expectations for daily diet and life style was significant- for it was the “TV dinner” era had arrived along with the TV in the living room and the refrigerator freezer in the kitchen.

Industrial Significance:
An excellent example of the impressive Canadian manufacturing facilities for major appliances that developed in the 1950 to 60 in Ontario, prior to changing markets and increased competition leading to down-sizing, consolidation and globalisation of the industry. This is an icon from the golden age of Canadian appliance manufacturing. The changing market would soon see the demise of Kelvinator of Canada as the pioneer in refrigeration manufacturing in Canada. During the early post WWII years Kelvinator sought to build production capacity in its London Ontario plant by manufacturing for other, “come lately” companies, looking for a share of the post war boom market – such as General Steel Wares and Admiral.


14 cu.ft. household freezer

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Cabinet Refrigerators

Accession # HHCC.2003.005

Household, 14 cubic Foot, Vertical Freezer, Kelvinator, 1965.



Item: 14 cu.ft. household freezer
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator
Model: KVM 14-R

Features:
Modern Post World War II styling, in keeping with the design idiom of the day, square cornered, a departure from the smoothly rounded corners of the earlier Art Deco perod of the 1940’s

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
As a result, Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen: The advent of the vertical home freezer, as represented here by an acknowledged market leader of the period, Kelvinator, made possible and accelerated a significant movement in the consumer culture of the 1950’s and 60’s. It moved Canadian society and culture solidly into pre-packaged, frozen foods, one of the hall-marks of the dietary and consumer cultures of the last half of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
The long life, trouble and maintenance free, refrigerating technolgy represented in this machine [50 years] and others of the period, marked a plateau in the field, an achievement almost unimagined a decade earlier. This now historic artifact of canada’s material culture of technology stands as a prime offering of Canada’s golden age of appliance manufacturing [See also THOC-HVACR-004]. The engineering and production of this line of consumer products by Kelvinator of Canada would mark the maturity and decline of the company as a pioneer in the Canadian refrigeration and appliance industry. Competitive pressures and the changing nature of the market place would make it difficult for small innovative manufactures like Kelvinator of Canada to survive. Within a few years the company would be sold to a large corporate conglomerate, and the name Kelvinator would soon become a marketing label and little more.


Room air conditioner ‘Frigidaire’

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Air Conditioners

Accession # HHCC.2003.006

Household, Through-the-Window, Room Air Conditioner, Frigidaire, 1956.



Item: Room air conditioner ‘Frigidaire’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Products Canada Ltd, Scarborough, Ont
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Super 33

Features:
Automatic temperature control, Outside fresh air damper Air filter Complete, original installation kit

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen stands as a marker of the embryonic years of household air conditioning in Canada. While vastly under powered, by the standards that would follow, it was for most urban dwellers affordable and a significant market opener.

Industrial Significance:
The development of high heat transfer, capacity compressors, condensers, evaporators and flow control devices, at a price that home owners were likely to find affordable, would be a major challenge and success story for the refrigeration industry in the early years of home air conditioning. The industry would quickly adapting what had been learned in the design of reliable hermetic compressors and coiling for the food industry to high heat transfer systems required for household air conditioning applications.Suddenly the refrigeration and air conditioning industry expanded dramatically with a number of new non-traditional players designing, manufacturing and marketing equipment for household and commercial applications. In the face of increasing competition from manufactures with massive engineering and production facilities, many of the traditional suppliers to the refrigeration field would quickly fade from their earlier position of market leadership, including Kelvinator and Frigidaire.


Room air conditioner ‘GE’

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Air Conditioners

Accession # HHCC.2003.007

Household, Through-the-Wall, Room, Air Conditioner, General Electric, 1959.



Item: Room air conditioner ‘GE’
Manufacturer: GE, Louisville USA
Make: General Electric
Model: 1R32NA
Features: Automatic temperature control, out-side air damper, air filter air frshning cartridge Unused equipment with original price tag and original owners manual

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
As a result, Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
The Significance of this Specimen rests in its special transitional status as a “sandwich technology”, between the window, room air conditioner and central summer cooling for the Canadian home, which would soon follow for all those who could afford it.

Industrial Significance:
Beautifully engineered and crafted this machine stands as a model of the refrigeration engineering know-how of the period, as well as the sophisticated production engineering that industry giants, with massive economic resources, such as GE, could bring to the field.


Double door refrigerator

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Commercial Refrigerating Equipment

Accession # HHCC.2003.008

Nine and One Half Cubic Foot, Double door, Cabinet Refrigerator, Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: Double door refrigerator
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont.
Make: Kelvinator
Model: 233
Features:
Four heavy galvanised steel wire shelves; evaporator baffles (evaporator not included), early refrigerator lift latches in pristine condition

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
As a result, Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
The Significance of this Specimen: The significant contribution of refrigerators, represented by this specimen lies in the market for the technology opened up for larger refrigerators, which would grace the kitchens of wealthy estates throughout the 1930’s, as well as being found in a new generation of food retailers, the family run,”mumma and papa” store of the pre WW II era.


Double door refrigerator

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Commercial Refrigerating Equipment

Accession # HHCC.2003.009

Nine and One Half Cubic Foot, Double door, Cabinet Refrigerator, Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: Double door refrigerator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire, Electric Refrigerator, Frigidaire Corp
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Cabinet MP7

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
As a result, Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen, along with inventory item No.008 help to profile the significant changes in the industry’s public offerings over a brief 2 years, from 1926 to 1928. The last half of the decade was a period remarkable styling, engineering and manufacturing innovation in the industry, inspired by the rapid market growth of the period. Included, as highlighted in contrasting the two specimens, are styling [square to round, modern corners of the Art deco], finish [yellowing paint to gleaming white porcelain], size and weight of condensing unit.


Two tray evaporator ‘CT31X’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.011

Two tray, ice maker evaporator with low-side float, Cooling Unit for Household Cabinet Refrigerator, Kelvinator,1930.



Item: Two tray evaporator ‘CT31X’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: CT31X

Technical Significance:
The technological significance of the evaporator in a mechanical refrigeration system lies in its ability to evaporate liquid refrigerant (allowing it to absorb latent heat and thus perform useful cooling). In the public mind, however, the useful work was more simply that of cooling. This lead astute manufactures to popularise the use of the term “cooling unit” in place of evaporator. It was the term adopted by the industry in the early years, as it attempted to connect with the human experience of the times to better promote its wares, gaining market share in the embryonic years of Canada’s emerging consumer society. (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada)
Human experience and the social culture of the 1920’s also associated useful cooling with the melting of ice. Historically manufactures successfully played to this sense of public understanding by further marketing cooling units as icemakers. By this means they appealed to wide spread cultural understandings of how things got cooled, through the controlled melting of ice (the popular Canadian icebox of the 1920’s and 30’s). In a peculiar twist, it was often the job of the refrigeration sales or service man to explain to the homemaker that it was not really the ice in the ice cube trays that cooled the refrigerator, but the motor and compressor underneath.
In the 1920’s manufactures of mechanical refrigerators for the home appealed to the consumer public by promoting ice and ice cream as the new consumables, the new food sensations available for all those sufficiently affluent to enjoy the experience. Promotional literature focused on the pleasant sensation of ice cold beverages and on ice cream making at home – using the latest cooling unit. A recipe and food life style book came with the refrigerator for the edification and instruction of the homemaker (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada). Ice and ice cream making in the home was, in fact, one of the significant, new “Gee whiz”, household technologies of the times.
This specimen is an early example of the genre, engineered by Kelvinator for use in one of its household cabinet refrigerators. Trouble prone, the flooded evaporator with low-side float would be would quickly be replaced, however, with less expensive and more trouble free evaporator technology well within the decade.

Industrial Significance:
With complex, demanding construction, the evaporator would make many demands on manufacturing and materials engineering in Ontario in the early years of the 20th century.


Two tray evaporator ‘CT31X’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.012

Two tray, icemaker evaporator with low-side float; white porcelain front panel and chromium control mounting, a cooling unit up-scaled for use on Kelvinator’s “Yukon”, a deluxe household cabinet Refrigerator, Kelvinator,1930.



Item: Two tray evaporator ‘CT31X’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: CT31X
Features:
White porcelain front plate with chromium control plate mounting, ice cube trays with deep chromium plated front plates and handles, reflective not only the increasing sophistication available to the refrigeration industry (in terms of materials and manufacturing techniques), but also of the public desire for clean, crisp, easy to clean modern looking surfaces – a far cry from the icebox the nation wished now to leave behind.

Technical Significance:
The technological significance of the evaporator in a mechanical refrigeration system lies in its ability to evaporate liquid refrigerant (allowing it to absorb latent heat and thus perform useful cooling). In the public mind, however, the useful work was more simply that of cooling. This lead astute manufactures to popularise the use of the term “cooling unit” in place of evaporator. It was the term adopted by the industry in the early years, as it attempted to connect with the human experience of the times to better promote its wares, gaining market share in the embryonic years of Canada’s emerging consumer society. (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada)
Human experience and the social culture of the 1920’s also associated useful cooling with the melting of ice. Historically manufactures successfully played to this sense of public understanding by further marketing cooling units as icemakers. By this means they appealed to wide spread cultural understandings of how things got cooled, through the controlled melting of ice (the popular Canadian icebox of the 1920’s and 30’s). In a peculiar twist, it was often the job of the refrigeration sales or service man to explain to the homemaker that it was not really the ice in the ice cube trays that cooled the refrigerator, but the motor and compressor underneath.
In the 1920’s manufactures of mechanical refrigerators for the home appealed to the consumer public by promoting ice and ice cream as the new consumables, the new food sensations available for all those sufficiently affluent to enjoy the experience. Promotional literature focused on the pleasant sensation of ice cold beverages and on ice cream making at home – using the latest cooling unit. A recipe and food life style book came with the refrigerator for the edification and instruction of the homemaker (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada). Ice and ice cream making in the home was, in fact, one of the significant, new “Gee whiz”, household technologies of the times.
This specimen demonstrates the way the basic technology of the cooling units of the period was gentrified. What was being sold was much less a fully functioning refrigerated household appliance than style, a technique discovered and successfully applied by auto makers at about the same time.


Two tray evaporator ‘1TF’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.013

Two tray, icemaker evaporator with low-side float; cooling unit for household cabinet refrigerator, Frigidaire,1926.



Item: Two tray evaporator ‘1TF’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire, USA
Make: Frigidaire
Model: 1TF

Technical Significance:
The technological significance of the evaporator in a mechanical refrigeration system lies in its ability to evaporate liquid refrigerant (allowing it to absorb latent heat and thus perform useful cooling). In the public mind, however, the useful work was more simply that of cooling. This lead astute manufactures to popularise the use of the term “cooling unit” in place of evaporator. It was the term adopted by the industry in the early years, as it attempted to connect with the human experience of the times to better promote its wares, gaining market share in the embryonic years of Canada’s emerging consumer society. (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada)
Human experience and the social culture of the 1920’s also associated useful cooling with the melting of ice. Historically manufactures successfully played to this sense of public understanding by further marketing cooling units as icemakers. By this means they appealed to wide spread cultural understandings of how things got cooled, through the controlled melting of ice (the popular Canadian icebox of the 1920’s and 30’s). In a peculiar twist, it was often the job of the refrigeration sales or service man to explain to the homemaker that it was not really the ice in the ice cube trays that cooled the refrigerator, but the motor and compressor underneath.
In the 1920’s manufactures of mechanical refrigerators for the home appealed to the consumer public by promoting ice and ice cream as the new consumables, the new food sensations available for all those sufficiently affluent to enjoy the experience. Promotional literature focused on the pleasant sensation of ice cold beverages and on ice cream making at home – using the latest cooling unit. A recipe and food life style book came with the refrigerator for the edification and instruction of the homemaker (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada). Ice and ice cream making in the home was, in fact, one of the significant, new “Gee whiz”, household technologies of the times.
This specimen is a particularly early, a well-preserved sample of cooling unit art form (Frigidaire shows this evaporator as discontinued May 5, 1928). Crude in manufacturing techniques, by subsequent standards, the industry would move quickly to modernise the look of its products and to develop the materials and manufacturing processes needed to produce them. (See for example items 011 and 012)


Two tray evaporator ‘Norge’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.014

Two tray, flooded evaporator with low-side float, modern, formed front plate and hinged door in white porcelain, decorated with black trim and built in temperature control mount; cooling unit for Norge household cabinet refrigerator, Norge, 1936.



Item: Two tray evaporator ‘Norge’
Manufacturer: Borg Warner Corp. Michigan
Make: Norge
Model: unknown
Features:
Styled with modern curved line and form, this cooling unit reflects the Art Deco influences of the mid 1930’s. Of special note is the built in temperature control and on-off switch, conveniently place for the homemaker. The control is equipped with a manual, reset overload switch by Ranco, a leading innovation in control technology for the times

Technical Significance:
The technological significance of the evaporator in a mechanical refrigeration system lies in its ability to evaporate liquid refrigerant (allowing it to absorb latent heat and thus perform useful cooling). In the public mind, however, the useful work was more simply that of cooling. This lead astute manufactures to popularise the use of the term “cooling unit” in place of evaporator. It was the term adopted by the industry in the early years, as it attempted to connect with the human experience of the times to better promote its wares, gaining market share in the embryonic years of Canada’s emerging consumer society. (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada)
Human experience and the social culture of the 1920’s also associated useful cooling with the melting of ice. Historically manufactures successfully played to this sense of public understanding by further marketing cooling units as icemakers. By this means they appealed to wide spread cultural understandings of how things got cooled, through the controlled melting of ice (the popular Canadian icebox of the 1920’s and 30’s). In a peculiar twist, it was often the job of the refrigeration sales or service man to explain to the homemaker that it was not really the ice in the ice cube trays that cooled the refrigerator, but the motor and compressor underneath.
In the 1920’s manufactures of mechanical refrigerators for the home appealed to the consumer public by promoting ice and ice cream as the new consumables, the new food sensations available for all those sufficiently affluent to enjoy the experience. Promotional literature focused on the pleasant sensation of ice cold beverages and on ice cream making at home – using the latest cooling unit. A recipe and food life style book came with the refrigerator for the edification and instruction of the homemaker (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada). Ice and ice cream making in the home was, in fact, one of the significant, new “Gee whiz”, household technologies of the times.
This specimen is a remarkable icon of its time, marking a dramatic change in engineering, manufacturing and styling, as the industry geared up to move beyond its embryonic development years. Of particular note, technically, is the inclusion of an automatic overload device, with manual reset. This was representative of the early years of safety control technology designed for equipment protection and personal safety.

Industrial Significance:
With the mid 1930’s came increased competition in the refrigeration appliance field, as companies such as Borg Warner and General Motors/Frigidaire, with significant engineering and production experience and resources behind them made major investments in the now rapidly expanding field.


Three tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.015

Three tray, dry evaporator for High-side float, in formed, rolled steel and heavy white porcelain, fast freezing shelf in stainless steel, for household cabinet refrigerator, Kelvinator, 1936.



Item: Three tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Klelvinator of Canada, London Ont.
Make: Kelvinator

Technical Significance:
See Technological Significance documentation for THOC-HVACR 014. Like specimen 014, this historical artifact of the Canadian HVACR industry is a remarkable icon of its time, marking a dramatic change in engineering, manufacturing and styling, as the industry geared up to move well beyond its embryonic development years of the 1920’s.

Industrial Significance:
The offering was a significant attempt by Kelvinator and the Canadian refrigeration industry to improve system, cooling and thermodynamic efficiencies, reduce manufacturing costs by investing in new materials, construction and manufacturing technologies, as well as to capture a second market interest in frozen foods.


Four tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.016

Horizontal, four tray, dry evaporator for high-side float, in formed, rolled steel and heavy white porcelain, with fast freezing shelf in stainless steel, “high tech” remote bulb temperature control, defrost and overload controllers, for use on household cabinet refrigerator, Kelvinator, 1936.



Item: Four tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont.
Make: Kelvinator
Features:
Gleaming white porcelain finish; full back cooling unit with door in brushed aluminium ( a new designer material of the mid 30’s) with a classic design idiom.

Technical Significance:
See Technological Significance documentation for THOC-HVACR 014 and 015. Like specimens 014 and 015, this historical artifact of the Canadian HVACR industry is a remarkable icon of its time, marking a dramatic change in engineering, concepts, manufacturing and styling, as the industry geared up to move well beyond its embryonic development years of the 1920’s. Of special note is the level of automation and refrigeration system regulation reflected here, in remote bulb temperature controlling, defrost control and motor over load protection (See also historical artifacts THOC-HVACR Group 7.00 ). Seen here are the early manifestations of engineering thought in the practical application of what would become the cybernetic revolution of the 40’s and 50’s, in which mechanical and electrical systems were conceived as purposeful, self-regulating and self-directing entities.
Here, too, the unprepared public would be faced, most for the first time, with a myriad of switches and buttons (three), arrayed on a control panel (not included), which they were expected to understand and use effectively – most did not. The local refrigeration salesman and serviceman, the support network of the times, were constantly on call, if the householder found melted ice-cream, and other dripping contents on opening the refrigerator.
Here, then, are the early manifestations, realised in the engineering concepts and hardware of the period, of the on-coming revolution in the processing of meaningful, purposeful, information through feedback loops. (See “Modern Systems Research for the Behavioral Scientist, W. Buckley, 1968) .

Industrial Significance:
This offering was a significant attempt by Kelvinator and the Canadian refrigeration industry to improve system cooling and thermodynamic efficiencies, reduce manufacturing costs and progressively automate and regulate their systems better. The industry was investing heavily in new materials, construction and manufacturing technologies, in order to capture the interests of a second market buyers market.


Four tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.017

Horizontal, four tray, dry evaporator for high-side float, in formed and rolled steel and heavy white porcelain, “high tech” remote bulb temperature control with defrost and overload controllers and cabinet thermometer, for use on household cabinet refrigerator, Kelvinator, 1936.



Item: Four tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont.
Make: Kelvinator
Features:
Gleaming white porcelain finish; full back cooling unit with door in brushed aluminium ( a new designer material of the mid 30’s) with a classic “K” Kelvinator insignia in modern design idiom.

Technical Significance:
See Technological Significance documentation for THOC-HVACR 014, 015 and 016. Like the above, this historical artifact of the Canadian HVACR industry is a remarkable icon of its time, marking a dramatic change in engineering, concepts, manufacturing and styling, as the industry geared up to move well beyond its embryonic development years of the 1920’s. Of special note is the level of automation and refrigeration system regulation reflected here, in remote bulb temperature controlling, defrost control and motor over load protection (See also historical artifacts THOC-HVACR Group 7.00 ). Seen here are the early manifestations of engineering thought in the practical application of what would become the cybernetic revolution of the 40’s and 50’s, in which mechanical and electrical systems were conceived as purposeful, self-regulating and self-directing entities.
Here, too, the unprepared public would be faced, most for the first time, with a myriad of switches and buttons (three), arrayed on a control panel (not included), which they were expected to understand and use effectively – most did not. The local refrigeration salesman and serviceman, the support network of the times, were constantly on call, if the householder found melted ice-cream, and other dripping contents on opening the refrigerator.
Here, then, are the early manifestations, realised in the engineering concepts and hardware of the period, of the on-coming revolution in the processing of meaningful, purposeful, information through feedback loops. (See “Modern Systems Research for the Behavioral Scientist, W. Buckley, 1968) .

Industrial Significance:
This offering was a significant attempt by Kelvinator and the Canadian refrigeration industry to improve system cooling and thermodynamic efficiencies, reduce manufacturing costs and progressively automate and regulate their systems better. The industry was investing heavily in new materials, construction and manufacturing technologies, in order to capture the interests of a second market buyers market.


Frozen food evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.018

The Canadian refrigeration industry was moving beyond the concept of a refrigerant evaporator as “ice maker” (see item 011), to a cooling unit designed for frozen foods. Using advanced materials engineering for the period, this specimen is fabricated in stainless steel, with high conductivity, rolled and formed refrigerant passages and equipped with an automatic expansion valve, 1940.



Item: Frozen food evaporator
Manufacturer: Unknown, possibly Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont
Make: Unknown, possibly Kelvinator
Features:
Built in mechanical lifters to release ice cube trays and frozen food packages

Technical Significance:
The industry was moving rapidly to more thermodynamically and mechanically efficient refrigerating systems, with the development of non-noxious, refrigerants, and hermetically sealed refrigeration systems and a new generation of smaller less trouble prone flow controls – represented here by the automatic expansion valve (See artifact Group 3.00) .

Industrial Significance:
The Canadian refrigeration industry was continuing to invest heavily in new materials and manufacturing technology to meet the market potential of the period. Much of the design and engineering development of the time was both facilitated and accelerated by the research of wartime years, as well as being constrained by the shortages of materials and skilled labour.


Frozen food evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.019

A precursor of the high style, amenity driven, frozen food, household refrigerator cooling unit of the middle years of the 20 th century, this one is equipped for capillary refrigerant flow control. It employs high conductivity, smoothly articulated surfaces, here executed in stainless steel, employing sophisticated engineering and manufacturing methods, here-to not available to the industry, Norge, 1942.



Item: Frozen food evaporator
Manufacturer: Borg Warner Corp. Michigan
Make: Norge
Model: unknown
Features:
High style evaporator door in white porcelain, with gold monographNatural rubber door gasket in pigmented grey.
Rear mounted refrigerator light

Technical Significance:
The significance of this specimen rests in its evolutionary context. It is part of the dynamic, rapidly changing pattern of developmental events that saw the Canadian refrigeration industry move beyond its crude, early offerings to the households of the nation and do so in a period of much less than two decades. Markers of the changing times evident here include: large, fast freezing surfaces for frozen foods, modern amenities and styling, along with technologically elegant refrigerant flow control methods. Taking advantage of war time research and development in the aluminium industry, the industry would shortly move to its use, as the material of choice in the fabrication of household evaporators – but not with out considerable growing pains.

Industrial Significance:
See report #014 for the special contribution of companies like Borg Warner to the work of the Canadian refrigeration industry


Replacement 2 tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.020

A general replacement, 2 tray cooling unit for household refrigerator. A transition evaporator technology; fabricated in aluminium, using coiled, tinned copper tubing, sandwiched between aluminium plates;. equipped with Ranco type KW remote bulb temperature control, Air Coils Oakville Ont. 1946.



Item: Replacement 2 tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Air Coils, Oakville Ont.
Make: Air Coils
Model: 31-17

Technical Significance:
The significance of this specimen, like 019, rests in its evolutionary context. It is part of the dynamic, rapidly changing pattern of developmental events that saw the Canadian refrigeration industry move beyond its crude, early offerings to the households of the nation and do so in a period of much less than two decades. Of special significance, technologically, is the dramatic tansition from the crude designs of the 1920’s and 30’sto those of the 40’s enabled by new materials science and newly informed engineering theory and practice.


Plate and tube evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.021

Early plate and tube refrigerant evaporator, fabricated in 3/8″ copper tube, with 2″x 16″ rolled copper header with soldered end plates and refrigerant access port; 2 ” tinned copper, brake formed fins, soldered to 16x 24″, brake formed, tinned copper backing plate,1926.



Item: Plate and tube evaporator
Make: Hand made

Industrial Significance:
This historic relic is, in a sense, representative of the embryonic and earliest development years of any industri3es beginnings. It is here when those with skills, interests, tools and entrepreneurial energy find themselves captivated by the possibilities of the moment, striking out to see what successes are to be had. The birth and early years of the Canadian HVACR industry would be characterised by just such adventurers, whether in heating, ventilation, air conditioning or refrigeration.
As carriage makers found themselves imagining themselves in the early years of the automobile business, so metal shops and mechanics would see in the earliest rumblings of HVACR possibilities and opportunities for new human experience, personal growth and development, as well as economic return for their efforts.


3 tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.022

Three tray, ice maker evaporator with low-side float, using an early form of modular design and construction, made in tinned copper tube and brake formed copper sheet. Cooling unit and icemaker for small commercial cabinet refrigerator, Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: 3 tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division, General Motors Corp.,Dayton O
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Marked 25 1/4 M
Features:
Of special interest is the “building block” construction design technique adopted here. An early example of modular construction concept, the design allows additional ice cube tray slide in boxes to be added for constructing larger capacity cooling units (See items 023,024, 025). By the use of modular construction it was possible to “grow an ice maker evaporator, and that is exactly what was done – as items 023, 024, and 025 demonstrate. Considerable economy in manufacture and assembly was possible, with predictable performance.Note the attention to the design of the lower tray box, constructed to be used as a deep drawer or for bulk frozen food, it would double as a 2 tray ice cube maker by sliding in a metal divider shelf

Technical Significance:
See background notes on technological significance of early mechanical cooling units (evaporator), THOC-HVACR inventory item 011.This specimen is representative of the proliferation of models and sizes of low-side float operated evaporators of the period, largely by Kelvinator and Figidaire, as they attempted to stretch this making technology to its limit. Dinosaur like, costly, complicated and trouble prone by comparison with the evaporator technologies that would shortly follow, this genre would largely disappear from manufacture’s catalogues by the early 1930’s, although would be operational in the field until after WWII.
To contrast the weight, size, seeming complexity, as well as materials and manufacturing costs with the technology reflected in inventory items 015 to 021 is instructive. The classic process of progressive simplification in technological innovation and change is well exemplified.

Industrial Significance:
With complex, demanding construction, the evaporator would make many demands on manufacturing and materials engineering in the early years of the 20th century.


3 tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.023

Three tray, ice maker evaporator with low-side float, in tinned copper tube and brake formed copper sheet, cooling unit for small commercial cabinet refrigerator, similar to #022, Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: 3 tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division, General Motors Corp.,Dayton O
Make: Frigidaire

Technical Significance:
See background notes on technological significance of early mechanical cooling units (evaporator), THOC-HVACR inventory item 011.This specimen is representative of the proliferation of models and sizes of low-side float operated evaporators of the period, largely by Kelvinator and Figidaire, as they attempted to stretch this ice making technology to its limit. Dinosaur like, costly, complicated and trouble prone by comparison with the evaporator technologies that would shortly follow, this genre would largely disappear from manufacture’s catalogues by the early 1930’s, although would be operational in the field until after WWII – requiring repair shops to rebuild an calibrate floats and needle seats.
To contrast the weight, size, seeming complexity, as well as materials and manufacturing costs with the technology reflected in inventory items 015 to 021 is instructive. The classic process of progressive simplification in technological innovation and change is well exemplified.

Industrial Significance:
With complex, demanding construction, the evaporator would make many demands on manufacturing and materials engineering in the early years of the 20th century.


4 tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.024

Four tray, ice maker evaporator with low-side float, using an early form of modular construction, in tinned copper tube and brake formed copper sheet. Cooling unit with gleaming porcelain tray pulls, for small commercial cabinet refrigerator, similar to #022, #023 Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: 4 tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division, General Motors Corp.,Dayton O
Make: Frigidaire
Features:
The early form of modular construction employed allowed the manufacturer to “grow” their evaporators using standard off the shelf components, with relatively predictable performance.

Technical Significance:
See background notes on technological significance of early mechanical cooling units (evaporator), THOC-HVACR inventory item 011.This specimen is representative of the proliferation of models and sizes of low-side float operated evaporators of the period, largely by Kelvinator and Figidaire, as they attempted to stretch this ice making technology to its limit. Dinosaur like, costly, complicated and trouble prone by comparison with the evaporator technologies that would shortly follow, this genre would largely disappear from manufacture’s catalogues by the early 1930’s, although would be operational in the field until after WWII – requiring repair shops to rebuild an calibrate floats and needle seats.
To contrast the weight, size, seeming complexity, as well as materials and manufacturing costs with the technology reflected in inventory items 015 to 021 is instructive. The classic process of progressive simplification in technological innovation and change is well exemplified.

Industrial Significance:
With complex, demanding construction, the evaporator would make many demands on manufacturing and materials engineering in the early years of the 20th century.


6 tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.025

Six tray, ice maker evaporator with low-side float, using an early form of modular construction, in tinned copper tube and brake formed copper sheet. Cooling unit with shiny tinned copper ice cube trays with gleaming polished chrome tray pulls, for large, commercial, ice maker, cabinet refrigerator, similar to the smaller items #022, #023, #024, Of the genre of the first commercial, North American ice making machine, Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: 6 tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division, General Motors Corp.,Dayton O
Make: Frigidaire
Features:
The early form of modular construction employed allowed the manufacturer to “grow” their evaporators using standard off the shelf components, with relatively predictable performance. The ice cube trays are believed to have been re-tinned and the fronts re-chromed, as part of the refurbishing of the icemaker in T. H. Oliver’s repair shop in Aurora Ontario prior to re application in the 1950’s.

Technical Significance:
See background notes on technological significance of early mechanical cooling units (evaporator), THOC-HVACR inventory item 011.This specimen is representative of the proliferation of models and sizes of low-side float operated evaporators of the period, largely by Kelvinator and Figidaire, as they attempted to stretch this ice making technology to its limit. Dinosaur like, costly, complicated and trouble prone by comparison with the evaporator technologies that would shortly follow, this genre would largely disappear from manufacture’s catalogues by the early 1930’s, although would be operational in the field until after WWII – requiring repair shops to rebuild an calibrate floats and needle seats.
To contrast the weight, size, seeming complexity, as well as materials and manufacturing costs with the technology reflected in inventory items 015 to 021 is instructive. The classic process of progressive simplification in technological innovation and change is well exemplified.
None-the-less this large, modular designed icemaker, “grown” using the same flooded evaporator technology as shown in #024. for example, feed the seemingly endless and ever growing North American market for iced beverages, deserts and product cooling of all sorts . This value set, a distinguishing mark of the North American culture of the times was not to be found to the same extent in urban European setting of the same period.
The stage had been set and the market established for the design and development of the automatic ice cube-making machine, to appear on the market in Canada by the early 1950’s. Icemakers of the general design shown here would prevail up to that time and beyond..

Industrial Significance:
With complex, demanding construction, the evaporator would make many demands on manufacturing and materials engineering in the early years of the 20th century.


Copper tube evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.026

Early copper tube and aluminium fin, static evaporator for small commercial refrigerated fixture, representative of a new, mid-century, high conductivity, high heat transfer cooling unit equipped for thermostatic expansion valve, Circa 1945.



Item: Copper tube evaporator
Manufacturer: Unknown
Make: Unknown

Technical Significance:
The 1950’s brought with them a flood of demands for new small refrigeration fixture applications, for example, for reach-in refrigerators to display cases of all types. The application of secondary, finned surface and the development of a small thermal expansion valve with adjustable superheat provided the market with the first big steps, through vastly improved thermal heat transfer efficiency, as well as the efficient use of refrigerant passages by improved refrigerant flow control.


Heavy copper tube evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.027

Early, heavy copper tube and fin static evaporator with double dip galvanised coating for large “walk-in” refrigerated room, equipped with low-side float and suction line chamber, for low pressure SO2 refrigerant, Frigidaire, Circa 1926.



Item: Heavy copper tube evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Likely model 56
Features:
Matching set of two coils typically used in multiples

Technical Significance:
Refrigerated storage rooms for perishable foods were designed predominantly for high pressure refrigerant, commonly ammonia, in the early years of the 20th century. With the successful entry of lower pressure refrigerants, notably SO2, into the market place, the market was significantly expanded, opening it up to smaller commercial installations, which did not require operating engineers. Food stores, dairies and refrigerated warehouses would welcome the trend. So to the public who would see on the market a whole new range of foods for their health and enjoyment.


Heavy copper tube evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.028

Early, heavy copper tube and fin static evaporator with double dip galvanised coating for large “walk-in” refrigerated room, equipped with low-side float and suction line chamber, for low pressure SO2 refrigerant, Frigidaire, Circa 1926.



Item: Heavy copper tube evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Likely model 56
Features:
Matching set of two coils typically used in tandem

Technical Significance:
Refrigerated storage rooms for perishable foods were designed predominantly for high pressure refrigerant, commonly ammonia, in the early years of the 20th century. With the successful entry of lower pressure refrigerants, notably SO2, into the market place, the market was significantly expanded, opening it up to smaller commercial installations, which did not require operating engineers. Food stores, dairies and refrigerated warehouses would welcome the trend. So to the public who would see on the market a whole new range of foods for their health and enjoyment.


Drop-in evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.029

A mid 20th century, drop-in, evaporator for farm milk can cooler, with electric motor driven water agitator, built in stove pipe configuration, circa 1950.



Item: Drop-in evaporator
Manufacturer: Possibly Woods Co, Guelph Ontario, manufacturer a
Make: Believed to be Woods, Quelph OntarioDelco motor, St Catharines Ont.
Model: Delco motor, Mo

Technical Significance:
A special marker in time, the device represented a relatively low cost solution to simplify the farm milk can cooling process. Such innovations would be relatively short lived, however, with the introduction of farm bulk milk coolers in many areas in the early 1960’s


Refrigerant flow control

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.041

An early, refrigerant flow control, using an automatic expansion valve principle, a pioneering contribution by Kelvinator to the embryonic years of the refrigeration industry in Canada. Handsomely executed in a 5 lb. solid cast brass body and large pressure actuated diaphragm operator, it was engineered for noxious sulphur dioxide, the then newly developed, low pressure refrigerant of choice, Model B1, Kelvinator, circa 1926.

On of a rare set of three similar valves, demonstrating the array of adaptations and applications conceived by Kelvinator for this refrigerant flow control devices, all emerging from the same basic platform. See ID #3.01-1 A, B, C, See Kevinator manuals of the period for depictions of applications and adaptations.



Item: Refrigerant flow control
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan
Make: Kelvinator
Model: B1
Features:
Heavy, 5 lb. cast brass body; Handsomely embossed with kelvinator logo; Over coated with aluminium paint, employing a dispersion of aluminium particles in oil-based paint vehicle, new for the period;

Adjustment screw capped and water sealed with knurled brass, screw in cover plate; Heavy brass, threaded access ports for the service of internal mechanism

The valve was conceived by Kelvinator with a spring compensated, 3″ round diaphragm and brass needle seat, and equipped with built-in strainer and pressure adjustment screw, the precursor of much more sophisticated devices to come.

Technical Significance:
A rare specimen of a self-regulating, spring compensated, automatic expansion valve patented by Kelvinator in 1923 and used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

One of a rare set of three similar valves, demonstrating the vast array of adaptations and applications conceived by Kelvinator for this refrigerant flow control devices, all emerging from the same basic platform. See ID #3.01-1 A, B, C Kelvinator’s various manual of the period show the many applications and adaptations that would flow from this basic design concept.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts], it had the advantage of reliability and price, as well as serviceability.

The device demonstrates the manner in which the scientific knowledge, materials and manufacturing methods of the times would come to be used in a refrigerant flow control, popularly appearing in the kitchens of the privileged across the nation.

The artifact is suggestive of the problems faced by the emerging refrigeration service sector in Canada. Kelvinator’s service manual, March 1928 gave full details for cleaning and adjustment on which the homeowner would regularly depend, and in turn the manufacturer, for continued customer satisfaction.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘B’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.042

One of a number of later design variants and simplifications of the early automatic, B series, expansion valve by Kelvinator [see also ID #165 & 167]. Handsomely executed in a 5 lb. solid cast brass body with large pressure actuated diaphragm operator, it was engineered for flange mounting for noxious sulphur dioxide, then the low pressure refrigerant of choice, Model B3, Kelvinator, circa 1927.

On of a rare set of three similar valves, demonstrating the array of adaptations and applications conceived by Kelvinator for this refrigerant flow control devices, all emerging from the same basic platform. See ID #3.01-1 A, B, C, See Kevinator manuals of the period for depictions of applications and adaptations.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘B’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan
Make: Kelvinator
Model: B3
Features:
Heavy, 5 lb. cast brass body; Handsomely embossed with kelvinator logo; Adjustment screw capped and water sealed with knurled brass, screw in cover plate; Heavy brass, threaded access ports for the service of internal mechanism; The valve was conceived by Kelvinator with a spring compensated, 3″ round diaphragm and brass needle seat, suction line mounting flange and pressure adjustment screw, the precursor of much more sophisticated devices to come.

Technical Significance:
A rare specimen of a self-regulating, spring compensated, automatic expansion valve patented by Kelvinator in 1923 and used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

One of a rare set of three similar valves, demonstrating the vast array of adaptations and applications conceived by Kelvinator for this refrigerant flow control devices, all emerging from the same basic platform, over a period of half a decade or more possibly from about 1922 through to 1929. See ID #3.01-1 A, B, C Kelvinator’s various manual of the period show the many applications and adaptations that would flow from this basic design concept.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts], it had the advantage of reliability and price, as well as serviceability.

The device demonstrates the manner in which the scientific knowledge, materials and manufacturing methods of the times would come to be used in a refrigerant flow control, popularly appearing in the kitchens of the privileged across the nation.

The artifact is suggestive of the problems faced by the emerging refrigeration service sector in Canada. Kelvinator’s service manual, March 1928 gave full details for cleaning and adjustment on which the homeowner would regularly depend, and in turn the manufacturer, for continued customer satisfaction.

Note the signs of progressive design simplification and economies in size and manufacturing represented here over item ID #165.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘B’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.043

One of a number of later design variants and simplifications of the early automatic, B series, expansion valve by Kelvinator [see also ID #165 & 167]. Handsomely executed in a 5 lb. solid cast brass body with large pressure actuated diaphragm operator, it was engineered for flange mounting for noxious sulphur dioxide, then the low pressure refrigerant of choice, Model B2, Kelvinator, circa 1927.

On of a rare set of three similar valves, demonstrating the array of adaptations and applications conceived by Kelvinator for this refrigerant flow control devices, all emerging from the same basic platform. See ID #3.01-1 A, B, C, See Kevinator manuals of the period for depictions of applications and adaptations.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘B’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan
Make: Kelvinator
Model: B2
Features:
Heavy, 5 lb. cast brass body; Handsomely embossed with kelvinator logo; Adjustment screw capped and water sealed with knurled brass, screw in cover plate; Heavy brass, threaded access ports for the service of internal mechanism; The valve was conceived by Kelvinator with a spring compensated, 3″ round diaphragm and brass needle seat, suction line mounting flange and pressure adjustment screw, the precursor of much more sophisticated devices to come.

Technical Significance:
A rare specimen of a self-regulating, spring compensated, automatic expansion valve patented by Kelvinator in 1923 and used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

One of a rare set of three similar valves, demonstrating the vast array of adaptations and applications conceived by Kelvinator for this refrigerant flow control devices, all emerging from the same basic platform, over a period of half a decade or more possibly from about 1922 through to 1929. See ID #3.01-1 A, B, C Kelvinator’s various manual of the period show the many applications and adaptations that would flow from this basic design concept.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts], it had the advantage of reliability and price, as well as serviceability.

The device demonstrates the manner in which the scientific knowledge, materials and manufacturing methods of the times would come to be used in a refrigerant flow control, popularly appearing in the kitchens of the privileged across the nation.

The artifact is suggestive of the problems faced by the emerging refrigeration service sector in Canada. Kelvinator’s service manual, March 1928 gave full details for cleaning and adjustment on which the homeowner would regularly depend, and in turn the manufacturer, for continued customer satisfaction.

Note the signs of progressive design simplification and economies in size and manufacturing represented here over item ID #165.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.044

An early, second generation, compact, spring compensated, adjustable, automatic expansion valve with solid, cast brass body, built-in inlet filter screen, original moisture protection cap in natural rubber, engineered for noxious sulphur dioxide, then the low pressure refrigerant of choice, Model M, American Injector, circa 1930.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘M’
Manufacturer: American Injector Co., Detroit
Make: American Injector
Model: M
Features:
Adjustment screw capped with original cap in natural rubber; Liquid line inlet screen

Technical Significance:
An example of the new generation of compact, more precisely engineered and performing expansion valves emerging early in the 1930’s, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

Dramatises the major gains made by the industry over a period of less than 5 years, during a period of feverish research and development using the scant knowledge and experience available to workers in the field at the time, compare ID # 165 to 168

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology, the automatic expansion valve. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of more costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts], it had the advantage of reliability and price, as well as serviceability.

Industrial Significance:
The engineering sophistication and advancements in manufacturing, assembly and materials utilization, represented here, in contrast to ID # 1655-168 stands as a remarkable industry achievement.

Not untypical of the times, the American Injector Company stands as an early innovator in the field of refrigerant flow controls without a sustained history in the industry. A current search of the WWW reveals no such name, possibly long since evolved into another corporate identity.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘672’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.045

An early, second generation, compact, spring compensated, adjustable, automatic expansion valve for use on “dry evaporators made by arguably the leader in the technology of the period, Detroit Lubricator, with cast brass body and aluminium overcoat, built-in inlet filter screen, original moisture protection cap in natural rubber, engineered for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, Model 672, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1935.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘672’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 672, Series 10C
Features:
Adjustment screw capped with original moisture protecting cap in natural rubber. Rubber is preserved in original condition, unusual for the 1930’s, where rubbers deteriorated quickly, especially in contact with oil. The caps were needed to protect the valve-adjusting stem from condensation water dripping of the coiling unit. Condensation would typically re-freeze along the adjustment screw, causing the valve to loose its calibrated setting.

Removable liquid line inlet screen

Technical Significance:
An example of the new generation of compact, more precisely engineered and performing expansion valves emerging early in the 1930’s, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

Dramatises the major gains made by the industry over a period of less than 5 years, during a period of feverish research and development using the scant knowledge and experience available to workers in the field at the time, compare ID # 165 to 168

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology, the automatic expansion valve. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of more costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts, ID # 175 and 176 for example], it had the advantage of reliability, maintainability and affordability, as well as serviceability.

Industrial Significance:
The engineering sophistication and advancements in manufacturing, assembly and materials utilization, represented here, in contrast to ID # 165-168 stands as a remarkable industry achievement.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘672’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.046

An early, second generation, compact, spring compensated, adjustable, automatic expansion valve for use on “dry evaporators made by arguably the leader in the technology of the period, Detroit Lubricator, with cast brass body and aluminium overcoat, built-in inlet filter screen, engineered for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, Model 672, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1935.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘672’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 672
Features:
Removable liquid line inlet screen

Technical Significance:
An example of the new generation of compact, more precisely engineered and performing expansion valves emerging early in the 1930’s, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

Dramatises the major gains made by the industry over a period of less than 5 years, during a period of feverish research and development using the scant knowledge and experience available to workers in the field at the time, compare ID # 165 to 168

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology, the automatic expansion valve. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of more costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts, ID # 175 and 176 for example], it had the advantage of reliability, maintainability and affordability, as well as serviceability.

Industrial Significance:
The engineering sophistication and advancements in manufacturing, assembly and materials utilization, represented here, in contrast to ID # 165-168 stands as a remarkable industry achievement.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘670’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.047

An early, compact, spring compensated, adjustable, automatic expansion valve for use on “dry evaporators”, made by arguably the leader in the technology of the period, Detroit Lubricator, with heavy cast brass body, brass bellows, screw shaft adjustment seal and inlet filter screen, engineered for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, Model 670, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1932.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘670’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 670, Series 1
Features:
Removable liquid line inlet screen

Technical Significance:
The Detroit Model 670 would proceed the 672 [see ID # 169 and 170], equipped with bellows adjustment stem seal and beautifully machined brass body, it would no doubt prove to be a costly device to produce.

An example of the new generation of compact, more precisely engineered and performing expansion valves emerging early in the 1930’s, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

Dramatises the major gains made by the industry over a period of less than 5 years, during a period of feverish research and development using the scant knowledge and experience available to workers in the field at the time, compare ID # 165 to 168

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology, the automatic expansion valve. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of more costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts, ID # 175 and 176 for example], it had the advantage of reliability, maintainability and affordability, as well as serviceability.

Industrial Significance:
The engineering sophistication and advancements in manufacturing, assembly and materials utilization, represented here, in contrast to ID # 165-168 stands as a remarkable industry achievement.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘C1’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.048

An early, compact, spring compensated, adjustable, automatic expansion valve for use on “dry evaporators”, apparently manufactured for Kelvinator by the M B Company, with heavy cast brass body, flange mounted and equipped with bronze bellows, screw adjustment shaft seal, engineered for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, Kelvinator Model C1, circa 1932. One of a set of two identical valves, see Ref code 3.01-5B, ID # 173.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘C1’
Manufacturer: M B Company
Make: M B for Kelvinator
Model: Kelvinator C1

Technical Significance:
An example of the new generation of compact, more precisely engineered and performing expansion valves emerging early in the 1930’s, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

Dramatises the major gains made by the industry over a period of less than 5 years, during a period of feverish research and development using the scant knowledge and experience available to workers in the field at the time, compare ID # 165 to 168

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology, the automatic expansion valve. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of more costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts, ID # 175 and 176 for example], it had the advantage of reliability, maintainability and affordability, as well as serviceability.

Industrial Significance:
It was a period of rapid industry growth, as well as technological development and innovation in the refrigeration industry. Systems were becoming increasingly complex as the industry moved to improve their reliability and performance. Small satellite manufacturers, characterized here by the M B Company, were attracted to the rapidly evolving field in the hopes of securing contracts for the production of component parts. The phenomena of industrial out-souring had been discovered by Kelvinator.

The fact that the M B Company seems to have been relatively short lived tells many of the stories of the times – companies without the resources for sustainability in a rapidly evolving field.

The engineering sophistication and advancements in manufacturing, assembly and materials utilization, represented here, in contrast to ID # 165-168 stands as a remarkable industry achievement.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘C1’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.049

An early, compact, spring compensated, adjustable, automatic expansion valve for use on “dry evaporators”, apparently manufactured for Kelvinator by the M B Company, with heavy cast brass body, flange mounted and equipped with bronze bellows, screw adjustment shaft seal, engineered for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, Kelvinator Model C1, circa 1932. One of a set of two identical valves, see Ref code 3.01-5A, ID # 172.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘C1’
Manufacturer: M B Company
Make: M B for Kelvinator
Model: Kelvinator C1

Technical Significance:
An example of the new generation of compact, more precisely engineered and performing expansion valves emerging early in the 1930’s, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

Dramatises the major gains made by the industry over a period of less than 5 years, during a period of feverish research and development using the scant knowledge and experience available to workers in the field at the time, compare ID # 165 to 168

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology, the automatic expansion valve. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of more costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts, ID # 175 and 176 for example], it had the advantage of reliability, maintainability and affordability, as well as serviceability.

Industrial Significance:
It was a period of rapid industry growth, as well as technological development and innovation in the refrigeration industry. Systems were becoming increasingly complex as the industry moved to improve their reliability and performance. Small satellite manufacturers, characterized here by the M B Company, were attracted to the rapidly evolving field in the hopes of securing contracts for the production of component parts. The phenomena of industrial out-souring had been discovered by Kelvinator.

The fact that the M B Company seems to have been relatively short lived tells many of the stories of the times – companies without the resources for sustainability in a rapidly evolving field.

The engineering sophistication and advancements in manufacturing, assembly and materials utilization, represented here, in contrast to ID # 165-168 stands as a remarkable industry achievement.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘AP204’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.050

A mid 20th century, compact, spring compensated, adjustable, automatic expansion valve for use on “dry evaporators”, with tin coated, cast brass body, flange mounting and wrench pads, finely calibrated and rated for sulphur dioxide, methyl chloride and Freon 12 refrigerant [Incomplete Assembly] Automatic Products, Model AP204, circa 1944.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘AP204’
Manufacturer: Automatic Products Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Make: Automatic Products [AP]
Model: AP204
Features:
Original manufacturer’s installation and service instruction sheet; Inlet screen; Moisture proof, more robust metal cap and seal [not included]

Technical Significance
An example of the new generation of compact, more precisely engineered and performing expansion valves emerging early in the 1940’s, calibrated and engineered the wider range of refrigerants then in use, including mainly sulphur dioxide, menthol chloride and Freon 12

Dramatises the major gains made by the industry over a period of less than 10 years, during a period of feverish research and development using the scant knowledge and experience available to workers in the field at the time, compare ID # 165 to 173

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology, the automatic expansion valve. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of more costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts, ID # 175 and 176 for example], it had the advantage of reliability, maintainability and affordability, as well as serviceability.

Industrial Significance:
Following W.W.II, in the 1940’s, the refrigeration and air conditioning industry went through a second major growth spurt. By then it was armed with new technology, manufacturing and engineering know-how, as well as new materials to work with – much of it the results of war-time research, development and field practice.

This valve in many ways characterizes the world change that had taken place, encouraging, allowing and facilitating many new refrigeration and air conditioning applications. These were especially evident in the emergence of sophisticated “packaged systems”. Using the new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants [e.g., Freon 12], the systems were smaller more compact, quieter and more user friendly.


Refrigeration float control ‘E1’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.051

An early high side float control for household cabinet refrigerator, housed in refrigerant receiver and used for metering liquid refrigerant into a flooded evaporator \r\nModel E1, Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont., Circa 1933.



Item: Refrigeration float control ‘E1’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont
Make: Kelvinator
Model: E1
Features:
Liquid line valve moulded foam rubber insulated cover

Technical Significance:
Typical of the technology of the period, a series of high side floats were developed and used in various applications by Kelvinator, principally in their household cabinet refrigerators in the mid and latter 1930’s – including their model series D and E float assemblies.

A brass float valve and needle seat assembly was located in the base of the refrigerant, liquid receiver, from where the liquid was metered into an insulated liquid line carrying it to the inlet of the evaporator. The float opens the valve at a predetermined level of refrigerant in the receiver, as it is returned from the high side of the compressor.

The system is subject to critical refrigerant charge, much like the capillary tube device to follow. However maintaining the critical charge necessary for trouble free operation in open type condensing units, subject to compressor seal and other leaks was always a challenge.

Industrial Significance:
The high side float refrigerant meter system, used for flooded evaporators, was the source of some engineering interest and production in the mid 1930’s, but was then largely abandoned, along with the low side float, for the mainstream of household and small commercial refrigeration applications – for reasons of cost, reliability and serviceability and the engineering design constraints it introduced. By this time much simpler trouble free metering technology was at hand.


Refrigeration float control

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.052

Representative of the new generation of compact, more finely calibrated high side float controls for household cabinet refrigerators that emerged into the 1940’s. Housed in a refrigerant receiver, it was used for metering liquid refrigerant into a flooded evaporator

Model unknown, Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont., Circa 1945.



Item: Refrigeration float control
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont
Make: Kelvinator
Model: unknown
Features:
Section of liquid line moulded foam rubber insulated cover; Inverted flare tubing connectors, part of a compact tubing connector system evolved in the 1940’s for household and packaged commercial refrigeration equipment applications.

Technical Significance:
Typical of the technology as it emerged into the 1940’s, as used briefly, principally by Kelvinator in their household cabinet refrigerators.

A brass float valve and needle seat assembly was located in the base of the refrigerant, liquid receiver, from where the liquid was metered into an insulated liquid line carrying it to the inlet of the evaporator. The float opens the valve at a predetermined level of refrigerant in the receiver, as it is returned from the high side of the compressor.

The system is subject to critical refrigerant charge, much like the capillary tube device to follow. However maintaining the critical charge necessary for trouble free operation in open type condensing units, subject to compressor seal and other leaks was always a challenge.

Industrial Significance:
The high side float refrigerant meter system, used for flooded evaporators, was the source of some engineering interest and production in the mid 1930’s, but was then largely abandoned, along with the low side float, for the mainstream of household and small commercial refrigeration applications – for reasons of cost, reliability and serviceability and the engineering design constraints it introduced.

By this time much simpler trouble free metering technology was at hand. Kelvinator, it seems, continued the practice later than others, possibly because they had experience and an investment in the technology that others had not.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘LM’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.053

An amazingly compact, light weight [8oz.], new generation of brass body, adjustable thermostatic expansion valves, for household and small commercial equipment applications, with 30″ capillary tube and bulb, designed for a methyl chloride, and beautifully engraved in script, “made for Kelvinator”, Patented 1934, Model LM, Mayson Mfg. Co. Detroit. Circa 1938. [one of a matched set of two, see ID # 178]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘LM’
Manufacturer: Mayson Mfg. Co. Detroit
Make: Mason for Kelvinator
Model: LM, B41
Features:
Beautifully proportioned body with engraved marking in script “made for Kelvinator”

Technical Significance:
The advances in the engineering, production and application of thermostatic expansion [TX] valve technology throughout the industry in the 1930’s were truly impressive, as the valve moved into the mainstream of refrigerant flow control applications, replacing much cruder metering devices including float valves and automatic pressure setting valves. TX valve technology enabled much more efficient use of evaporator [cooling unit] surface and thus the use of smaller evaporators

Now designed for a new generation of fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, these valves were engineering masterpieces of their times, compact, precisely calibrated, and reliable refrigerant flow control devices. Valves were refrigerant specific.

An exquisitely engineered and crafted brass body valve, it is driven by a miniature brass bellows, with extended copper capillary line and 3/8″ sensing bulb – an impressive example of precision, mass production and quality control methods of the period.

Compact and reliable, with capacities up to 1/3 ton, Mayson’s Model L series TX valves would become a kind of “work horse” for the repair and replacement field, to be shown in wholesalers’ and jobbers’ catalogues through into the 1960’s. see bibliographic note

It was often used to up-date earlier equipment using an automatic expansion valve, in order to improve evaporator efficiency, and sometimes accompanying a conversion from methyl chloride to R12 refrigerant.

Industrial Significance:
This historic artifact of refrigeration technology in Canada marks the early movement by large, brand label manufacturers to out “sourceing”. As the technology developed in sophistication and complexity so did the engineering and manufacturing become more specialised and costly. Small speciality manufacturers, such as Mayson, soon moved into the field, anxious for the challenge.

The care taken in the “branding” of the valve, with engraved script, illustrates the careful attention given to the matter of maintaining the Kelvinator name in the public eye.

This valve carries the surprisingly early patent date of 1934, marking Mayson as one of a small number of pioneers in the early development of TX valve technology for a new generation of refrigerants and refrigeration applications.

The contrast between the sophistication of this valve and the offerings of Frigidaire, a brand label, is most marked, much smaller and more polished in appearance, see for example ID #179, and others that follow.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘LM’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.054

An amazingly compact, light weight [8oz.], new generation of brass body, adjustable thermostatic expansion valves, for household and small commercial equipment applications, with 30″ capillary tube and bulb, designed for a methyl chloride, Patented 1934, Model LM, Mayson Mfg. Co. Detroit. Circa 1938. [one of a matched set of two, see ID # 177, similar to ID #177 without Kelvinator markings]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘LM’
Manufacturer: Mayson Mfg. Co. Detroit
Make: Mason for Kelvinator
Model: 4LM, C40
Features:
Beautifully proportioned brass body with engraved markings

Technical Significance:
The advances in the engineering, production and application of thermostatic expansion [TX] valve technology throughout the industry in the 1930’s were truly impressive, as the valve moved into the mainstream of refrigerant flow control applications, replacing much cruder metering devices, including float valves and automatic pressure setting valves. TX valve technology enabled much more efficient use of evaporator [cooling unit] surface and thus the use of smaller evaporators

Now designed for a new generation of fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, these valves were engineering masterpieces of their times, compact, precisely calibrated, and reliable refrigerant flow control devices. Valves were ordered refrigerant specific.

An exquisitely engineered and crafted brass body valve, it is driven by a miniature brass bellows, with extended copper capillary line and 3/8″ sensing bulb – an impressive example of precision, mass production and quality control methods of the period.

Compact and reliable, with capacities up to 1/3 ton, Mayson’s Model L series TX valves would become a kind of “work horse” for the repair and replacement field, to be shown in wholesalers’ and jobbers’ catalogues through into the 1960’s. see bibliographic note

It was often used to up-date earlier equipment using an automatic expansion valve, in order to improve evaporator efficiency, and sometimes accompanying a conversion from methyl chloride to R12 refrigerant.

Industrial Significance:
This valve carries the surprisingly early patent date of 1934, marking Mayson as one of a small number of pioneers in the early development of TX valve technology for a new generation of refrigerants and refrigeration applications.

The contrast between the sophistication of this valve and the offerings of Frigidaire, a brand label, is most marked, much smaller and more polished in appearance, see for example ID #179, and others that follow.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘N’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.055

An early automatic, adjustable expansion valve, a pioneering contribution by Frigidaire to the embryonic years of the refrigeration industry; housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with integral two point mounting bracket, with galvanised over coat; pressure actuated 2 inch diaphragm; engineered for sulphur dioxide, the then newly developed, low pressure refrigerant of choice; Model N, Frigidaire, circa 1929. [On of a set of two, see #ID 180]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘N’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation
Make: Frigidaire
Model: N

Technical Significance:
A rare specimen of a self-regulating, spring compensated, automatic expansion valve, one of the earliest in production by Frigidaire, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts], it had the advantage of reliability and price, as well as serviceability.

The valve taken out of service in the 1950’s attests to its robust nature, with an operating life of 20 years and more.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘N’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.056

An early automatic, adjustable expansion valve, a pioneering contribution by Frigidaire to the embryonic years of the refrigeration industry; housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with integral two point mounting bracket, with galvanised over coat; pressure actuated 2 inch diaphragm; engineered for sulphur dioxide, the then newly developed, low pressure refrigerant of choice; Model N, Frigidaire, circa 1929. [On of a set of two, see #ID 179]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘N’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation
Make: Frigidaire
Model: N

Technical Significance:
A rare specimen of a self-regulating, spring compensated, automatic expansion valve, one of the earliest in production by Frigidaire, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts], it had the advantage of reliability and price, as well as serviceability.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘S’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.057

A Second generation, Frigidaire, automatic, adjustable expansion valve; housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with galvanised over coat; with integral two point mounting bracket, inlet screen and Bakelite moisture proof cap; pressure actuated bellows design; engineered for sulphur dioxide or Freon 12 refrigerant; Model S, Frigidaire, circa 1934.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘S’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation
Make: Frigidaire
Model: S

Technical Significance:
An advanced design expansion valves produced by Frigidaire, following their early experience in expansion valve engineering for dry evaporators.

Significant for the period was the calibration of the valve for alternate use on the then new series of chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, Freon 12, as well as for sulphur dioxide.

Large inlet filter screen has also been provided on this model, a necessary feature for helping to ensure reliable, service free operation over extended periods of time.

Frigidaire moved to the use of a bellows pressure activating mechanism in this generation of valves, rather than the earlier diaphragm mechanism, following the trend.

A perennial, problem with such valves, experienced by Frigidaire and other manufacturers was freeze up do to moisture entering the valve through the manual adjustment mechanism. Frigidaire’s answer was, here, in the form of a condensation retarding, Bakelite cap, as an alternative to rubber and metal caps


Refrigeration expansion valve ’33’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.058

A compact, fully adjustable, late pre WW II, automatic expansion valve by a new generation of manufacturers drawn to the now rapidly expanding market for refrigeration and air conditioning products, factory sealed, with inlet screen, Fedders, Model 33, circa 1938.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ’33’
Manufacturer: Fedders
Make: Fedders
Model: 33

Technical Significance:
A factory sealed, non-field serviceable expansion valve would seem to mark a new era in the development of expansion valve technology.

More confident in the engineering performance and reliability of the product, the manufacturer has been able to reduce costs, and produce a more compact, lighter weight valve, without the need for field service access. Bolted flanges and gaskets have disappeared, with the accompanying risks of refrigerant leaks.

The contrast with the construction of valves by Frigidaire a few years earlier is marked. See for example ID # 181, 180.

Industrial Significance:
With the post WW II years would come a profound shift in the structure of the refrigeration and air conditioning industry. A new generation of manufacturers would be drawn to the now rapidly expanding market for refrigeration and air conditioning products. The brand names of Kelvinator and Frigidaire would gradually fade from prominence, as new players, such as Fedders, captured an ever increasing proportion of market share.

It has been noted that the name Fedders was associated with the manufacture of automobile radiators in the pre WW II years, a matter to be confirmed. Experienced in finned radiator engineering and assembly would provide such a manufacturer with a possible entry point into the refrigeration and air conditioning business.

Shortly after WW II, the Fedders name came to be associated with the manufacturer of name brand window air conditioners, in the late 1940, and 50.

A well honoured name, the company still manufactures and markets air treatment and thermal technology products, including air conditioners, de humidifiers air cleaners etc, under a wide range of well known trade marks, including: Emerson, Airtemp, and Trion [Business. Com web site, 050321]


Refrigerant flow control ‘EB4885’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.059

An early low-side float, liquid refrigerant flow control, in deep draw copper header, with brass float valve assembly mounted on eight bolt brass flange, with heavy galvanised over coat, designed for four-pass fin coil cooling unit; Frigidaire, EB4885, circa 1929.



Item: Refrigerant flow control ‘EB4885’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio.
Make: Frigidaire
Model: EB4885, see Not

Technical Significance:
Following earlier experimentation with automatic expansion valves refrigeration engineers next turned to completely flooded systems for increased evaporator efficiency, using a float valve to meter liquid into the low side of the system.

Low side float metering devices, such as this, were widely employed by the industry in the late 1920’s through the 30’s in both household cabinet refrigerators and commercial applications.

Found in walk-in meat and vegetable coolers in food stores and ware-houses across Canada, these cooling units were to become the work-horses of the commercial refrigeration industry from the 1920’s often through to the 1940

With good maintenance these systems would have a remarkable service life, some in operation for 25 to 30 years, often well into the post WW II period, where they would be replaced by smaller more compact, more efficient systems using the new non-noxious fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, e.g., Freon 12

Costly, delicate, requiring regular service, they would be a short lived solution to refrigerant metering, awaiting the development and refinement of the thermostatic expansion valve

The first widely used, so-called low pressure refrigerant, for household and commercial applications in Canada was sulphur dioxide – highly noxious and corrosive. As a result the prevailing practice in the 1920’s and early 30’s was to make evaporators of copper with a heavy coat of galvanizing.

Industrial Significance:
Much of the Canadian commercial refrigeration service industry would cut its teeth on flooded evaporators and liquid level refrigerant metering float controls. A significant service industry grew up dedicated to maintaining flooded evaporators in good working condition; see extracts from Frigidaire and Kelvinator service manuals.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TS10’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.060

An early, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve, housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with galvanised over coat; thermal power element and 4 ft. capillary tube; engineered for sulphur dioxide and a new generation of forced air cooling unit applications. It would appear much like the company’s earlier Model S automatic expansion valve, on which it was patterned; Model TS10, Frigidaire, circa 1932. [On of a set of two, see #ID 185]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TS10’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: TS 10
Features:
Original capillary bulb, tubing clamp

Technical Significance:
This valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

One of the earliest in production by Frigidaire, then the rapidly developing name brand supplier to the household and commercial refrigeration field.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
These valve would see service well into the 1950’s attesting to their robust construction and field serviceability, with an operating life of 20 to 30 years and more.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘FTS’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.061

An early, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve, housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with galvanised over coat; thermal power element and 4 ft. capillary tube; engineered for the new Feon 12 refrigerant and a new generation of forced air cooling unit applications. It would appear much like the company’s earlier Model S automatic expansion valve, on which it was patterned; Model FTS, Frigidaire, circa 1932. [On of a set of two, see #ID 184]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘FTS’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: FTS
Features:
Original capillary bulb, tubing clamp

Technical Significance:
Adapted for the new generation of non-noxious, hydrocarbon refrigerants, this TX valve design by Frigidaire would find wide spread application in anew generation of refrigeration systems

The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

One of the earliest in production by Frigidaire, then the rapidly developing name brand supplier to the household and commercial refrigeration field.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
These valve would see service well into the 1950’s attesting to their robust construction and field serviceability, with an operating life of 20 to 30 years and more.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.062

An early, compact, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve made by arguably the leader in expansion valve technology of the period; with brass body, “high tech.” Bakelite cover plate, power element and 4 ft. capillary tube, for methyl chloride refrigerant; patterned off the company’s earlier, Model 670, automatic expansion valve; Model 671- M, Series-2, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1936.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 671- M, Series

Technical Significance:
This valve, compact and elegant in design and construction, in contrast to similar valves produced by Frigidaire of the period [See ID # 184 and 185], was the work of a relative new comer in the refrigeration field, Detroit Lubricator. It would prove to be a significant marker of the changing times.

The age of the component parts, systems, specialty manufacturer had arrived, here as in the automotive field. In the future brand name system and equipment suppliers to the HVACR market would concentrate on system development, production and marketing. Increasingly, component technologies would be out sourced to specialty companies with the engineering know how and needed production capacities.

The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673-M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.063

A mid 20th century, thermostatic expansion valve, a work horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry through much of the later part of the century, double bellows construction with wide range superheat adjustment, widely used by original refrigeration equipment manufacturer and for replacement work; made in a wide range of capacities for methyl chloride, Freon 12 and 22, power element and 5 ft. capillary tube, Model 673- M, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1946. [1 of a set of 2, seeID# 188]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673-M’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Mode: l673- M
Features:
Original superheat bulb clamp

Technical Significance:
This artifact of history, a workhorse of its times in the refrigeration, thermostatic expansion valve field tells the many stories of the explosion of commercial refrigeration applications and their wide adoption in Canada throughout the middle and later years of the 20th century.

Much of the success of this technology was due to the wide range of capacities and applications built into the design by Detroit Lubricator

Aware of the exploding market in commercial refrigeration applications, as well as the increasing diversity in system designs and engineering design requirements, the manufacturer built the valve around a basic platform that could be readily adapted with changes in orifice size and inlet and outlet connections to suit a wide range of refrigerants [methyl chloride, Freon 12, and Freon 22], temperature applications [low and commercial range] and refrigerating tonnage capacity ratings [1.2 to 4 tons]. It was a success story that led the industry.

The valve would be the darling of refrigeration wholesalers and original equipment manufacturers, because of the range of applications accommodated [see wholesalers catalogue]


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673-M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.064

A mid 20th century, thermostatic expansion valve, a work horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry through much of the latter part of the century, double bellows construction with wide range superheat adjustment, widely used by original refrigeration equipment manufacturer and for replacement work; made in a wide range of capacities for methyl chloride, Freon 12 and 22, power element and 5 ft. capillary tube, Model 673- M, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1946. [1 of a set of 2, seeID# 187]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673-M’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 673- M
Features:
Original superheat bulb clamp

Technical Significance:
This artifact of history, a workhorse of its times in the refrigeration, thermostatic expansion valve field tells the many stories of the explosion of commercial refrigeration applications and their wide adoption in Canada throughout the middle and later years of the the 20th century.

Much of the success of this technology was due to the wide range of capacities and applications built into the design by Detroit Lubricator

Aware of the exploding market in commercial refrigeration applications, as well as the increasing diversity in system designs and engineering design requirements, the manufacturer built the valve around a basic platform that could be readily adapted with changes in orifice size and inlet and outlet connections to suit a wide range of refrigerants [methyl chloride, Freon 12, and Freon 22], temperature applications [low and commercial range] and refrigerating tonnage capacity ratings [1.2 to 4 tons]. It was a success story that led the industry.

The valve would be the darling of refrigeration wholesalers and original equipment manufacturers, because of the range of applications accommodated [see wholesalers catalogue]


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘Peerless’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.065

A mid to late 20th century, high capacity thermostatic expansion valve, for methyl chloride refrigerant; a special marker of the time when this refrigerant was still being specified by commercial refrigeration system manufacturers, in advance of the wave of conversion to chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, Freon 12 and 22; in heavy, plated brass body with superheat adjustment, highly decorated it would represent an emerging new styling idiom for component part manufacturers, by a late 20th century newcomer to the field, Peerless, 1948.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘Peerless’
Manufacturer: Peerless of America, New York, Chicago, and Los An
Make: Peerless
Model: V
Features:
Original superheat bulb clamp

Technical Significance:
A mid to late 20th century, high capacity thermostatic expansion valve, for methyl chloride refrigerant; a special marker of the time when this refrigerant was still being specified by commercial refrigeration system manufacturers, in advance of the wave of conversion to chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, Freon 12 and 22.

In a heavy, plated brass body, an unusually robust, crisp and polished product for the times, when compared with other valves off the period, see for example #ID 184 and 185.

With colourful orange and black decal and imprinted red and black cover plate the valve would represent a new era in industrial, component, product design, bring with it a fresh new look and sales appeal.

Industrial Significance:
Manufactured by a late 20th century newcomer to the field, one bringing fresh new ideas about how an expansion valve should look and operate.

Highly decorated it would represent the values and interests of a new generation of mid 20th century industrial design.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.066

An amazingly compact, mid capacity, mid to late 20th century, thermostatic expansion valve designed to meet the needs of an increasingly wide range of packaged, compact, commercial refrigeration applications, for methyl chloride and Freon 12 refrigerants, Model 207, Automatic Products Co., Mil., Circa 1945 [1 of a set of 2, see ID#191]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207’
Manufacturer: Automatic Products Co., Mil.
Make: Automatic Products [AP]
Model: AP207, type PF

Technical Significance:
Smaller than the Detroit Lubricator model 673 [see ID#187 and 188] in similar capacity range, this valve would set a new standard of compact, precision operation for the Canadian market place. Engineered by Automatic Products it would help to make possible a new generation of packaged, compact, commercial refrigeration appliances for confectioneries, food stores and similar applications.

In response to the buoyant market for TX valve technology a number of manufacturers, including Detroit Lubricator, Mayson, Automatic Products, Sporlan and Danfoss, among others entered the field in the late 1930’s and 40’s. They produced a remarkable range of design configurations and capacities for different refrigerants and cooling applications – in low temperature, commercial and air conditioning ranges.

The AP207, generally representative of the period, was engineered with a range of interchangeable orifices, variously for methyl chloride, F12 and sulfur dioxide refrigerants, for low, commercial and air conditioning applications, over the range of 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, and 1 ton capacities.

Industrial Significance:
With 60″ capillary line and 3/8″ bulb, wide range of orifice sizes, adjustable superheat feature and built in liquid line screen, this compact valve would help to make possible an explosion of refrigeration and air conditioning applications in the latter part of the 20th century.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.067

An amazingly compact, mid capacity, mid to late 20th century, thermostatic expansion valve designed to meet the needs of an increasingly wide range of packaged, compact, commercial refrigeration applications, for methyl chloride and Freon 12 refrigerants, Model 207, Automatic Products Co., Mil., Circa 1945 [1 of a set of 2, see ID#190]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207’
Manufacturer: Automatic Products Co., Mil.
Make: Automatic Products [AP]
Model: AP207

Technical Significance:
Smaller than the Detroit Lubricator model 673 [see ID#187 and 188] in similar capacity range, this valve would set a new standard of compact, precision operation for the Canadian market place. Engineered by Automatic Products it would help to make possible a new generation of packaged, compact, commercial refrigeration appliances for confectioneries, food stores and similar applications.

In response to the buoyant market for TX valve technology a number of manufacturers, including Detroit Lubricator, Mayson, Automatic Products, Sporlan and Danfoss, among others entered the field in the late 1930’s and 40’s. They produced a remarkable range of design configurations and capacities for different refrigerants and cooling applications – in low temperature, commercial and air conditioning ranges.

The AP207, generally representative of the period, was engineered with a range of interchangeable orifices, variously for methyl chloride, F12 and sulfur dioxide refrigerants, for low, commercial and air conditioning applications, over the range of 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, and 1 ton capacities.

Industrial Significance:
With 60″ capillary line and 3/8″ bulb, wide range of orifice sizes, adjustable superheat feature and built in liquid line screen, this compact valve would help to make possible an explosion of refrigeration and air conditioning applications in the latter part of the 20th century.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.077

An early, compact, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve made by arguably the leader in expansion valve technology of the period, beautifully crafted with brass body, “high tech.” Bakelite cover plate, similar to item ID #186 and #202, but differently fitted with 14 inch remote bulb power element, and flare connection; part of this company’s impressive stable of valves, patterned off its earlier, Model 670, automatic expansion valve; Model 671- M, Series-2, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1936.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 671- M, Series

Technical Significance:
This valve, compact and elegant in design and construction, in contrast to similar valves produced by Frigidaire of the period [See ID # 184 and 185], was the work of a relative new comer in the refrigeration field, Detroit Lubricator. It would prove to be a significant marker of the changing times.

The age of the component parts, systems, specialty manufacturer had arrived, here as in the automotive field. In the future brand name system and equipment suppliers to the HVACR market would concentrate on system development, production and marketing. Increasingly, component technologies would be out sourced to specialty companies with the engineering know how and needed production capacities.

The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
The range of configurations in which this valve was produced was a marker of an increasingly diverse market place for thermostatic expansion valve technology, with different fitments to meet the different requirements of original equipment manufacturers. It was an industry in its first period of rapid growth. See also ID # 186, 201, 202


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.078

An early, compact, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve made by arguably the leader in expansion valve technology of the period, beautifully crafted with brass body, “high tech.” Bakelite cover plate, similar to item ID #186 and #201, but differently fitted, this model licensed under patent to Universal Cooler Corp.; part of an impressive stable of valves, patterned off Detroit Lubricator’s earlier, Model 670, automatic expansion valve; Manufacturer’s name given here as American Radiator, Model 671- M, Series-1, circa 1936.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’
Manufacturer: American Radiator Co., Detroit
Make: American Radiator
Model: 671- M, Series

Technical Significance:
This valve, compact and elegant in design and construction, in contrast to similar valves produced by Frigidaire of the period [See ID # 184 and 185], was the work of a relative new comer in the refrigeration field, Detroit Lubricator. It would prove to be a significant marker of the changing times.

The age of the component parts, systems, specialty manufacturer had arrived, here as in the automotive field. In the future brand name system and equipment suppliers to the HVACR market would concentrate on system development, production and marketing. Increasingly, component technologies would be out sourced to specialty companies with the engineering know how and needed production capacities.

The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
Carrying the name American Radiator, the exact genealogy of this device remains to be determined, including its relationship to Detroit Lubricator,

The range of configurations in which this valve was produced was a marker of an increasingly diverse market place for thermostatic expansion valve technology, with different fitments to meet the different requirements of original equipment manufacturers. It was an industry in its first period of rapid growth. See also ID # 186, 201, 202

The valve is also an industry marker of the early entry of Universal Cooler, destined to be a major new player in the growing commercial refrigeration field.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘Fedders’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.079

An early, large, heavy body, adjustable thermostatic expansion by Fedders, marking the entrance of another national supplier to the commercial refrigeration field, during its first period of rapid expansion in the mid 1930’s; fitted with 4 foot remote bulb power element, with brown Bakelite shell and tinned brass body, with severe stress marks indicating something of its difficult life’s journey, Fedders, circa 1934.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘Fedders’
Manufacturer: Fedders ???
Make: Fedders
Model: 33???
Features:
Heavily stressed body, telling stories of the difficult life’s journey of this valve, its use and abuse in a period of little industry maturity.

Original shop tag telling stories of the life and times of the valve

Technical Significance:
The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
This valve was the work of a relative new comer in the refrigeration field in the mid 1930’s, Fedders. It would prove to be a significant marker of the changing times, with new markets and new suppliers with national aspirations.

The valve, heavy and clumsy by comparison with the work of more mature suppliers to the market place of the period, notably Detroit Lubricator [see ID # 186, 201 and 202], would suggest a less well developed engineering and manufacturing capability.

The heavy stress marks also tell something of the times in which this valve lived out its life. It was a period in which service and installation workers in the refrigeration field were not well trained in this area of speciality, moving into the field from other areas of mechanical work. It was a period too in which few specialized tools where available. The marks on the body suggest the use of brut force without the tools and experience appropriate for the job.

The original stock tag in Howard Oliver’s hand writing tells much of the life and times in matters of trade practice. In the mid 1930’s parts where not expendable commodities except in rare circumstances. It was a period much more disposed to a “repair and recycle” philosophy, an essential part of the post depression period of “waste not want not”. New parts were not considered an option, if they could be replaced on an exchange basis, so as to ensure continued operation, at the lesser of costs. This meant that a repaired part was also available for a future, potential user.

The frequency of the service and repair rate of the period also reflected the much less sophisticated engineering design, materials and manufacturing methods of the times.

It was a period, too, in which inventorying methods and transportation made new parts much less readily available, which again gave preference to more expedient solutions, when breakdown occurred and perishable foods were likely to be lost.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘small-body’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.080

An early, small body, adjustable thermostatic expansion fitted with 4-foot remote bulb power element, with brown Bakelite shell and brass body, with stylish, partially obliterated, decal in red and gold, manufacturer yet to be determined based on existing body markings, circa 1936.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘small-body’
Make: Unknown
Model: A37

Technical Significance:
The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
This valve was more than likely the work of another relative new comer in the refrigeration field in the mid 1930’s. Similar in configuration to the Fedder’s valves of the period, it genealogy remains to be determined from partially obliterated body markings.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.081

An early version of the 20th century, classic 673, Detroit Lubricator thermostatic expansion, made in a wide range of capacities for sulphur dioxide, methyl chloride, Freon 12 and 22; the work horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry through much of the m, latter part of the 1900’s; with classic brass body and brown Bakalite shell, power element, 5 ft. capillary tube, and adjustable superheat, widely used by original refrigeration equipment manufacturer and for replacement work, Model 673 – Series 5A 34, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1935. [See also ID# 187, 188]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: Model 673 – Ser

Technical Significance:
This artifact of history, a workhorse of its times in the thermostatic expansion valve field, tells the many stories of the explosion of commercial refrigeration applications and their wide adoption in Canada throughout the middle and latter years of the 20th century.

Much of the success of this technology was due to the wide range of capacities and applications built into the design by Detroit Lubricator

Aware of the exploding market in commercial refrigeration applications, as well as the increasing diversity in system and engineering design requirements, the manufacturer built the valve around a basic platform that could be readily adapted with changes in orifice size and inlet and outlet connections to suit a wide range of refrigerants [methyl chloride, Freon 12, and Freon 22], temperature applications [low and commercial range] and refrigerating tonnage capacity ratings [1.2 to 4 tons]. It was a success story that led the industry.

Industrial Significance:
The valve would be the darling of refrigeration wholesalers and original equipment manufacturers, because of the range of applications accommodated [see wholesalers catalogue]


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TEV’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.082

An early mid 20th century, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve, housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with galvinized overcoat and classic brown Bakelite casing; thermal power element and 4 ft. capillary tube; the TEF series, engineered for the new Freon 12 as well as SO2 applications, superseded the TS series, being more compact and better sealed against moisture; recommended for multiplexed applications popular in the period; Model TEV, Frigidaire, circa 1936. [1 of a set of 2, see ID# 207]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TEV’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division General Motors Corporation, Da
Make: Frigidaire
Model: TEV, Series 18

Technical Significance:
Adapted for the new generation of non-noxious, hydrocarbon refrigerants, this early mid 20th century TX valve by Frigidaire was more compact and better protected from moisture than its earlier TS series [see ID# 185 & 186]. It was promoted by Frigdaire for multiplexed systems and would find wide spread application in a new generation of small , commercial refrigeration to be found in a new generation of food stores and confectioneries.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of technological diffusion and wide spread adoption of TX refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
Of special significance is the appearance of General Motors name on the valve, marking the period in which large manufactures, having built significant engineering and manufacturing know-how, as well as cash reserves would move into new fields. Horizontal integration would soon become a bus word in the industrial world.

These valve would see service well into the 1950’s attesting to their robust construction and field serviceability, with an operating life of 20 to 30 years and more.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TEV’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.083

An early mid 20th century, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve, housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with galvinized overcoat and classic brown Bakelite casing; thermal power element and 4 ft. capillary tube; the TEF series, engineered for the new Freon 12 as well as SO2 applications, superseded the TS series, being more compact and better sealed against moisture; recommended for multiplexed applications popular in the period; Model TEV, Frigidaire, circa 1936. [Similar to ID# 206, but with higher range and mounting bracket]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TEV’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division General Motors Corporation, Da
Make: Frigidaire
Model: TEV, Series 21
Features:
Heavy steel mounting bracket with galvinized overcoat

Technical Significance:
Adapted for the new generation of non-noxious, hydrocarbon refrigerants, this early mid 20th century TX valve by Frigidaire was more compact and better protected from moisture than its earlier TS series [see ID# 185 & 186]. It was promoted by Frigdaire for multiplexed systems and would find wide spread application in a new generation of small, commercial refrigeration to be found in a new generation of food stores and confectioneries.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of technological diffusion and wide spread adoption of TX refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
Of special significance is the appearance of General Motors name on the valve, marking the period in which large manufactures, having built significant engineering and manufacturing know-how, as well as cash reserves would move into new fields. Horizontal integration would soon become a bus word in the industrial world.

Made in a wide range of capacities the TEV would mark a major, costly engineering commitment by Frigidaire to TX valve technology in the period, confident of its market potential.

These valve would see service well into the 1950’s attesting to their robust construction and field serviceability, with an operating life of 20 to 30 years and more.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘893’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.084

By the middle of the 20th century, the pressure was on for a new generation of compact thermostatic expansion valves to meet the growing market for small commercial refrigeration appliances. The 893, designed for this market, would raise eyebrows, with high style nameplate in bright chrome with blue highlighting. A sign of the times, Detroit would soon replace it with the even more compact design, the 777, Model 893, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1952.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘893’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 893
Features:
High style chrome name plate and logo, a new slick look for the expansion valve

Technical Significance:
The 893 compact thermostatic expansion valve, although short lived, was a significant marker of the times, as the industry, responding and at the same time shaping the market place, moved to ever more compact, more sophisticated engineering designs based on cumulative know how. A sign of the now rapidly changing times, Detroit would soon replace the 893 with the even more compact design, the 777.

Industrial Significance:
High style chrome name plate and logo, a new slick look for expansion valves in the early post W.W.II years, reflecting the new interest of manufacturers in the emerging field of industrial design

The now rapidly changing market place would trigger substantial investments in R and D by companies like Detroit. The life of this product would be a short one, soon to be replaced with an even more compact design, the 777. A sign of things to come.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207C’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.085

Representing AP’s new generation of further compacted thermostatic expansion valves designed to meet the needs of a new generation of small commercial refrigerated appliances, for methyl chloride and Freon 12 refrigerants, Model 207C, Automatic Products Co., Mil., Circa 1950 [see also ID#189,190 and 208]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207C’
Manufacturer: Automatic Products Co., Mil.
Make: Automatic Products [AP]
Model: AP207C

Technical Significance:
In response to the buoyant market for compact TX valve technology a number of manufacturers, including Detroit Lubricator, Mayson, Automatic Products, Sporlan and Danfoss, among others entered the field in the late 1930’s and 40’s. They produced a remarkable range of design configurations and capacities for different refrigerants and cooling applications – in low temperature, commercial and air conditioning ranges.

The AP207C was AP’s contribution of the times to super compact, 1/2 ton valves.

Industrial Significance:
The AP207CWith 60″ capillary line and 3/8″ bulb, adjustable superheat feature and built in liquid line screen would help to make possible an explosion of refrigeration and air conditioning applications in the latter part of the 20th century.


Coil spring condensing unit

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.030

A second generation, coil spring mounted medium speed, condensing unit with belt driven, single cylinder, reciprocating compressor, copper tube and finned, single pass air cooled condenser and 4 lb refrigerant receiver, with 1/6th HP electric motor. A refrigerating machine for the Canadian home, with a new sense of quiet that it would be characteristic of the best of the industry’s offerings in the early growth years of the household refrigerator in Canada. Designed and manufactured by an acknowledged market leader of the times with facilities in London Ontario, Kelvinator, 1930.



Item: Coil spring condensing unit
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator
Model: CA530

Technical Significance:
As significant marker of a new level of quiet and smooth operation for rfrigerating machines of the time, to be tolerated in the kitchens of the nation the

Industrial Significance:
Helped to establish London and Western Ontario as a major hot-bed of manufacturing practice in refrigeration and appliance production.


Coil spring condensing unit

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.031

A medium duty, second generation, coil spring mounted medium speed, condensing unit with belt driven, single cylinder, reciprocating compressor, copper tube and finned, two pass air cooled condenser, with 1/4th HP electric motor. A refrigerating machine for the large Canadian estate home, or family food store application. Like #030, it came with a new sense of quiet that would be characteristic of the best of the industry’s offerings in the early growth years of the household refrigerator in Canada. Designed and manufactured by an acknowledged market leader of the times with facilities in London Ontario, Kelvinator, 1932.



Item: Coil spring condensing unit
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator

Technical Significance:
A significant marker of a new level of quiet and smooth operation for refrigerating machines of the time, to be tolerated in the kitchens of the nation

Industrial Significance:
Helped to establish London and Western Ontario as a major hotbed of manufacturing practice in refrigeration and appliance production.


Refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.032

A smoothly designed mid 1930’s, coil spring mounted medium speed, condensing unit with belt driven, single cylinder, reciprocating compressor, copper tube and finned, single pass air cooled condenser with 3 lb refrigerant receiver, with 1/6th HP electric motor, and a new generation of quiet 3 blade cloverleaf fan. The machine by Universal Refrigeration, demonstrates their special contribution to the design and production of refrigerating machines in Canada, in what was quickly becoming an increasingly competitive market segment, Universal Cooler Brantford Ontario, 1936.



Item: Refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Universal Cooler, Brantford Ontario
Make: Universal Cooler
Model: A16
Features:
This refrigerating machine is equipped with a new style, for the period of condensing air cooling fan. The clover life design evoved as a quieter more efficient blade than the simpler straight cut propeller type of an earlier generation of condensing units in Canada.Whether this blade was original or installed, as part of a subsequent up-grade is unknown. Air noise in the family kitchen was an on-going irritation and refrigeration mechanics would do what they could to minimise it, in the interests of good customer relations and product satisfaction

Technical Significance:
One of an early breed of Canadian made condensing units [along with Kelvinator of Canada] moving from the use of highly noxious SO2 to methyl chloride, heralding the massive swing to the chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants by the end of the decade (F12).

Industrial Significance:
Demonstrates the craftsmanship, manufacturing methods and breadth of design and manufacturing options being explored by Canadian refrigeration manufacturers by the mid 1930’sWestern Ontario was fast becoming the heartland and Mecca for refrigeration design and manufacturing in Canada.


Refrigeration machine ‘Gilson’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.033

Refrigerating machinery by this manufacturer, a uniquely and distinctively Canadian company, made a special contribution to Canada’s material culture of refrigerating technology. The Gilson Manufacturing Co. of Quelph Ontario was part of the new industrialism growing up in the Ontario hinterlands, between the Wars, to service the needs of rural Ontario, much less than the provinces urban elites.

Executed in the company’s distinctive aqua , blue/green, tones it would be a well recognised part of the Canadian refrigeration landscape through the middle years of the 20th century – seen by many as its “golden” years. A condensing unit with belt driven, single cylinder, reciprocating compressor, copper tube and finned, single pass air cooled condenser, and 1/6th HP electric motor, it was assembled on a distinctive cast iron, foundry produced frame, a hallmark of much Gilson’s production of the period, Gilson Mfg. Co, Circa 1945.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Gilson’
Manufacturer: Gilson Manufacturing Co, Quelph Ontario
Make: Gilson
Model: A2MA

Technical Significance:
One of an early breed of Canadian made condensing units [along with Kelvinator of Canada, and Universal Cooler} moving from the use of highly noxious SO2 to methyl chloride, heralding the massive swing to the chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants by the end of the decade (F12).

Industrial Significance:
The assembly process employed, in the years before more sophisticated hermetically sealed condensing units became popular, allowed small, start-up manufactures to get into a growth market with relatively small capital investment and know-how. This would have a profound effect on the speciality companies such as Kelvinator and Frigidaire , who manufactured a full line of component parts and backed much of the research on which the rest of industry relied.


Refrigeration machine ‘Rollator’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.034

A “high tech” refrigerating machine of the mid 1930’s, the “Norge Rollator” was a precursor of profound change in the technology offerings of the Canadian refrigeration industry. By making use of the best engineering knowledge of the times, this innovative machine both responded to public desire for a less crude mechanical monster in the kitchens of the nation, and at the same time built further expectations for what was to soon come. It was a whole new design concept, by a new generation of world class engineering companies who had entered the now rapidly expanding North American home appliance market, the Borg Warner Corporation of Sweden, Norge Division, Borg-Warner Corp. Detroit Mich, 1935.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Rollator’
Manufacturer: Borg-Warner Corp. Detroit, Mich
Make: Norge
Model: S4237

Technical Significance:
It was a whole new design concept, by a new generation of world class engineering companies who had entered the rapidly expanding North American home appliance market, the Borg Warner Corporation of Sweden, Norge Division, Borg-Warner Corp. Detroit Mich, 1945.What was signalled here was the end of the refrigeration condensing unit as a mere assemblage by mere assemblers of parts based, variously, on a range of buy- make decisions appropriate for the market conditions of the moment [See for example #033].The commitment of the industry would be increasingly to specialised compressor design and to smoothly integrated systems applying state of the art systems thinking [See for example #036.

Industrial Significance:
Of significance in the Canadian industrial context is the Rogers connection with leading edge innovations in the refrigeration field. Toronto based Rogers-Majestic, by 1928, was the largest manufacturers of radio broadcast receivers in Canada, enjoying the market boom of the times. The Rogers empire was founded on innovative the work of Edward S. Rogers, who received a Dominion of Canada patent for a “rectifying system” on June 16, 1925. By August of that year Rogers was in mass production of the worlds first practical AC radio tube and the first Rogers Batteryless radio broadcast receiver.
By the early 1930’s the company was looking to expand and consolidate its reputation for technological innovation and market leader. Rogers acquired the rights to Norge name in the early to mid 1930’s to further establish themselves as Canadian leaders in the rapidly growing field of household, consumer technology [See advertisement in “Radio Trade Builder”, March 1935]
This international partnership arrangement would also represent a model for much of what was to come. Much in the Canadian HVACR industry would come as a consequence of corporate arrangements of convenience between Canadian and international manufacturers and suppliers to the Canadian HVACR field.


Refrigeration machine ‘Norge’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.035

As in the case of #034 this is a “high tech” refrigerating machine of the mid 1930’s, a precursor of profound change in the technology offerings of the Canadian refrigeration industry. It was a whole new design concept, by a new generation of world class engineering companies who had entered the now rapidly expanding North American home appliance market, the Borg Warner Corporation of Sweden, Norge Division, Borg-Warner Corp. Detroit Mich, 1935. A special marker [See electric motor] of the momentous times through which this machine operated is the story it tells of Ontario’s now almost forgotten mega project of the late 1940’s, the conversion of the province from 25 to 60 cycle power.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Norge’
Manufacturer: Borg-Warner Corp. Detroit, Mich
Make: Norge
Model: S518

Technical Significance:
It was a whole new design concept, by a new generation of world class engineering companies who had entered the rapidly expanding North American home appliance market, the Borg Warner Corporation of Sweden, Norge Division, Borg-Warner Corp. Detroit Mich, 1945.What was signalled here was the end of the refrigeration condensing unit as a mere assemblage by mere assemblers of parts based, variously, on a range of buy- make decisions appropriate for the market conditions of the moment [See for example #033].The commitment of the industry would be increasingly to specialised compressor design and to smoothly integrated systems applying state of the art systems thinking [See for example #036.
This artifact of the early years of the Canadian HVACR industry has special significance as historic marker. I t is driven by a GE motor carrying Ontario Hydro Electric’s name plate and specification data. The conversion of the Province from 25 to 60 cycle was a mega project of unprecedented size and complexity, before or since. It involved among other things the Hydro authority working closely with Canadian motor manufacturers and rewind shops to produce the specialised motors needed, of which this remains a prime example and historic artifact of this momentous period in Canadian technological development

Industrial Significance:
Of significance in the Canadian industrial context is the Rogers connection with leading edge innovations in the refrigeration field. Toronto based Rogers-Majestic, by 1928, was the largest manufacturers of radio broadcast receivers in Canada, enjoying the market boom of the times. The Rogers empire was founded on innovative the work of Edward S. Rogers, who received a Dominion of Canada patent for a “rectifying system” on June 16, 1925. By August of that year Rogers was in mass production of the worlds first practical AC radio tube and the first Rogers Batteryless radio broadcast receiver.
By the early 1930’s the company was looking to expand and consolidate its reputation for technological innovation and market leader. Rogers acquired the rights to Norge name in the early to mid 1930’s to further establish themselves as Canadian leaders in the rapidly growing field of household, consumer technology [See advertisement in “Radio Trade Builder”, March 1935]
This international partnership arrangement would also represent a model for much of what was to come. Much in the Canadian HVACR industry would come as a consequence of corporate arrangements of convenience between Canadian and international manufacturers and suppliers to the Canadian HVACR field.


Aberrant refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.036

A condensing unit with vertically mounted, belt driven, rotary compressor, an aberrant event, a mere blips on the Canadian refrigeration industry landscape. It serves to dramatise the rich array of engineering configurations and manufacturers, many short lived, all part of Canada’s early developmental “golden Age” of refrigeration technology, leading up to the 1950’s. Manufacturer unknown, circa 1938.



Item: Aberrant refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Unknown
Make: Unknown
Model: UnknownMotor mo

Industrial Significance:
The electric motor by Robbins Myers, Brampton Ont. Serves to further high light Brantford as the rapidly growing refrigeration capital of Canada.


Refrigeration machine ‘Sunbeam’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.037

By the mid 1930’s the North American refrigeration industry was moving rapidly to the adoption of much more sophisticated engineering conceptions of what the refrigeration machine might now become, based on a decade or more of manufacturing, engineering and research experience. Moving beyond the notion of stand-alone condensing unit, a significant step was the development of condensing units with integral evaporators, close coupled, to produce a single unified refrigeration mechanism for a cabinet refrigerator. The Sunbeam Electric Mfd. Co., Evansville Ind. made a significant contribution to this important evolutionary stage of development, 1936.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Sunbeam’
Manufacturer: The Sunbeam Electric Mfd. Co., Evansville Ind.
Make: Sunbeam
Model: SA623

Technical Significance:
Stands as a significant marker in the evolution of cabinet refrigeration systems working towards highly integrated specialised systems which would increasigly be the norm in the latter part of the century


Refrigeration machine ‘Sunbeam’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.038

A later adaptation of the Sunbeam Electric’s, advanced, integrated, open system refrigeration technology, demonstrated in #037, this machine illustrates the market that the technology was able to command over half a decade or more later. Originally engineered for SO2 refrigerant, with an advanced evaporator design in formed and rolled stainless steel, this unit was further up-dated by Howard Oliver, probably in the latter 1940’s, converting it to less toxic methyl chloride refrigerant – the Sunbeam Electric Mfd. Co., Evansville Ind., 1945.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Sunbeam’
Manufacturer: The Sunbeam Electric Mfd. Co., Evansville Ind.
Make: Sunbeam
Model: dual name plate
Features:
A-P automatic expansion valve made in Cooksville Ontario, Model AP207C, a high-tech, miniature valve of the period made for a new generation of chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants

Technical Significance:
Stands as a significant marker in the evolution of cabinet refrigeration systems working towards highly integrated specialised systems, which would increasingly be the norm in the latter part of the century. The so called “hermetic” system with electric motor and compressor sealed in a single shell were already being marketed by Kelvinator and Frigidaire


Hermetic refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.039

By the late 1930’s the North American refrigeration industry was moving rapidly to the adoption of fully “hermetic” systems, in which the motor and compressor where sealed in a single steel dome, which was connected to the evaporator in a seamless, integrated design not requiring the services of a skilled, field, refrigeration mechanic. The fully hermetic design for the household cabinet refrigerator was the next evolutionary step towards improving performance, reliability and life expectancy, all of which would increase dramatically. Kelvinator made significant contribution to the development of hermetic system design, Kelvinator of Canada, Circa 1955.



Item: Hermetic refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Admiral
Model: 712407

Technical Significance:
The change in performance, reliability and life expectancy which accompanied the wing to hermetic design could scarcely be over estimated. The period of regular motor oiling, drive belt replacement and leaking compressors and tubing connectors was gone. The operating life expectancy of such systems was all of a sudden 20 years or more.

Industrial Significance:
This refrigeration system produced by Kelvinator for Admiral, marked the period of multiple entries into the Canadian appliance market by secondary manufactures who established partnership arrangements for the production of the machines. Kelvinator were prominent in this work as suppliers to other Canadian corporations such as General Steel Wares of London Ontario.


Commercial refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.040

An early, commercial application, air-cooled, refrigeration machine [condensing unit] by Kelvinator of Canada designed for use with anhydrous, sulphur dioxide. an early refrigerant that made possible, for the first time, small commercial refrigeration applications in food stores etc. The use of low pressure refrigerants, rather than high pressure anhydrous ammonia, opened up a vast commercial market for refrigeration equipment and, in turn, set new expectations by Canadian consumers of what was available at their local grocer and butcher shop, Kelvinator, circa 1932.



Item: Commercial refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Unknown, Compre

Pop cooler refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.041

In characteristic red, an early, commercial application, air-cooled, refrigeration machine [condensing unit] designed and built by Kelvinator of Canada for Coca Cola pop coolers. The marketing of fresh new taste sensations was central to the creation of new consumer demands by the food and entertainment industries in the 1930’s, as well as by Canadian refrigeration equipment manufacturers, Kelvinator, circa 1938.



Item: Pop cooler refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: 4975

Open system refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.042

Engineered by Kelvinator, an acknowledged leader of the field, for the new generation of chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, this new generation of quiet, belt driven, open system refrigeration machines for small commercial applications was equipped with medium speed, precision made, high efficiency, extended life compressors. In retrospect the series would be seen as part of the Kelvinator of Canada legacy of its mature corporate years in Canada, Kelvinator circa 1945.



Item: Open system refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: CB325

Open system refrigation machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.043

Like Item #042, this series refrigeration machines, designed for the new generation of chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, was developed by Kelvinator in the post WWII years, for small and medium sized commercial refrigeration applications. The Kelvinator SB medium speed, precision made, high efficiency, open system compressor would become a standard of engineering quality for the times . The machine, like #042, would in retrospect, be seen as part of the Kelvinator of Canada legacy of its mature corporate years in Canada, Kelvinator circa 1945.



Item: Open system refrigation machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Part No. 708907

Low-pressure refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.044

With the availability of chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, in the post WWII years, the demand quickly developed for larger and larger low-pressure refrigeration machines, as an alternative to ammonia systems, in this HP range. This 2 HP, water cooled, open-system machine by Kelvinator is a fine example of the genre. Like #042, and #043, it would come to be seen as part of the Kelvinator of Canada legacy of its mature corporate years in Canada, Kelvinator circa 1948.



Item: Low-pressure refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Part No. 07285
Features:
– Tube-in-tube water cooled condenser.- 1 1/2 HP 25 cycle Wagner electric single phase type RA motor with original motor warranty- Heavy rubber vibration insulators- Smoothly streamlined modern frame construction- Copland 2 cyl, V belt driven compressor

Industrial Significance:
Somewhat paradoxically, while the market for larger and larger low-pressure refrigeration machines grew, well beyond the expectations of many after WWII, the diversity of equipment feeding the market diminishedIt was a period of increasing competitive pressure for manufacturers, with more of them bargaining for a slice of the market. Equipment development costs were also increasing due, among other things, to increased performance expectations, reliability and the life expectancy of systems.
Manufacturers moved into areas of specialisation and new partnerships were established, as exemplified here by Kelvinator’s use of Copland compressors. Kelvinator had by now dropped out of the manufacture large compressors, although their efforts in earlier years were impressive ( see section 5.02)


Refrigeration machine ‘H’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.045

The Frigidaire’s “H” series condensing unit for small commercial applications was an essential part of the industry’s “golden years” of early innovative refrigeration engineering. With a new series of compact compressors; a high tech, fully integrated condenser receiver assembly; a floating motor mount and automatic belt tightener, it was a truly innovative contribution to a new generation of quiet, more maintenance free and more user friendly refrigeration machines for the mid 1930’s, letting loose a new wave of consumer expectations of what their local grocer or dairy bar might have in store for them, Frigidaire, Circa 1935.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘H’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: H203


Refrigeration machine ‘S’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.046

A refrigeration condensing unit, with rolled and formed steel frame, massive in appearance, given its modest capacity, the Frigdaire Model S served to perpetuate the “machinery look” of the 1920’s well in to the next decade. With oval coil, static air condenser it would be recognised as a kind of icon of the engineering culture of the times, with its ideas of what a proper refrigeration machine should look like. A real time piece of the era in which it was conceived, many would still be in service 30 years later, servicing Canada’s food and hospitality industries, Frigidaire, 1929.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘S’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Model S
Features:
– Original decorative Frigidaire sticker and logo- Original wiring harness in steel sheathed BX, 2/14 cable and Square D disconnect switch Cat No 98251, with original 15 amp. cartridge fuses

Refrigeration machine ‘S’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.047

A refrigeration condensing unit, with rolled and formed steel frame, massive in appearance, given its modest capacity, the Frigdaire Model S served to perpetuate the “machinery look” of the 1920’s well in to the next decade. Unlike similar Artifact #046, this machine is equipped with a 25 cycle, pre WWII, high torque, repulsion induction motor by Sangamo Electric Toronto Ont., allowing it to appear much the way it did in its early operating years, Frigidaire, 1929.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘S’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Model S

Refrigeration machine ‘G’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.048

The oval, copper tube, static air condenser, along with the hefty, solid look of a no-nonsense refrigeration machine seemed to be a winning formula for Frigidaire in the late 1930’s, one that would be reflected and perpetuated through several years of design and production. The higher capacity Model G, with an added oval tube condenser stack, was similarly endowed to the Model S [See #046 and #047]. Also using sulphur dioxide refrigerant, the Model G would be seen in Canadian estate homes, institutions, food stores, diary bars and hospitality applications well into the 1950’s, when the clear preference of the industry and its publics swung heavily to the use of non-noxious refrigerants, leaving this recognised time piece well behind, Frigidaire, 1929.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘G’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Model G

Technical Significance:
Frigidaire’s commitment to the oval tube, stacked condensing medium in the period was substantial [See Frigidaire manual for the nature and scope of its application]. A simple engineering response, using the materials and know-how of the times, it seemed to perform passably well. The idea of adding additional stacks was a reasonable one, in order to add machine capacity. For a number of reasons the technology would prove to be limited to small capacity, fractional horsepower machines and Frigidaire would need to rethink the form and structure of their condensers, as the inevitable demand for larger and larger machines continued.For Frigidaire an important point of inflection in their design and development curve was at hand. There would be a transition to the more efficient, higher performance, forced air, fin and tube condenser, already in popular use by other manufactures, The oval stacked condenser, a hall mark of Frigidaire’s refrigeration machines was about to disappear, see item #049 and #045.
With the recognised need to move with the times came the commitment to upgrading and the retrofit of existing machines, as a hedge against their obsolescence – in may ways an uncharacteristic market response. Retrofit kits were engineered, packaged and marketed by Frigidaire for a wide range of earlier static air condenser equipped condensing units – see items Group 6.00, 6.02-5 and 6.02-6. These kits were an early example of technological up-grading and retrofitting by a manufacturer moving with the market opportunities of the times.


Refrigeration machine ‘AW’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.049

Frigidaire’s model AW refrigeration machine exemplifies their engineering approach to what was referred to as “radiator type” condensing, as it was employed by the company on larger capacity condensing units [See also Model S and G, #046 – #048]. Using sulphur dioxide refrigerant, the Model AW would be seen in Canadian estate homes, institutions, food stores, diary bars and hospitality applications in higher capacity, fractional horsepower applications, well into the 1950’s. Then the clear preference of the industry and its publics swung heavily to the use of non-noxious refrigerants, Frigidaire, 1932.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘AW’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton, Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: AW
Features:
The machine is equipped with Frigidaire’s floating motor mounting system, a distinctive contribution to the engineering of the period, now by-passed with a rigid mount. The modification stands as historic marker of frequency standardisation in Ontario, circa 1948, when all 25 cycle motors were removed to be replaced by 60 cycle.

Refrigeration machine ‘F12’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.050

An early refrigeration machine, by Frigidaire designed and built for the new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerant of the times, “F12”. A significant, transitional and transformational piece technology, moving from the use of noxious to non-noxious refrigerants, it would serve to vastly increase the market for refrigeration machines and, in turn, their impact on Canadian society and culture. It also serves as a vehicle for telling the stories of the unintended environmental consequences of the move, Frigidaire, circa 1937.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘F12’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire
Model: Frigidaire Corp

Refrigeration machine ‘GM’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.051

An innovative adaptation of an air-cooled refrigeration machine of the mid 1930’s, attempting to make it more user friendly, less machine like, by fully enclosing it in its own ventilated cabinet. The identification plate carries the name “Frigidaire Electric Refrigerator, Product of General Motors”, marking a significant, somewhat ominous step, in the maturation and pre WWII restructuring of the North American refrigeration industry. The plate also carries the corporate address of Toronto, clearly establishing the company’s residency in Canada, Frigidaire, 1937.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘GM’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Electric Refrigeration Products, Genera
Make: Frigidaire
Model: K

Industrial Significance:
The restructuring of the North American refrigeration industry prior to WWII, was a sign of the times, as markets mushroomed, market competition ballooned and the costs of engineering, development, production and marketing increased many fold. The result was the need for increased capital and stable operating funding for research and development, which were seen as available from big business. Big business was also getting bigger and where anxious to move into developing markets and defining new profit centres for themselves.


Refrigeration machine ‘iron frame’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.052

A truly remarkable statement of its social and cultural times, as well as the evolutionary stage of refrigeration machine technology in Canada, in the second decade of the 20th century. Crafted as the embodiment, and the ultimate statement of the early 20th century “machine”, it was a mechanical wonder in every respect. From its massive 200lbs, to its crude 1 1/4 inch angle iron frame, its lumbering 370 RPM compressor, its hefty, automatic pressure control with leavers, weights and springs, fashioned in cast iron, steel and brass, and the constant odour of sulphur dioxide, it would be a nightmare for the mechanics of the time, as they struggled to learn new trade, Frigidaire, circa 1928.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘iron frame’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: N
Features:
– Heavily pitted from years of use and misuse in damp and highly acidic, atmosphere produced by leaking sulphur dioxide refrigerant vapour.

Commercial refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.053

A smoothly sculptured, quiet operating, fractional horsepower, commercial application refrigeration machine, part of the mid 20th century experience of Canadian grocers, butchers and confectioners, in a period when the “hermetic” motor compressor was still 20 years in the future for most such equipment owners. The machine represents the work three leading Canadian manufactures [Universal Cooler, Brampton Ont. and Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont., and McKinnon Industries, St Catherines Ont. ] and the best Canadian trade practice of the 1950’s, Universal Cooler, 1955.



Item: Commercial refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Universal Cooler, Brantford Ont.
Make: Universal Cooler
Model: A15F6I-2

Technical Significance:
The 1950’s and on into the 60’s was the “golden age” of the open-system refrigeration machine. Behind the industry were its crude beginnings in Canada. Machines were now operating on non-noxious refrigerants [principally F12], were smaller, lighter, quieter, more efficient and reliable.As important was the fact that they were readily field serviceable, allowing major components to be removed for repair or replacement. Too, major component replacement was facilitated, even with parts of a different manufacture, because of the level of universality and flexibility, which was an inherent part of the open-system design, a feature which would soon be lost, as the industry moved to higher efficiency, less costly sealed system design.


Refrigeration machine ‘UC’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.054

A typical, 1/4 HP, open-system refrigeration machine by Universal Cooler Brantford Ont., a recognised, prominent leader during the Canadian industry’s, historic, golden age of refrigeration equipment manufacturing, It admirably represents the increasingly ubiquitous, yet unobtrusive, and largely unsung, commercial refrigeration applications of the 1950’s and 60’s. Stuffed in cubby holes, dark basements, under counters and other wise unseen, it went about, non-the-less, contributing to a new world of Canadian health, safety and hygiene, while providing new taste delights in the food markets of the nation, Universal Cooler, 1958.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘UC’
Manufacturer: Universal Cooler, Brantford Ont.
Make: Universal Cooler
Model: TA25MS1
Features:
Rubber mounting feet

Refrigeration machine ‘Tecumseh’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.055

In the middle years of the 20th century Tecumseh and their related Chieftain products were leaders in “unbranded” Canadian refrigeration machines appearing in the Canadian market place, as represented here by this 1/3 HP, 2 cylinder, air-cooled, open-system machine. Tucked away, out of public view, in food stores restaurants and similar applications across the nation, such machines would quietly go about contributing to historic changes in the daily lives of Canadians throughout those defining, middle years, Tecumseh Products, 1956.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Tecumseh’
Manufacturer: Tecumseh Products
Make: Chieftain
Model: F13U2LE

Industrial Significance:
The post WWII growth years of the Canadian refrigeration industry saw a proliferation of new manufactures of small, commercial, open-system, refrigeration machines, each bargaining for a share of the growing market. Unlike Kelvinator and Frigidaire, they were essentially “unbranded” machines and readily available through an increasingly wide network of wholesalers and jobbers servicing the Canadian industry. The proliferation of manufactures, branded and unbranded, vastly increased competitive forces which, along with changes in the technology itself [closed-system, hermetic machines] would, in turn, lead to a re-alignment and restructuring of the field, as part of its new maturity.
The traditional brands of the early years of the century would soon all but vanish. With in 5 years the open-system refrigeration machine would be seriously challenged by a new generation of fractional horsepower hermetic condensing units- a vast and far reaching point of inflection and transition had arrived.
The traditional brands, would themselves be seen as starting to market unbranded, competitive lines. Kelvinator of Canada’s, London Ont. Catalogue of 1948 would market their own machines, by 1951 they had established the Refrigeration Supplies Co. in London [RESCO], which market Tecumseh products, among others


Refrigeration machine ‘Gilson’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.056

Among the proliferation of refrigeration machine manufacturer in the explosive market years of the mid 20th century, a few uniquely Ontario, entrepreneurial, family companies stood out, including the Gilson and Woods companies of Quelph and Robert Elder of Toronto. This I/4 HP, unsophisticatedly engineered machine by Gilson would help establish them as a kind of venerated cultural icon of the period, in rural and small town Ontario, Gilson, 1954.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Gilson’
Manufacturer: Gilson Manufacturing Co, Quelph, Ont
Make: Gilson
Model: SC4-M

Industrial Significance:
The mid 20th century, prior to the advent of increasingly complex closed-system, hermetic machines, was characterised by relatively simple system technology. It was a period that saw many new manufacturers who were largely assemblers of components provided by other OEM’s. This allowed small family companies many the offshoot of Canada’s early years of industrialisation, often with modest engineering resources, to move into the refrigeration machine and equipment business.


Refrigeration machine ‘Brunner’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.057

A classic piece of mid 20th century, Toronto built, heavy duty, no nonsense, open-system, refrigeration machinery by a Canadian manufacture, well recognised for its unique Canadian engineering solutions and contributions to commercial and industrial refrigeration process applications, Brunner, 1952.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Brunner’
Manufacturer: Brunner Corporation, Canada, Ltd.
Make: Brunner
Model: A18FC
Features:
Unique system of belt tightening designed and built by Brunner

Industrial Significance:
Canada had many small companies spring up in the middle years of the 20th century to participate in the boom years of the industry. Most had modest ambitions and resources, and were satisfied by building a modest range of equipment. Brunner was an exception, building small fractional horsepower, open-system machines, as demonstrated here, as well as engineering and building large systems up to 100 HP or more.


Refrigeration machine ‘Silver King’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.058

A refrigeration machine by a small, long-gone, Toronto manufacturer, hoping to get a share of the developing market for such machines in the industry’s golden growth years of 20th century. The appeal was typically to a small niche market, likely here to the rural Ontario market for, milk can, cooling equipment, Silver King, 1953.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Silver King’
Manufacturer: Silver King Cooler Co, Toronto
Make: Silver King
Model: SK6

Industrial Significance:
The market open to such small, start-up companies would be short lived, for with the advent of more sophisticated, hermetic system design, would come considerable increase in the engineering and capital resources needed.Most such successful ventures by small start-up companies were predicated on the co-operation of OEM component suppliers, here Brunner, as well as on good working partnership arrangements with other manufactures interested in pursuing the same markets and sharing the work, here likely the Woods Company of Quelph ,Ont, see item #029


Refrigeration machine ‘Elder’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.059

Applications engineering, like the science and technology it depend on for inspiration, is moved from time to time by creative new ideas, ones that fundamentally alter traditional approaches. The idea of engineering a refrigeration machine in which the compressor is placed on top of the motor, instead of beside it, in order to better fit the space available in a self-contained refrigerated fixture, is just such an inspirational idea, here by a small Ontario company in its distinctive orange, Robert Elder Ltd. Toronto, 1956.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Elder’
Manufacturer: Robert Elder Ltd., Toronto
Make: Frost Master
Model: DC25P

Industrial Significance:
Robert Elder, like Gilson [see item #056], both small Ontario niche manufactures, sought to differentiate themselves with unique, colours, daring to be different, separating themselves from the pack. The effect was to create quite a different corporate culture and image.


50 lb. SO2 compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.087

An early, crude piece of industrial looking machinery, this 50 lb. compressor was made in Brantford Ont. It comes as close to marking the beginning of the Canadian refrigeration manufacturing industry, as may be possible. Accompanied by the odour of sulphur dioxide, it would be tentatively accepted into Canadian households in the mid 1920’s with much trepidation and often discomfort., Frigo-Matic Ltd., Brampton Ont., 1926.



Item: 50 lb. SO2 compressor
Manufacturer: Frigo-Matic Ltd., Brantford Ont.,
Make: Frigo-Matic

Technical Significance:
Manufactured in Brantford, Ontario, it would help to establish Brantford as the “refrigeration capital of Canada”, starting in the early years of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
While the name “Frigo-Matic” would not echo down through the years, as have the names of other pioneers of the period such as Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it was none-the-less an important marker in the history of the Canadian HVACR industry.


50 lb. SO2 compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.088

An early, crude piece of industrial looking machinery, this 50 lb. compressor was made in Brantford Ont. It comes as close to marking the beginning of the Canadian refrigeration manufacturing industry, as may be possible. Accompanied by the odour of sulphur dioxide, it would be tentatively accepted into Canadian households in the mid 1920’s with much trepidation and often discomfort., Frigo-Matic Ltd., Brampton Ont., 1926.



Item: 50 lb. SO2 compressor
Manufacturer: Frigo-Matic Ltd., Brantford Ont.,
Make: Frigo-Matic

Technical Significance:
Manufactured in Brantford, Ontario, it would help to establish Brantford as the “refrigeration capital of Canada”, starting in the early years of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
While the name “Frigo-Matic” would not echo down through the years, as have the names of other pioneers of the period such as Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it was none-the-less an important marker in the history of the Canadian HVACR industry.


Early SO2 compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.089

An early, crude compressor, possibly part of the earliest commercial production by Kelvinator marketed in Canada. Like the Frigo-Matic [see #087 and 088] it marks the earliest, embryonic years of the Canadian refrigeration industry. It too would be tentatively accepted into Canadian households in the mid 1920’s with much trepidation and often discomfort. It brought new noises, foreign to home life and often the odour of sulphur dioxide throughout the household, as well as frequent visits from the refrigeration serviceman, 1926.



Item: Early SO2 compressor
Manufacturer: See above
Make: Possibly Kelvinator of Canada, reminiscent of their Model J production in the la
Model: Body casting ma

‘J’ style compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.090

Moving with the market, and with a new sense of what it would take to put a refrigerator in every Canadian household, the industry quickly moved beyond its crude beginnings. If the mechanical refrigeration machine, with clanking reciprocating compressor, was to be acceptabled into the homes of the nation, it must be much smoother, quieter and appear more friendly to the householder. The later “J” style Kelvinator, engineered for higher speed and greatly reduced mass [50 to 30 lbs.], would be a significant step along the way, Kelvinator of Canada, 1929.



Item: ‘J’ style compressor
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Later “J” style

Model ‘A’ compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.091

By the early 1930’s the Canadian refrigeration industry was moving beyond its embryonic years into a period of early development. Compressors were becoming much more “domesticated” in appearance, as pioneer manufacturers, such as Kelvinator, moved confidently into what appeared to be a promising, growing market. The Kelvinator Model A, still faster and smaller, would help to move the cabinet refrigerator into middle class and working Canadian homes [see #003], well beyond the exclusive realm of the country’s elite, Kelvinator 1932.



Item: Model ‘A’ compressor
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: A

Technical Significance:
This single cylinder, reciprocating compressor, of similar but significantly more advanced engineering than 5 years earlier, was small and high speed, by comparison [fly wheel diameter was reduced by Kelvinator from 14″ to 8.5″] and much quieter in operationBy now condensing units were also smaller, much more polished in appearance, and routinely designed for inclusion in the base of the household cabinet refrigerator. Although many would still be “remoted” in the basement by the local refrigeration mechanic.
Substantial manufacturing facilities came to maturity in this period to supply the specialized developmental needs of firms such as Kelvinator and Frigidaire. A significant new industrial sector had been born, patterned after the exploding automobile industry of the times.
These were the years, too, of the birth of the refrigeration trade in Canada. Manufacturers were dependent on informed and trained workers for installation and providing the all to frequent service needed – and knew it.
The reciprocating compressor, its engineering challenges not-with-standing, would remain largely the standard of the industry throughout the 20th century, although alternative rotary designs would appear on the market and be sustained for brief periods, from time to time.

Industrial Significance:
While designed for sulphur dioxide these compressors, built with amazing precision and to close tolerances for the period, would see life over the next 20 years and more, on refrigeration machines converted to new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants. The Model A would be a standard of the industry up to the late 1930’s and the advent of the sealed, “hermetic” motor compressor


Model ‘A’ compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.092

By the early 1930’s the Canadian refrigeration industry was moving beyond its embryonic years into a period of early development. Compressors were becoming much more “domesticated” in appearance, as pioneer manufacturers, such as Kelvinator, moved confidently into what appeared to be a promising, growing market. The Kelvinator Model A, still faster and smaller, would help to move the cabinet refrigerator into middle class and working Canadian homes [see #003], well beyond the exclusive realm of the country’s elite, Kelvinator 1932.



Item: Model ‘A’ compressor
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: A

Technical Significance:
This single cylinder, reciprocating compressor, of similar but significantly more advanced engineering than 5 years earlier, was small and high speed, by comparison [fly wheel diameter was reduced by Kelvinator from 14″ to 8.5″] and much quieter in operationBy now condensing units were also smaller, much more polished in appearance, and routinely designed for inclusion in the base of the household cabinet refrigerator. Although many would still be “remoted” in the basement by the local refrigeration mechanic.
Substantial manufacturing facilities came to maturity in this period to supply the specialized developmental needs of firms such as Kelvinator and Frigidaire. A significant new industrial sector had been born, patterned after the exploding automobile industry of the times.
These were the years, too, of the birth of the refrigeration trade in Canada. Manufacturers were dependent on informed and trained workers for installation and providing the all to frequent service needed – and knew it.
The reciprocating compressor, its engineering challenges not-with-standing, would remain largely the standard of the industry throughout the 20th century, although alternative rotary designs would appear on the market and be sustained for brief periods, from time to time.

Industrial Significance:
While designed for sulphur dioxide these compressors, built with amazing precision and to close tolerances for the period, would see life over the next 20 years and more, on refrigeration machines converted to new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants. The Model A would be a standard of the industry up to the late 1930’s and the advent of the sealed, “hermetic” motor compressor


Chlorinated hydrocarbon compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.093

Designed for the new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, and with advanced valve design and over all performance, this open style, belt driven compressor of the mid 1930’s, developed by Kelvinator for its household, cabinet refrigerators, would be about as good as a compressor gets. It provided the householder with a new sense of quiet that would be characteristic of the best of the industry’s offerings, prior to the imminent introduction of the sealed “hermetic” motor compressor, Kelvinator, 1935.



Item: Chlorinated hydrocarbon compressor
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Part number 186


Light weight compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.094

The 1920s and 30s were periods extra-ordinarily obsessed with the promise of the piston and the reciprocating machine, whether manifest in the steam or internal combustion engine or in the refrigeration compressor. Inventors were constantly at work attempting to improve its performance, while reducing its cost. In the refrigeration industry inventors and start-up companies worked assiduously, producing a wide range of engineering designs and market options, which together would significantly alter the lives of Canadians. With many distinguishing features, this early, petit, light weigh, unusual compressor design is by the Brunner Manufacturing Co. of Utica N.Y., circa 1927. [See also #057, item 402-19]



Item: Light weight compressor
Manufacturer: Brunner Manufacturing Co. of Utica N.Y.
Make: Brunner
Model: Unknown

Compressor ‘Brunner’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.095

By the latter half of the 1930’s there were an increasing number of manufacturers all bargaining for a spot in the now rapidly expanding, but increasingly over crowed North American, domestic refrigeration market. It left many of its founders such as Kelvinator and Frigidaire struggling for survival. It was soon evident that marketing, in addition to sound, innovative engineering was needed. The Brunner Manufacturing Co. would leave the domestic field to focus on its commercial and industrial markets, leaving behind this historic examples of a well engineered compressors, as marker of times past, Brunner, circa 1939. [see also #94 and Group 5.02 items]



Item: Compressor ‘Brunner’
Manufacturer: Brunner Manufacturing Co, Utica, N. Y.
Make: Brunner

Compressor ‘Moffat’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.096

A single cylinder refrigeration compressor of early mid 20th century vintage, with “Moffat Ltd” embossed on the head. Crafted after the clean lines of the “Chieftain” compressor, Tecumseh Products Co., with 11-inch flywheel in red, over painted in black. its genealogy is uncertain. A reminder of the proliferation of compressor manufacturers, near manufacturers and models that flooded the market for small, FHP, open system refrigeration compressors in the 1940, prior to the wide spread adoption of the hermetically sealed motor compressor assembly, “Moffat Ltd” 1945.



Item: Compressor ‘Moffat’
Make: “Moffat Ltd”, genealogy unknown
Model: Body casting no

Replacement compressor ‘Chieftain’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.097

CHIEFTAIN MID 20TH CENTURY,REPLACEMENT COMPRESSOR, TECUMSEH PRODUCTS, 1949: A single cylinder, FHP, open market, general replacement refrigeration compressor of the late 1940’s, heavily marked throughout the trade as a replacement for worn out original equipment, much of it by now 10 to 20 years into its life cycle. With vastly reduced size and weight, with forced feed lubrication, it was the result of superior engineering and much more precise manufacturing processes, than those 2 decades earlier. Many refrigeration machines bearing the names of Kelvinator and Frigidaire would live out their latter years with a Chieftain compressor upgrade.



Item: Replacement compressor ‘Chieftain’
Manufacturer: Tecumseh Products, Tecumseh Mich.
Make: Chieftain
Model: 500

Single cylinder compressor ‘Type A’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.098

UNIVERSAL COOLER, TYPE “A” COMPRESSOR, 1949: A single cylinder, FHP, original equipment manufacturer’s [OEM’s], refrigeration compressor of the mid 20th century, just prior to the wide spread adoption of hermetic motor compressors. Astonishingly small, lightweight, and operating at elevated speeds, it stands as an historic marker of the advancements in open system compressor design and performance by OEM’s over two decades from the late 1920’s.



Item: Single cylinder compressor ‘Type A’
Manufacturer: Universal Cooler, Brantford Ont.
Make: Universal Cooler
Model: Type A

Compressor ‘ILG’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.099

ILG, SINGE CYLINDER, FHP, REFRIGERATION COMPRESSOR, 1940: A remarkable, truly innovative, piece of refrigeration engineering of the early mid/ 20th century, from its cast aluminium body to its eccentric mechanism, valve design, and distinctive green, high gloss enamel finish, it was meant to raise eyebrows. Making use of the new materials and engineering know-how of the times, it is a reminder of the diversity and immense inventiveness of this period of rapid growth, all part of the rich heritage of HVACR’s engineering applications, on which the industry now builds.



Item: Compressor ‘ILG’

Twin cylinder compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.100

AN EARLY, FRIGIDAIRE, TWIN CYLINDER COMPRESSOR, FOR HOUSEHOLD CABINET REFRIGERATOR, 1929: equipped with a unique,massive, 14″, fan hub, “grooved”, flat belt flywheel, re-cast for “V” belt drive. The machine stands as an historic marker of the fundamental shift from flat to V belts in the first quarter of the 20th century, and the evolution in the engineering and manufacture of the V belt that made it possible.



Item: Twin cylinder compressor
Manufacturer: Frigidaire
Make: Frigidaire Corp. Dayton Ohio
Model: Frigidaire 1-1

Compressor ‘Model G’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.101

A FRIGIDAIRE, MODEL G, TWIN CYLINDER, 1/4 HP, ULTRA SLOW SPEED COMPRESSOR, 1929: With 16″ flywheel, operating at 350 RPM, this compressor, used in large cabinet refrigerators, would stand as a kind of “metaphor”, a shortcut in language, standing for an historic genre of high displacement, slow speed compressors for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, part of the design idiom of the time, dictated by conservative engineering preference, limited know-how, materials and manufacturing methods.



Item: Compressor ‘Model G’

Compressor ‘Model A’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.102

A FRIGIDAIRE, MODEL A, TWIN CYLINDER, 1/4 HP, COMPRESSOR, DISTINGUISHED, BY ITS FLAT SURFACED FLYWHEEL, DESIGNED FOR “V ” BELT DRIVE, 1931: With reduced, 12″, flat flywheel, engineered for V belt operation, this compressor stands as an historic marker of two simultaneous trends in refrigeration machine engineering, the shift to modest increases in machine speed and the cautious transition to fully engineered V belt drives, based on the company’s cumulative engineering experience of the day.



Item: Compressor ‘Model A’

Early, slow speed compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.103

AN EARLY, SLOW SPEED, HIGH DISPLACEMENT, FHP, REFRIGERATION COMPRESSOR OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURER, 1932: It serves to dramatise the rapid expansion of the refrigeration machinery manufacturing industry, with many new, now long forgotten, start-up companies in the early 1930’s. As well, it suggests the proliferation of design concepts and construction methods being explored collectively by the industry, during its early growth years.



Item: Early, slow speed compressor

1-cylinder refrigeration compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.202

ILG, SINGE CYLINDER, FHP, REFRIGERATION COMPRESSOR, 1940: A remarkable, truly innovative, piece of refrigeration engineering of the early mid/ 20th century, from its cast aluminium body to its eccentric mechanism, valve design, and distinctive green, high gloss enamel finish, it was meant to raise eyebrows. Making use of the new materials and engineering know-how of the times, it is a reminder of the diversity and immense inventiveness of this period of rapid growth, all part of the rich heritage of HVACR’s engineering applications, on which the industry now builds.



Item: 1-cylinder refrigeration compressor
Manufacturer: ILG Electric Ventilating Co, Chicogo, Ill, see note
Make: ILG
Model: RG-2


2-cylinder refrigeration compressor ‘G’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.203

A FRIGIDAIRE, MODEL G, TWIN CYLINDER, 1/4 HP, ULTRA SLOW SPEED COMPRESSOR, 1929: With 16″ flywheel, operating at 350 RPM, this compressor, used in large cabinet refrigerators, would stand as a kind of “metaphor”, a shortcut in language, standing for an historic genre of high displacement, slow speed compressors for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, part of the design idiom of the time, dictated by conservative engineering preference, limited know-how, materials and manufacturing methods.



Item: 2-cylinder refrigeration compressor ‘G’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: G
Features:
16 inch, light weight, pressed steel, riveted fly wheel, with fan hub, representing new approach in flywheel design by Frigidaire, in contrast the heavy cast iron fly wheel exemplified in item # 100

Technical Significance:
The slow speed, high displacement, engineering design idiom manifest here stands in sharp contrast to high (medium) speed, low displacement designs emerging about the same time, for example by Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario. Designed also for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, but with 8 inch flywheels, their engineering would allow them to operate at close to twice the speed, making for much more compact lighter weight refrigeration equipment. See for example items #090 to #093


2-cylinder refrigeration compressor ‘A’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.204

A FRIGIDAIRE, MODEL A, TWIN CYLINDER, 1/4 HP, COMPRESSOR, DISTINGUISHED, BY ITS FLAT SURFACED FLYWHEEL, DESIGNED FOR “V ” BELT DRIVE, 1931: With reduced, 12″, flat flywheel, engineered for V belt operation, this compressor stands as an historic marker of two simultaneous trends in refrigeration machine engineering, the shift to modest increases in machine speed and the cautious transition to fully engineered V belt drives, based on the company’s cumulative engineering experience of the day.



Item: 2-cylinder refrigeration compressor ‘A’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: A

Fractional HP compressor ‘C1’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.104

A FRACTIONAL HP COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, FRIGIDAIRE, MODEL C1 – With integral service valves, it would be representative of a new, early/mid 20th century, generation of smaller higher speed compressor design by Frigidaire for F12 refigerant. It would have a ubiquitous presence, although hidden away from view, in the then rapidly expanding chain of food stores and confectioneries across Canada.



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘C1’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Div. General Motors Corp
Make: Frigidaire
Model: C1

Twin cylinder compressor ‘SB’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.105

A FRACTIONAL HP, TWIN CYLINDER COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, KELVINATOR, MODEL SB, CIRCA 1948 – Now in its sunset years, as a result of substantial restructuring within the industry, this superb piece of design would in some ways represent the peak of the company’s engineering and manufacturing expertise, developed in over 40 years, by an acknowledged pioneer of the field. A moderate high speed machine designed for F12 refrigerant, it too would have a presence, hidden away from view, in the rapidly expanding network of food stores and confectioneries across Canada, starting in the 1940’s.



Item: Twin cylinder compressor ‘SB’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont.
Make: Kelvinator
Model: SB

Fractional HP compressor ‘A1001-5’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.106

A FRACTIONAL HP COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, TECUMSEH/CHIEFTAIN, MODEL A1001-5 – A mid 20th century, open market, twin cylinder compressor, available from wholesalers acoss the country, it would be found in a myriad of applications, as a popular replacement compressor, servicing Canada’s now growing after-market requirements for the maintenance of its increasing network refrigeration machine applications.



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘A1001-5’
Manufacturer: Tecumseh Products
Make: Tecumseh/ Chieftain
Model: A1001-5

Fractional HP compressor ‘DD’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.107

A FRACTIONAL HP, TWIN CYLINDER COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, Universal Cooler, Type DD, CIRCA 1952 – engineered and manufactured by a principal, original equipment manufacturer [OEM] of refrigeration machines during Canada’s “golden”, growth years of the industry. Representative of a new, mid 20th century, generation of smaller higher speed, open system compressor design for F12 refrigerant, it too would appear ubiquitously in the then rapidly expanding network of food stores and confectionery applications across Canada.



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘DD’
Manufacturer: Universal Cooler, Brantford Ontario
Make: Universal Cooler
Model: DD

High capacity compressor ‘FFN’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.108

A FRACTIONAL HP, HIGH CAPACITY COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, TECUMSEH, MODEL FFN, CIRCA 1955 – In an unusual gray/green finish, intended to suggest something new was afoot, this new generation of “high speed” compressors was equipped with 8 inch flywheel and twin V belt drive. It would turn the heads of experienced refrigeration mechanics in amazement, and herald the coming of high speed, direct drive hermetic motor compressors and the new precision and know-how required to engineer and manufacture them.



Item: High capacity compressor ‘FFN’
Manufacturer: Tecumseh Products, Tecumseh, Mich., District Offic
Make: Tecumseh
Model: FFN

Fractional HP compressor ‘SL’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.109

A FRACTIONAL HP, COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, PAR, MODEL SL,CIRCA 1949 – This compressor, with distinctive configuration, was to be found on the company’s open market refrigeration condensing units, widely available through refrigeration wholesalers in the middle years of the 20th century. Unremarkable in many ways, it would find its way in a number of small “designer built”, trade, applications, including farm milk coolers.



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘SL’
Manufacturer: Par Compressor Div. Lynch Corporation, Toledo, Ohi
Make: Par
Model: SL

Industrial Significance:
The open market manufacturers of refrigeration machinery of the period [such as Tecumseh Par and Bruner] would be a critical component of the Canadian refrigeration industry. They would be the direct line of equipment supply to the network of small, independent refrigeration mechanics that emerged by mid century. Their products, not tied to dealerships or franchises, would be found in a myriad of small applications such as farm milk cooling, in what was then a largely rural population of small, independent milk producers across Canada.
During this period Par equipment was marketed in Canada through R and E Thermal controls [Railway and Engineering], through their net work of operations across Canada
The Lynch Corporation, would go on to build a serviceable hermetic motor compressor, with much appeal to the trade, for its serviceability


Fractional HP compressor ‘SM’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.110

A FRACTIONAL HP, COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, PAR, MODEL SM,CIRCA 1949 – This compressor, similar in outwards appearance to the Par SL [see #3109], was also to be found on the company’s open market refrigeration condensing units, widely available through refrigeration wholesalers in the middle years of the 20th century. Unremarkable in many ways, it would find its way in a number of small “designer built”, trade, applications, including farm milk coolers.



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘SM’
Manufacturer: Par Compressor Div. Lynch Corporation, Toledo, Ohi
Make: Par
Model: SM

Industrial Significance:
The open market manufacturers of refrigeration machinery of the period [such as Tecumseh Par and Bruner] would be a critical component of the Canadian refrigeration industry. They would be the direct line of equipment supply to the network of small, independent refrigeration mechanics that emerged by mid century. Their products, not tied to dealerships or franchises, would be found in a myriad of small applications such as farm milk cooling, in what was then a largely rural population of small, independent milk producers across Canada.
During this period Par equipment was marketed in Canada through R and E Thermal controls [Railway and Engineering], through their net work of operations across Canada
The Lynch Corporation, would go on to build a serviceable hermetic motor compressor, with much appeal to the trade, for its serviceability


Fractional HP compressor ‘SM’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.111

A FRACTIONAL HP, COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, PAR, MODEL SM,CIRCA 1949 – This compressor [like #110], similar in outwards appearance to the Par SL [see #109], was also to be found on the company’s open market refrigeration condensing units, widely available through refrigeration wholesalers in the middle years of the 20th century. Unremarkable in many ways, it would find its way in a number of small “designer built”, trade, applications, including farm milk coolers.



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘SM’
Manufacturer: Par Compressor Div. Lynch Corporation, Toledo, Ohi
Make: Par
Model: SM

Industrial Significance:
The open market manufacturers of refrigeration machinery of the period [such as Tecumseh Par and Bruner] would be a critical component of the Canadian refrigeration industry. They would be the direct line of equipment supply to the network of small, independent refrigeration mechanics that emerged by mid century. Their products, not tied to dealerships or franchises, would be found in a myriad of small applications such as farm milk cooling, in what was then a largely rural population of small, independent milk producers across Canada.
During this period Par equipment was marketed in Canada through R and E Thermal controls [Railway and Engineering], through their net work of operations across Canada
The Lynch Corporation, would go on to build a serviceable hermetic motor compressor, with much appeal to the trade, for its serviceability


Fractional HP compressor ‘5997’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.112

A FRACTIONAL HP, RELATIVELY CRUDELY FASHIONED COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, Bruner, MODEL 5997, CIRCA 1947 – A Bruner compressor with unique head plate markings, it would be part of a genre, which while less sophisticated in its engineering than many others of the period, would be widely marketed to the trade and become a work-horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry – to be found in food stores, confectionery and farm milk cooling applications, during the middle years of the 20th century. [see also #113, 114, 115]



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘5997’
Manufacturer: Bruner Manufacturing Co., Utica N.Y.
Make: Bruner
Model: 5997
Features:
Equipped with Detroit Lubricator, bracket mounted Low pressure control, Model 250 , with original wiring harness.

Fractional HP farm compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.113

A FRACTIONAL HP COMPRESSOR EMPLOYED FOR FARM MILK CAN COOLING, BRUNER, MODEL UNMARKED, CIRCA 1948 – This unique compressor, with clearly documented genealogy, was employed on a farm milk cooler application, where, its eccentric mechanism having failed, was replaced by a Kelvinator model SB [see #105]. Part of a larger genre, Bruner was widely marketed to the trade to become a work-horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry, in its time. [see also #113, 114, 115]



Item: Fractional HP farm compressor
Manufacturer: Unmarked
Make: Bruner
Model: Unmarked

Fractional HP compressor ‘5893’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.114

A FRACTIONAL HP COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, BRUNER, MODEL 5893, CIRCA 1947 – Part of the long line of compressors and condensing units, it would exemplify the company’s engineering and manufacturing through much of the middle years of the 20th century, where it would become a work-horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry – its products to be found in food stores, confectionery and farm milk cooling applications across the country [see also #113, 114, 115]



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘5893’
Manufacturer: Unmarked
Make: Bruner
Model: 5893

Fractional HP compressor ‘4491’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.115

A FRACTIONAL HP COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, BRUNER, MODEL 4491, CIRCA 1947 – Similar to #114, it would be part of the long line of compressors and condensing units. It would exemplify the company’s engineering and manufacturing through much of the middle years of the 20th century, where it would become a work-horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry – its products to be found in food stores, confectionery and farm milk cooling applications across the country [see also #113, 114, 115]



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘4491’
Manufacturer: Unknown
Make: Bruner
Model: 4491

3-5 HP compressor ‘T6-53’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.116

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (3 TO 5 HP), BRUNER CORPORATION, MODEL T6-53, Circa 1953 – A weighty and relatively crude, open system compressor, widely employed in food store applications, prior to the adoption of sealed hermetic refrigeration machines in this capacity range. Following the development of the large food chains throughout Canada in the 1950’s and 60’s, these machines would be found hidden away in machine rooms across the country, helping to provide Canadian’s with their first large food store shopping experience.



Item: 3-5 HP compressor ‘T6-53’
Manufacturer: Bruner Corporation, Port Hope Ontario
Make: Bruner
Model: T6-53

2-3 HP compressor ‘R?’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.117

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (2 TO 3 HP), BY FRIGIDAIRE, possibly MODEL R, CIRCA 1942 – it would be representative of a new generation of open system refrigeration compressors for F12 refrigerant, which began to emerge in the late 1930’s. With a whopping 17 inch, twin V belt fly wheel, in formed and riveted steel plate, it followed the slow speed, high displacement compressor design idiom preferred by Frigidaire in the period. It would come to stand as an historic marker of the end of an epic era in refrigeration machinery engineering.



Item: 2-3 HP compressor ‘R?’
Manufacturer: Frigidair Div. General Motors Corporation
Make: Frigidaire
Model: R [see note]

1-3 HP compressor ‘6R?’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.118

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (1 TO 3 HP), FOR SULPHUR DIOXIDE REFRIGERANT BY FRIGIDAIRE, POSSIBLY MODEL 6R, CIRCA 1936- with 16 inch flywheel, it would be come to represent the company’s last years of design and production of slow speed, high displacement, open system refrigeration compressors for S02 refrigerant.



Item: 1-3 HP compressor ‘6R?’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Div. General Motors Corporation
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Possibly 6R (se


2-3 HP compressor ‘R?’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.119

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (2 TO 3 HP), BY FRIGIDAIRE, POSSIBLY PART OF THEIR MODEL R SERIES, CIRCA 1942 – it would also be part of the company’s new generation of open system refrigeration compressors for F12 refrigerant, which began to emerge in the late 1930’s [see also #117]. With a 17 inch, twin V belt fly wheel, in formed and riveted steel plate, it also followed the slow speed, high displacement compressor design preferred by Frigidaire in the period, and would come to stand as an historic marker of the end of an epic era in refrigeration machinery engineering.



Item: 2-3 HP compressor ‘R?’
Manufacturer: Frigidair Div. General Motors Corporation
Make: Frigidaire
Model: 6R (see note)

1 1/2-3 HP compressor ‘5208’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.120

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (1 1/2 TO 3 HP), BY KELVINATOR, MARKED # 5208, CIRCA 1928 – With water cooled head and 17 inch, 25 lb. flywheel, in Kelvinator red [possibly not the original], it would be representative of the company’s early years, as well as those of the industry, in the design and production of such refrigeration machines, opening up an new epic period, providing for the first time automatic, mechanically cooled, commercial food storage for Canadians.



Item: 1 1/2-3 HP compressor ‘5208’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator
Features:
– water cooled head- attachment bracket for low pressure control

1 1/2-3 HP compressor ‘5208’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.121

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (1 1/2 TO 3 HP), BY KELVINATOR, MARKED # 5208, CIRCA 1928 – With water cooled head it would be representative of the company’s early years, as well as those of the industry, in the design and production of such refrigeration machines, opening up an new epic period, providing for the first time automatic, mechanically cooled commercial food storage for Canadians.



Item: 1 1/2-3 HP compressor ‘5208’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator

1-2 HP compressor ‘T’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.122

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (1 TO 2 HP), BY INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER, MODEL T, CIRCA 1948 – A distinctive compressor in design and styling, marketed by a “come-lately” company to the field of refrigeration machinery, a well known supplier to the Canadian agricultural sector, hoping to secure a market share in the then rapidly expanding, specialised niche market for farm milk can cooling.



Item: 1-2 HP compressor ‘T’
Manufacturer: International Harvester Co. , likely a stencil lin
Make: International Harvester
Model: T

Industrial Significance:
In the 1940’s through early 60’s the farm milk cooler trade in Canada, was a strong market for refrigeration equipment. With many small milk producers scattered over the country side, prior to the dramatic changes starting in the 1960’s which would consolidate the industry, weeding the small farm production unit.


2-3 HP compressor ‘A’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.123

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (2 TO 3 HP), BY UNIVERSAL COOLER, TYPE A, CIRCA 1952 – With 12 inch flywheel, designed for twin V belt drive, this twin cylinder, open system compressor, among the last of a breed, would mark the movement to increasingly higher compression speeds, a precursor of the then imminent move to direct drive, high speed hermetic motor compressor engineering.



Item: 2-3 HP compressor ‘A’
Manufacturer: Universal cooler
Make: Universal Cooler
Model: A

Massive 3-5 HP compressor ‘G’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.124

A MASSIVE, INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (3 TO 5 HP), BY KELVINATOR, Model G, CIRCA 1955 – This 150 lb, compressor [refrigeration by the ton], with water cooled head, would be representative of the company’s last years in the engineering and production of refrigeration compressors, as the market for refrigeration machinery was dramatically restructured both by changes in the technology and new comers to the field of refrigeration engineering and manufacture.



Item: Massive 3-5 HP compressor ‘G’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, UK
Make: Kelvinator
Model: G

Air cooled replacement condenser

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.066

An after-market, replacement air-cooled condenser manufactured for household, cabinet refrigerators and ice cream cabinets using anhydrous sulphur dioxide refrigerant. Fabricated with steel frame, 1/4inch steel tube and soldered, serpentine fin in heavy tin plate, with brazed, extended, sealed, 1/4 inch copper pigtails and SAE flare nuts, supplied by Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario to their dealers, 1938.



Item: Air cooled replacement condenser
Manufacturer: Likely Kelvinator of Canada, see bibliographic ref
Make: Likely Kelvinator of Canada, see bibliographic reference
Model: see bibliograph

Technical Significance:
Kelvinator of Canada, in their 1948 parts catalogue [see bibliographic reference] show a series of such replacement condensers for ice cream cabinets and domestic refrigerator applications. Condensers were “consumables” in the period when the major refrigerant in use was sulphur dioxide, highly corrosive by nature. Much construction was in tinned steel with tin coatings subject to break down.Considerable damage was also the result of fan blades coming loose on their motor shafts and cutting through the condenser wall. The effect for the owner was both catastrophic and chaotic. The machines would contain sufficient noxious refrigerant to quickly fill the house or store, leading to frantic search for men to remove the offending unit and a call to the refrigeration service man, often several hours away.
The serpentine, soldered fin construction represented a 2 nd or 3 rd generation of fin engineering, with higher conductivity and thermal performance, to earlier generations with simple un-secured plate fins. The manufacturing process for producing the fins and soldering them in place was a mark of the increasing sophistication of Canadian manufacturing methods, in place by the end of the 1930’s.
As manufacturing methods evolved the Canadian industry would move to non-ferrous tube and fin construction [copper], see code no. 6.02-7, and eventually to non-corrosive refrigerants, including methyl chloride and Freon 12. But for now this construction genre remained as the state of the art, an important snapshot in time.
See also items 6.01-2, 6.01-3, 6.02-7, 6.02-8


Two pass replacement condenser

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.067

Staggered, two pass, after-market, replacement air-cooled condenser manufactured for household, cabinet refrigerators and ice cream cabinets using anhydrous sulphur dioxide refrigerant. Fabricated with steel frame, 1/4inch steel tube and soldered, serpentine fin in heavy tin plate, with brazed, extended, 24″, sealed, 1/4 inch copper pigtails and SAE flare nuts, supplied by Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario to their dealers, 1938.



Item: Two pass replacement condenser
Manufacturer: Likely Kelvinator of Canada, see bibliographic ref
Make: Likely Kelvinator of Canada, see bibliographic reference

Technical Significance:
Kelvinator of Canada, in their 1948 parts catalogue [see bibliographic reference] show a series of such replacement condensers for ice cream cabinets and domestic refrigerator applications. Condensers were “consumables” in the period when the major refrigerant in use was sulphur dioxide, highly corrosive by nature. Much construction was in tinned steel with tin coatings subject to break down.Considerable damage was also the result of fan blades coming loose on their motor shafts and cutting through the condenser wall. The effect for the owner was both catastrophic and chaotic. The machines would contain sufficient noxious refrigerant to quickly fill the house or store, leading to frantic search for men to remove the offending unit and a call to the refrigeration service man, often several hours away.
The serpentine, soldered fin construction represented a 2 nd or 3 rd generation of fin engineering, with higher conductivity and thermal performance, to earlier generations with simple un-secured plate fins. The manufacturing process for producing the fins and soldering them in place was a mark of the increasing sophistication of Canadian manufacturing methods, in place by the end of the 1930’s.
The staggered double pass design represents an added level of complexity in manufacturing processes
As manufacturing methods evolved the Canadian industry would move to non-ferrous tube and fin construction [copper], see code no. 6.02-7, and eventually to non-corrosive refrigerants, including methyl chloride and Freon 12. But for now this construction genre remained as the state of the art, an important snapshot in time.
See also items 6.01-2, 6.01-3, 6.02-7, 6.02-8, together they profile the evolution of the tube and fin, air-cooled condenser for FHP refrigeration machines in Canada


OEM condensers

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.068

A set of three early, “original equipment manufacturer” (OEM), fin and tube, air-cooled condensers of varying capacities, from the 1930’s, representing a range of Canadian OEM engineering and fabrication practices in ferrous and non ferrous materials (copper and aluminium) for use on refrigeration machines, with anhydrous sulphur dioxide refrigerant, 1930’s.



Item: OEM condensers
Manufacturer: 1) Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario2) Kelvinat
Make: 1) Kelvinator2) Kelvinator3) Gilson

Technical Significance:
Simple plate fins, engineered for a press fit on the condenser tube, as in examples 1 and 3 were relatively easily achieved. The serpentine, soldered fin construction in example 2 represented a 2 nd or 3 rd generation of fin engineering, with higher conductivity and thermal performance. The manufacturing process for producing the fins and soldering them in place was a mark of the increasing sophistication of Canadian manufacturing methods, in place by the end of the 1930’s. As manufacturing methods evolved the Canadian industry would move to non-ferrous tube and fin construction [copper], see code no. 6.02-7, and eventually to non-corrosive refrigerants, including methyl chloride and Freon 12. But for now this construction genre remained as the state of the art, an important snapshot in time.
See also items 6.01-2, 6.01-3, 6.02-7, 6.02-8, together they profile the evolution of the tube and fin, air-cooled condenser for FHP refrigeration machines in Canada


Condenser assembly ‘SO2’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.060

An historic, elemental, coiled tube, static refrigerant condenser assembly, by Frigidaire, from the early years of the low pressure, commercial refrigeration industry in Canada – originally used on Frigidaire model K, cabinet style, condensing unit, using SO2 refrigerant, see Item #051, code 4.02-13. The company later produced a modernisation kits to convert these S02 machines to forced air, tube and fin, radiator style condensing, See code 6.02-5, Frigidaire 1929.



Item: Condenser assembly ‘SO2’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Electric Refrigeration Products, Genera
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Model K condens

SO2 refrigerant receiver

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.061

A vertical refrigerant receiver for low-pressure refrigeration machines, as found in Canadian food stores, restaurants and institutional applications in the early years of the 20th century. Painted in machinery black of the period, and holding 20 lbs. of noxious, anhydrous sulphur dioxide, it was fabricated in heavy, rolled steel plate with brazed steel end plates, and equipped with half inch brass inlet and quarter inch liquid outlet shut off valves for SAE flare connections, Frigidaire, 1929.



Item: SO2 refrigerant receiver
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire

Technical Significance:
An example of the significant over design that characterised much of the engineering of early refrigeration machines, following the introduction of low-pressure refrigerants such as SO2. While the pressures were substantially lower than with ammonia refrigerants, manufactures, with little engineering data to draw on, still used similar high-pressure designed vestals. This practice would quickly change, however, to light rolled steel construction. Containing enough noxious SO2 to clear the house and the neighbourhood, the manufacturer, for now, wished to take no chances.


Water-cooled condenser and receiver

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.062

A vertical water-cooled condenser and receiver for low-pressure refrigeration machines, as found in Canadian food stores, restaurants and institutional applications in the early years of the 20th century. Painted in machinery black of the period, and holding 20 lbs. of noxious, anhydrous sulphur dioxide, it was fabricated in heavy, rolled steel plate with brazed steel end plates, and equipped with 3/8″ IPS water inlet with 1/2 union, 3/8″ SAE flare water outlet, and refrigerant valves – including 1/2″ SAE flare, hot gas inlet and 1/4″ SAE flare, liquid outlet, Frigidaire, 1929.



Item: Water-cooled condenser and receiver
Manufacturer: Frigidaire, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire

Technical Significance:
An example of the significant over design that characterised much of the engineering of early refrigeration machines, following the introduction of low-pressure refrigerants such as SO2. While the pressures were substantially lower than with ammonia refrigerants, manufactures, with little engineering data to draw on, still used similar high-pressure designed vestals. This practice would quickly change, however, to light rolled steel construction. Containing enough noxious SO2 to clear the house and the neighbourhood, the manufacturer, for now, wished to take no chances.


Horizontal refrigerant receiver

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.063

An horizontal refrigerant receiver for low-pressure refrigeration machines, as found in Canadian food stores, restaurants and institutional applications in the early years of the 20th century. Painted in machinery black of the period, and holding 25 lbs. of noxious, anhydrous sulphur dioxide, it was fabricated in heavy, rolled steel plate with brazed steel bellied end plates, and equipped with 3/8 inch brass inlet and quarter inch liquid outlet shut off valves for SAE flare connections, as well as welded mounting brackets for four point bolt mount, Frigidaire, 1929.



Item: Horizontal refrigerant receiver
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire

Technical Significance:
The use of steel, bellied end plates is a mark of increasing sophistication in strength of materials engineering and manufacturing methods, contrasted with the flat end plates in items 061 and 062. An example of the significant over design that characterised much of the engineering of early refrigeration machines, following the introduction of low-pressure refrigerants such as SO2.
While the pressures were substantially lower than with ammonia refrigerants, manufactures, with little engineering data to draw on, still used similar high-pressure designed vestals. This practice would quickly change, however, to light rolled steel construction. Containing enough noxious SO2 to clear the house and the neighbourhood, the manufacturer, for now, wished to take no chances.


Condenser modernization kit

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.064

A “modernization” kit, by Frigidaire for replacing the copper tube, coiled, static air condensers on their Model O refrigeration machine with a forces air, fin and tube, radiator style, high efficiency condenser. Constructed of heavily tinned copper tubing, for use with corrosive, noxious anhydrous SO2, it used heavy steel fins, coated with gloss black enamel, a truly remarkable piece of re-engineering for the “after market” of the 1940′, Frigidaire, 1941.



Item: Condenser modernization kit
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Frigidaire, Uni

Technical Significance:
A remarkable snap shot in time, demonstrating manufacturing and engineering practices for operation in the corrosive atmosphere of anhydrous sulphur dioxide, including the use of costly, heavy, tinned, coated copper and an enamelled steel case and fins. The enamelling of fins would represent a significant bow to the issue of corrosion resistance at the cost of lower heat transfer.The streamlined air shroud is an indication of the increasingly engineering sophistication in airflow design, as well as manufacturing methods.
The high gloss sprayed finish is also a significant marker of the times, in contrast to the crude machine black finishes of items 061, 062, and 063, for example. Duco enamels and the spray techniques for applying them industrially was a significant technological advancement of the period.

Industrial Significance:
Of significance also is the commitment of Frigidaire to the continued use of anhydrous Sulphur dioxide well into the 1940’s. It was a period in which much of the industry looked to system upgrades adapting then for use with the new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, non-corrosive and non-noxious.


Condenser modernization kit

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.065

A “modernization” kit, by Frigidaire for replacing the copper tube, coil, static air condensers on their Model K, enclosed, cabinet model, refrigeration machine [See 1tem 051]with a forces air, fin and tube, radiator style, high efficiency condenser. Constructed of heavily tinned copper tubing, for use with corrosive, noxious anhydrous SO2, it used heavy steel fins, coated with gloss black enamel, a truly remarkable piece of re-engineering for the “after market” of the 1940′, Frigidaire, 1941.



Item: Condenser modernization kit
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Frigidaire Unit

Technical Significance:
A remarkable snap shot in time, demonstrating manufacturing and engineering practices for operation in the corrosive atmosphere of anhydrous sulphur dioxide, including the use of costly, heavy, tinned, coated copper and an enamelled steel case and fins. The enamelling of fins would represent a significant bow to the issue of corrosion resistance at the cost of lower heat transfer.The streamlined air shroud is an indication of the increasingly engineering sophistication in airflow design, as well as manufacturing methods.
The high gloss sprayed finish is also a significant marker of the times, in contrast to the crude machine black finishes of items 061, 062, and 063, for example. Duco enamels and the spray techniques for applying them industrially was a significant technological advancement of the period.

Industrial Significance:
Of significance also is the commitment of Frigidaire to the continued use of anhydrous sulphur dioxide well into the 1940’s. It was a period in which much of the industry looked to system upgrades adapting then for use with the new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, non-corrosive and non-noxious.


Two pass replacement condenser

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.069

A handsome, staggered, two pass, after-market, replacement air-cooled condenser manufactured for small, FHP commercial application refrigeration machines, employing chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants [methyl chloride or Freon 12]. Fabricated with tin plated steel frame, 3/8 inch copper tube with aluminised return bends and heavily swaged copper, plate fins, it was likely supplied by Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario to their dealers, circa 1940.



Item: Two pass replacement condenser

Technical Significance:
See also items 6.01-1, 6.01-2, 6.01-3, 6.02-7, 6.02-8, together they profile the evolution of the tube and fin, air-cooled condenser for FHP refrigeration machines in Canada


Condenser & receiver assembly

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.070

An all steel, mid 20th century, forced air, refrigerant condenser and receiver assembly, representing a world change and an epic period of transition in the engineering design and construction of refrigeration machines, making possible a new range of offerings by Canadian grocers, bakeries and restaurateurs. It was engineered for a new generation of non-noxious, non-corrosive refrigerants, the chlorinated hydrocarbons, by a new generation of equipment manufacturers, Chieftain, Tecumseh Products, 1951.



Item: Condenser & receiver assembly
Manufacturer: Tecumseh Products, Tecumseh, Mich, USA
Make: Chieftain
Model: FS16-1L

Technical Significance:
By the 1940’s times had changed and changed greatly, as a result of the introduction of hydrocarbon refrigerants, largely at the time, methyl chloride and Freon 12. The new refrigerants were non-noxious and non-corrosive, allowing the use of less expensive steel tubing for condensers. The thermodynamic properties of the refrigerants required less volume of liquid in circulation, leading to smaller refrigerant receivers. The design of pressure vessels was also better understood allowing for safe, lighter weight, more economic and environmentally safe construction.By way of contrast see item 061, classification code 6.02-2, for a receiver for sulphur dioxide, in rolled steel plate, 7 inches dia, 16 inches high, weighing 25 lbs, compare, 3 inches in dia, 7 inches high, in pressed steel, weighing 3 lbs for F12, both of similar horsepower.
Hard on the heals of this epic change in the nature of refrigeration machines, based on the development of hydrocarbon refrigerants, was another engineering revolution now well on the way and gathering momentum. So called “conventional” refrigeration machines, open systems with separate motor and belt driven compressor would soon largely disappear, in FHP capacities. They would be replaced by the end of the 1950’s by “hermetic” units and compressors, in which the motor and compressor were sealed in a single enclosure, making possible yet another generation of lighter weight, more efficient refrigeration machines [see item 039, classification group 4.01-10]


Refrigeration pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.001

An early, “low side” refrigeration system pressure control, for controlling evaporator temperature, equipped with 5 point, manual adjustable setting. Devised by Frigidaire in the 1920’s, it was to be a viable alternative to direct temperature-sensing technology, then in a crude stage of development, Frigidaire, Circa 1926. One of a rare set of 5 controllers, demonstrating the range of applications devised by Frigidaire, the various stages of deterioration expected, due to natural use, misuse, abuse and abandonment.



Item: Refrigeration pressure control
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Appeared in a n
Features:
Some models, such as this one, used on household cabinet refrigerators, included a front-mounted, “cold control”, with off position and 5 temperature settings. This allowed the owners to adjust the temperature of the refrigerator, over a limited range of suction pressures without calling the service mechanic.

Technical Significance:
The significance of the device lies in the immense ingenuity it demonstrates in the period, in conceiving ways to automatically start and stop a refrigeration system at a predetermined temperature.

For it was a time in which little was known and understood about automatic sensors and electric control and regulation devices. The very notion of a mechanical device which would start and stop with out the touch of human hand was worrying. For much of the population of the time was brought up to be wary of gadgets of all varieties, often portrayed as mere hoaxes, possibly dangerous, and not to be trusted.


Refrigeration pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.002

An early, “low side” refrigeration system pressure control, for controlling evaporator temperature, equipped with 5 point, manual adjustable setting. Devised by Frigidaire in the 1920’s, it was to be a viable alternative to direct temperature-sensing technology, then in a crude stage of development, Frigidaire, Circa 1926. One of a rare set of 5 controllers, demonstrating the range of applications devised by Frigidaire, the various stages of deterioration expected, due to natural use, misuse, abuse and abandonment.



Item: Refrigeration pressure control
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Appeared in a n
Features:
Some models, such as this one, used on household cabinet refrigerators, included a front-mounted, “cold control”, with off position and 5 temperature settings. This allowed the owners to adjust the temperature of the refrigerator, over a limited range of suction pressures without calling the service mechanic.

Technical Significance:
The significance of the device lies in the immense ingenuity it demonstrates in the period, in conceiving ways to automatically start and stop a refrigeration system at a predetermined temperature.

For it was a time in which little was known and understood about automatic sensors and electric control and regulation devices. The very notion of a mechanical device which would start and stop with out the touch of human hand was worrying. For much of the population of the time was brought up to be wary of gadgets of all varieties, often portrayed as mere hoaxes, possibly dangerous, and not to be trusted.


Refrigeration pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.003

An early, “low side” refrigeration system pressure control, for controlling evaporator temperature, equipped with 5 point, manual adjustable setting. Devised by Frigidaire in the 1920’s, it was to be a viable alternative to direct temperature-sensing technology, then in a crude stage of development, Frigidaire, Circa 1926. One of a rare set of 5 controllers, demonstrating the range of applications devised by Frigidaire, the various stages of deterioration expected, due to natural use, misuse, abuse and abandonment.



Item: Refrigeration pressure control
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Appeared in a n

Technical Significance:
The significance of the device lies in the immense ingenuity it demonstrates in the period, in conceiving ways to automatically start and stop a refrigeration system at a predetermined temperature.

For it was a time in which little was known and understood about automatic sensors and electric control and regulation devices. The very notion of a mechanical device which would start and stop with out the touch of human hand was worrying. For much of the population of the time was brought up to be wary of gadgets of all varieties, often portrayed as mere hoaxes, possibly dangerous, and not to be trusted.


Refrigeration pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.004

An early, “low side” refrigeration system pressure control, for controlling evaporator temperature, equipped with 5 point, manual adjustable setting. Devised by Frigidaire in the 1920’s, it was to be a viable alternative to direct temperature-sensing technology, then in a crude stage of development, Frigidaire, Circa 1926. One of a rare set of 5 controllers, demonstrating the range of applications devised by Frigidaire, the various stages of deterioration expected, due to natural use, misuse, abuse and abandonment.



Item: Refrigeration pressure control
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Appeared in a n
Features:
Oiling instructions for the refrigeration condensing unit are set out on gold transfer on front face of control, a clear reminder of the critical need for regular lubrication of electric motors of the period. Also shown are the instructions for fusing, a mystery to many home owners of the times.

Technical Significance:
The significance of the device lies in the immense ingenuity it demonstrates in the period, in conceiving ways to automatically start and stop a refrigeration system at a predetermined temperature.

For it was a time in which little was known and understood about automatic sensors and electric control and regulation devices. The very notion of a mechanical device which would start and stop with out the touch of human hand was worrying. For much of the population of the time was brought up to be wary of gadgets of all varieties, often portrayed as mere hoaxes, possibly dangerous, and not to be trusted.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.005

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated automatic temperature control [thermostat] with fixed factory setting, equipped with glycerine immersion cup for household cabinet refrigerator, senses evaporator suction line temperature, late Model E, Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont. Circa 1925

One of a rare matched set of six Kelvinator Model E thermostats profiling the evolution of one of the earliest commercially marketed, self-regulating, temperature sensing, electric motor control devices. The model was offered by Kelvinator in various forms from 1923 through to about 1927. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 3) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 4) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-2A, B, C, D, E, F.; ID # 129, 130, and 138 to 141.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan, Div of Electric Refr
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Late Model E w

Industrial Significance:
Kelvinator’s model E thermostat [temperature control], engineered for their early series household, cabinet refrigerators, is a unique study in the design and manufacture of complex automatic, analogue, mechanical switching in the early 1920’s.

Contrasting the design of the Model E thermostat, with those of some 30 years later [See R20], provides a dramatic example of the principle of progressive, engineering simplification – usually hard won.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.006

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated automatic temperature control [thermostat] with fixed factory setting, equipped with glycerine immersion cup for household cabinet refrigerator, senses evaporator suction line temperature, late Model E, Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont. Circa 1925.

One of a rare matched set of six Kelvinator Model E thermostats profiling the evolution of one of the earliest commercially marketed, self-regulating, temperature sensing, electric motor control devices. The mode was offered by Kelvinator in various forms from 1923 through to about 1927. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 3) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 4) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-2A, B, C, D, E, F.; ID # 129, 130, and 138 to 141.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan, Div of Electric Refr
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Late Model E w

Technical Significance:
Possibly the 1st commercially produced electric thermostat for mechanical, household, cabinet refrigerators.

Industrial Significance:
Kelvinator’s model E thermostat [temperature control], engineered for their early series household, cabinet refrigerators, is a unique study in the design and manufacture of complex automatic, analogue, mechanical switching in the early 1920’s.

Contrasting the design of the Model E thermostat, with those of some 30 years later [See R20], provides a dramatic example of the principle of progressive, engineering simplification – usually hard won.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.007

An early, adjustable, hydraulic bellows actuated control, totally enclosed in 1930’s, modern Bakelite housing, senses evaporator surface temperature, Model R, made for Kelvinator, by Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co. Columbus, Ohio [A.R.C.B. Co], Circa 1931.

One of a rare matched set of six Ranco Model R controllers profiling the evolution of this early self-regulating temperature sensing electric motor control device, likely over several years from 1929 through to the early 1930’s. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) design adaptations made as required for different models and styles of Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, 3) different approaches to user friendly and convenient manual temperature setting by the householder, 4) the application of different mounts and accessories, 4) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 5) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 6) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-3A, B, C, D, E, F. ID # 131 to # 136.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.
Make: For Kelvinator, by Ranco
Model: RA-10 [see note
Features:
Chrome plated, push-pull, control arm, with Bakelite handle; See Items 7.01-3 B to G for design and application variations involving special features

Technical Significance:
The Model R series thermostat represented a remarkable engineering achievement in 6 or 7 years. A compact design, totally enclosed control, crafted in, then, modern two tone, Bakelite, dielectric material. One third of the size and weight of the Kelvinator E, it was a user friendly, fully adjustable thermostat.

Industrial Significance:
The thermostat also marks the early entrance of the Ranco name into the refrigeration and air conditioning temperature control business, supporting the major equipment manufacturers of the period. The Ranco name would survive for many years as a leader in the HVACR control field.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.008

An early, adjustable, hydraulic bellows actuated control, totally enclosed in 1930’s, modern Bakelite housing, senses evaporator surface temperature, Model R, made for Kelvinator, by Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co. Columbus, Ohio [A.R.C.B. Co], Circa 1931

One of a rare matched set of six Ranco Model R controllers profiling the evolution of this early self-regulating temperature sensing electric motor control device, likely over several years from 1929 through to the early 1930’s. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) design adaptations made as required for different models and styles of Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, 3) different approaches to user friendly and convenient manual temperature setting by the householder, 4) the application of different mounts and accessories, 4) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 5) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 6) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-3A, B, C, D, E, F. ID # 131 to # 136.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.
Make: For Kelvinator, by Ranco
Model: RA-10 [see note
Features:
Tinned, steel wire bracket mount; See Items 7.01-3 B to G for design and application variations involving special features

Technical Significance:
The Model R series thermostat represented a remarkable engineering achievement in 6 or 7 years. A compact design, totally enclosed control, crafted in, then, modern two tone, Bakelite, dielectric material. One third of the size and weight of the Kelvinator E, it was a user friendly, fully adjustable thermostat.

Industrial Significance:
The thermostat also marks the early entrance of the Ranco name into the refrigeration and air conditioning temperature control business, supporting the major equipment manufacturers of the period. The Ranco name would survive for many years as a leader in the HVACR control field.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.009

An early, adjustable, hydraulic bellows actuated control, totally enclosed in 1930’s, modern Bakelite housing, senses evaporator surface temperature, Model R, made for Kelvinator, by Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co. Columbus, Ohio [A.R.C.B. Co], Circa 1931

One of a rare matched set of six Ranco Model R controllers profiling the evolution of this early self-regulating temperature sensing electric motor control device, likely over several years from 1929 through to the early 1930’s. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) design adaptations made as required for different models and styles of Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, 3) different approaches to user friendly and convenient manual temperature setting by the householder, 4) the application of different mounts and accessories, 4) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 5) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 6) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-3A, B, C, D, E, F. ID # 131 to # 136



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.
Make: For Kelvinator, by Ranco
Model: RA-10 [see note
Features:
Mounting clamp; Rotary temperature adjustment with black Bakelite pointer knob and quadrant drive gear assembly; See Items 7.01-3 B to G for design and application variations involving special features

Technical Significance:
The Model R series thermostat represented a remarkable engineering achievement in 6 or 7 years. A compact design, totally enclosed control, crafted in, then, modern two tone, Bakelite, dielectric material. One third of the size and weight of the Kelvinator E, it was a user friendly, fully adjustable thermostat.

Industrial Significance:
The thermostat also marks the early entrance of the Ranco name into the refrigeration and air conditioning temperature control business, supporting the major equipment manufacturers of the period. The Ranco name would survive for many years as a leader in the HVACR control field.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.010

An early, adjustable, hydraulic bellows actuated control, totally enclosed in 1930’s, modern Bakelite housing, senses evaporator surface temperature, Model R, made for Kelvinator, by Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co. Columbus, Ohio [A.R.C.B. Co], Circa 1931

One of a rare matched set of six Ranco Model R controllers profiling the evolution of this early self-regulating temperature sensing electric motor control device, likely over several years from 1929 through to the early 1930’s. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) design adaptations made as required for different models and styles of Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, 3) different approaches to user friendly and convenient manual temperature setting by the householder, 4) the application of different mounts and accessories, 4) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 5) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 6) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-3A, B, C, D, E, F. ID # 131 to # 136



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.
Make: For Kelvinator, by Ranco
Model: RA-10 [see note
Features:
Rotary temperature control with quadrant drive gear, control knob and top cap assembly not included; See Items 7.01-3 B to G for design and application variations involving special features

Technical Significance:
The Model R series thermostat represented a remarkable engineering achievement in 6 or 7 years. A compact design, totally enclosed control, crafted in, then, modern two tone, Bakelite, dielectric material. One third of the size and weight of the Kelvinator E, it was a user friendly, fully adjustable thermostat.

Industrial Significance:
The thermostat also marks the early entrance of the Ranco name into the refrigeration and air conditioning temperature control business, supporting the major equipment manufacturers of the period. The Ranco name would survive for many years as a leader in the HVACR control field.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.011

An early, adjustable, hydraulic bellows actuated control, totally enclosed in 1930’s, modern Bakelite housing, senses evaporator surface temperature, Model R, made for Kelvinator, by Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co. Columbus, Ohio [A.R.C.B. Co], Circa 1931

One of a rare matched set of six Ranco Model R controllers profiling the evolution of this early self-regulating temperature sensing electric motor control device, likely over several years from 1929 through to the early 1930’s. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) design adaptations made as required for different models and styles of Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, 3) different approaches to user friendly and convenient manual temperature setting by the householder, 4) the application of different mounts and accessories, 4) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 5) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 6) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-3A, B, C, D, E, F. ID # 131 to # 136.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.
Make: For Kelvinator, by Ranco
Model: RA-10 [see note
Features:
See Items 7.01-3 B to G for design and application variations involving special features

Technical Significance:
The Model R series thermostat represented a remarkable engineering achievement in 6 or 7 years. A compact design, totally enclosed control, crafted in, then, modern two tone, Bakelite, dielectric material. One third of the size and weight of the Kelvinator E, it was a user friendly, fully adjustable thermostat.

Industrial Significance:
The thermostat also marks the early entrance of the Ranco name into the refrigeration and air conditioning temperature control business, supporting the major equipment manufacturers of the period. The Ranco name would survive for many years as a leader in the HVACR control field.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.012

An early, adjustable, hydraulic bellows actuated control, totally enclosed in 1930’s, modern Bakelite housing, senses evaporator surface temperature, Model R, made for Kelvinator, by Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co. Columbus, Ohio [A.R.C.B. Co], Circa 1931

One of a rare matched set of six Ranco Model R controllers profiling the evolution of this early self-regulating temperature sensing electric motor control device, likely over several years from 1929 through to the early 1930’s. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) design adaptations made as required for different models and styles of Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, 3) different approaches to user friendly and convenient manual temperature setting by the householder, 4) the application of different mounts and accessories, 4) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 5) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 6) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-3A, B, C, D, E, F. ID # 131 to # 136.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.
Make: For Kelvinator, by Ranco
Model: RA-10 [see note
Features:
See Items 7.01-3 B to G for design and application variations involving special features

Technical Significance:
The Model R series thermostat represented a remarkable engineering achievement in 6 or 7 years. A compact design, totally enclosed control, crafted in, then, modern two tone, Bakelite, dielectric material. One third of the size and weight of the Kelvinator E, it was a user friendly, fully adjustable thermostat.

Industrial Significance:
The thermostat also marks the early entrance of the Ranco name into the refrigeration and air conditioning temperature control business, supporting the major equipment manufacturers of the period. The Ranco name would survive for many years as a leader in the HVACR control field.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.013

An early, adjustable, hydraulic bellows actuated control, totally enclosed in 1930’s, modern Bakelite housing, senses evaporator surface temperature, Model R, made for Kelvinator, by Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co. Columbus, Ohio [A.R.C.B. Co], Circa 1931

One of a rare matched set of six Ranco Model R controllers profiling the evolution of this early self-regulating temperature sensing electric motor control device, likely over several years from 1929 through to the early 1930’s. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) design adaptations made as required for different models and styles of Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, 3) different approaches to user friendly and convenient manual temperature setting by the householder, 4) the application of different mounts and accessories, 4) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 5) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 6) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-3A, B, C, D, E, F. ID # 131 to # 136.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.
Make: For Kelvinator, by Ranco
Model: R 10 [see note
Features:
See Items 7.01-3 B to G for design and application variations involving special features

Technical Significance:
The Model R series thermostat represented a remarkable engineering achievement in 6 or 7 years. A compact design, totally enclosed control, crafted in, then, modern two tone, Bakelite, dielectric material. One third of the size and weight of the Kelvinator E, it was a user friendly, fully adjustable thermostat.

Industrial Significance:
The thermostat also marks the early entrance of the Ranco name into the refrigeration and air conditioning temperature control business, supporting the major equipment manufacturers of the period. The Ranco name would survive for many years as a leader in the HVACR control field.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.014

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated automatic temperature control [thermostat] with fixed factory setting, equipped with glycerine immersion cup for household cabinet refrigerator, senses evaporator suction line temperature, late Model E, Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont. Circa 1925.

One of a rare matched set of six Kelvinator Model E thermostats profiling the evolution of one of the earliest commercially marketed, self-regulating, temperature sensing, electric motor control devices. The mode was offered by Kelvinator in various forms from 1923 through to about 1927. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 3) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 4) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-2A, B, C, D, E, F.; ID # 129, 130, and 138 to 141.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan, Div of Electric Refr
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Late Model E w

Technical Significance:
Possibly the 1st commercially produced electric thermostat for mechanical, house hold, cabinet refrigerators.

Industrial Significance:
Kelvinator’s model E thermostat [temperature control], engineered for their early series household, cabinet refrigerators, is a unique study in the design and manufacture of complex automatic, analogue, mechanical switching in the early 1920’s.

Contrasting the design of the Model E thermostat, with those of some 30 years later [See R20], provides a dramatic example of the principle of progressive, engineering simplification – usually hard won.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.015

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated automatic temperature control [thermostat] with fixed factory setting, exquisitely cast in fragile white porcelain, with delicately embossed Kelvinator logo, senses evaporator suction line temperature. Likely an early Model E, Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont. Circa 1925.

One of a rare matched set of six Kelvinator Model E thermostats profiling the evolution of one of the earliest commercially marketed, self-regulating, temperature sensing, electric motor control devices. The model was offered by Kelvinator in various forms from 1923 through to about 1927. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 3) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 4) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-2A, B, C, D, E, F.; ID # 129, 130, and 138 to 141.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan, Div of Electric Refr
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Model E, here w

Technical Significance:
Possibly the 1st commercially produced electric thermostat for mechanical, house hold, cabinet refrigerators.

Industrial Significance:
Kelvinator’s model E thermostat [temperature control], engineered for their early series household, cabinet refrigerators, is a unique study in the design and manufacture of complex automatic, analogue, mechanical switching in the early 1920’s.

Contrasting the design of the Model E thermostat, with those of some 30 years later [See R20], provides a dramatic example of the principle of progressive, engineering simplification – usually hard won.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.016

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature control [thermostat] with fixed factory setting, senses evaporator suction line temperature. Shown with collapsed bellows and fully extended compensating pressure spring. Likely an early Model E, as suggested by the absence of bellows immersion cup, Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont. Circa 1924.

One of a rare matched set of six Kelvinator Model E thermostats profiling the evolution of one of the earliest commercially marketed, self-regulating, temperature sensing, electric motor control devices. The mode was offered by Kelvinator in various forms from 1923 through to about 1927. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 3) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 4) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-2A, B, C, D, E, F.; ID # 129, 130, and 138 to 141.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan, Div of Electric Refr
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Model E [See No
Features:
Collapsed bellows [a common form of precipitous failure, indicating it has been punctured, possibly due to frost build up. and as a result lost its sulphur dioxide gas charge. As a consequence the heavy, wire wound, coil, bellows compensating spring has moved to its fully extended position.

Technical Significance:
Possibly the 1st commercially produced electric thermostat for mechanical, household, cabinet refrigerators.

Industrial Significance:
Kelvinator’s model E thermostat [temperature control], engineered for their early series household, cabinet refrigerators, is a unique study in the design and manufacture of complex automatic, analogue, mechanical switching in the early 1920’s.

Contrasting the design of the Model E thermostat, with those of some 30 years later [See R20], provides a dramatic example of the principle of progressive, engineering simplification – usually hard won.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.017

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature control [thermostat] with fixed factory setting, senses evaporator suction line temperature. Shown with collapsed and distorted bellows and fully extended compensating pressure spring. Likely an early Model E, as suggested by the absence of bellows immersion cup, Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont. Circa 1924.

One of a rare matched set of six Kelvinator Model E thermostats profiling the evolution of one of the earliest commercially marketed, self-regulating, temperature sensing, electric motor control devices. The mode was offered by Kelvinator in various forms from 1923 through to about 1927. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 3) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 4) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-2A, B, C, D, E, F.; ID # 129, 130, and 138 to 141.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan, Div of Electric Refr
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Model E [See No
Features:
Collapsed and distorted bellows [a common form of precipitous failure, indicating it has been damaged likely due to frost build up. and as a result lost its sulphur dioxide gas charge. As a consequence the heavy, wire wound, coil, bellows compensating spring has moved to its fully extended position.

Technical Significance:
Possibly the 1st commercially produced electric thermostat for mechanical, household, cabinet refrigerators.

Industrial Significance:
Kelvinator’s model E thermostat [temperature control], engineered for their early series household, cabinet refrigerators, is a unique study in the design and manufacture of complex automatic, analogue, mechanical switching in the early 1920’s.

Contrasting the design of the Model E thermostat, with those of some 30 years later [See R20], provides a dramatic example of the principle of progressive, engineering simplification – usually hard won.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘D’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.018

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, and enhanced by manual reset, electric motor overload protection, Ranco, Type D, circa 1935.

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘D’
Manufacturer: ARCB Co., Columbus Ohio
Make: Ranco
Model: Type D

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘D’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.019

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, enhanced by manual reset, electric motor overload protection, and modified with handsome, embossed, polished, aluminium escutcheon plate, Ranco, Type D, circa 1935.

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘D’
Manufacturer: ARCB Co., Columbus Ohio
Make: Ranco
Model: Type D
Features:
with handsome, embossed, polished, aluminium escutcheon plate

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘F’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.020

An hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, equipped with compact totally enclosed bellows, long 42″, coiled capillary and bulb, enhanced by manual reset, electric motor overload protection, all enclosed in further compacted Bakelite case, Ranco, Type F, circa 1937.

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘F’
Manufacturer: ARCB Co., Columbus Ohio
Make: Ranco1935
Model: Type F

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

The Type F was a significant step in the compacting and progressive simplification of these immensely mechanical and essentially clumsy automatic control mechanisms

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘FF’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.021

An hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, equipped with compact totally enclosed bellows, manual reset, electric motor overload protection, and featuring new market driven enhancements: economy adjustment, semi-automatic defrost and fast freeze, all enclosed in compacted Bakelite case, Ranco, Type FF, circa 1939.

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘FF’
Manufacturer: ARCB Co., Columbus Ohio
Make: Ranco
Model: Type F F

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

The Type F F appears to have been a significant step in the incorporation of new market driven features, as refrigerator manufactures looked increasingly to the replacement, consumer up-grade market to maintain productivity

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘KR’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.022

An hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, equipped with manual reset, electric motor overload protection, and a semi-automatic defrost feature, enclosed in new compact stainless steel case, Ranco, Type KR, circa 1945

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘KR’
Manufacturer: ARCB Co., Columbus Ohio
Make: Ranco
Model: Type KR

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

The Type KR series while found on household cabinet refrigerators was most often found on small unitary commercial applications, such as beverage coolers, ice cream cabinets, water coolers, and reach in cabinet refrigerators.

The control with its corroded mechanism illustrates a common cause of failure, in small unitary applications, subject to condensation and water leaks.

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.023

An hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, with compact internally enclosed bellows and equipped with sophisticated manual reset, electric motor overload protection, featuring motor lock-out viewing window, showing flag on shutdown, enclosed in beautifully moulded, gloss black Bakelite case, General Electric, circa 1936

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: General Electric Co. USA
Make: General Electric
Model: CR 1057

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

GE, often viewed by their competitors as a “me too manufacturer”, where household technology was concerned, was capable of moving in and out of a field, as the consumer market place seemed to warrant. They would typically follow the industry’s recognised leader in a field, in this case Ranco.

The engineering know how and the capital resources seemingly available to the company made it a formidable competitor, even if in the short run. Few controls by GE seem to survive to the present day, by comparison with Ranco, suggesting that their inroads into this particular market was, in fact, relatively short lived.

The sophistication of the design and engineering demonstrated here is impressive for the 1930’s, demonstrating what a formidable competitor the company could be – in the short term.

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.024

An hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, with compact internally enclosed bellows and equipped with sophisticated manual reset, electric motor overload protection, featuring motor lock-out viewing window, showing flag on shutdown, enclosed in beautifully moulded, gloss black Bakelite case, with original wiring tag ends, General Electric, circa 1936

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: General Elecrtric Co., USA
Make: General Electric
Model: CR 1057

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

GE, often viewed by their competitors as a “me too manufacturer”, where household technology was concerned, was capable of moving in and out of a field, as the consumer market place seemed to warrant. They would typically follow the industry’s recognised leader in a field, in this case Ranco.

The engineering know how and the capital resources seemingly available to the company made it a formidable competitor, even if in the short run. Few controls by GE seem to survive to the present day, by comparison with Ranco, suggesting that their inroads into this particular market was, in fact, relatively short lived.

The sophistication of the design and engineering demonstrated here is impressive for the 1930’s, demonstrating what a formidable competitor the company could be – in the short term.

The original wiring tag ends demonstrate the appliance trade wiring practices of the mid 1930’s, including the use of twisted, cloth covered lamp cord and “friction” tape

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.025

An hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, with compact internally enclosed bellows and an unusual twisted capillary tube bulb configuration, equipped with manual reset, electric motor overload protection, featuring popout, motor lock-out switch, with high polished chrome bezel, decorated in black and red, with chrome control knobs, enclosed in beautifully moulded, gloss black, Bakelite case, with hand written identification tag, Cutler – Hammer, circa 1937.

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Cutler-Hammer, Milwaukee Illinois, USA
Make: Cutler-Hammer
Model: Bulliten 9502,

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

The Cutler-Hammer Co. of Milwaukee Ill., had made its name in the electrical switching business in the 1930’s was encouraged to enter the automatic temperature control field in this period of rapidly developing pre W.W.II consumer markets. The sophisticated engineering and manufacturing capacity developed by the company as evident here is impressive

The high polished chrome fitments illustrate the increasing emphasis placed on appealing industrial design, and well crafted and finished products in gaining a toehold in what was becoming an increasingly crowded field of consumer equipment manufacturing and production.

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘ILG’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.026

This highly unusual hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature control, employing extended capillary tube sensing, was an aberrant event in the temperature control field of the period, related to an aberration in the field of household cabinet refrigerator manufacturing in Canada. The large somewhat clumsy device, in gloss Bakelite enclosure with etched cover in pea green, identifies the application with the ILG Electric Ventilating Co, with Canadian presence in Renfrew, Ont; equipped with large internally enclosed bellows, long capillary tube, and large auxiliary mounted manual reset motor overload protector, the device appears as a one-off design produced by the control manufacturer to meet ILG’s unique specifications, Cutler-Hammer, circa 1938.

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘ILG’
Manufacturer: Cutler-Hammer , Milwaukee Illinois, USA, for ILG
Make: Cutler-Hammer/ ILG
Model: Cutler-Hammer B
Features:
Original wiring harness, tag end, in rubber covered, two conductor stranded copper

Large paper and foil wound condenser to reduce contact arching.

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

The Cutler-Hammer Co. of Milwaukee Ill., who made its name in the electrical switching business in the 1930’s was encouraged to enter the automatic temperature control field in this period of rapidly developing pre W.W.II consumer markets. The engineering capacity of the company and its ability to respond to unusual requests is well illustrated by the atypical design configuration developed here for ILG, with Canadain facilities in Renfrew Ontario.

Among the significant features are:
– The original wiring harness, tag end, in rubber covered, two conductor stranded copper, illustrating the early construction and design of these cables, and their application to the home appliance market of the period
– The large paper and foil wound condenser, hanging from the back of the control, apparently used to reduce contact arching. It was a period in which there was relatively little codified engineering experience on the design of small, alternating current switching devices. It is unclear whether the condenser was part of the original product engineering, or an after-market, field adaptation.
– The control enclosures in gloss black Bakelite, with attractive etched cover plate, with logo and script in pea green is an example of the early attempts at industrial design. The control was clearly intended to be visible and user friendly part of the Canadian household. This had not been a major priority manufactures here-to for.
– The costly, 24 inch, copper capillary line, with large 3/8 inch control bulb reflects much more commercial control design practice of the period, than residential. The relatively large and overall clumsy nature of the control may well reflect ILG’s new arrival in the consumer product field. Its engineering experience having been primarily in commercial and industrial applications [see reference below]

Industrial Significance:
see above


Miniature refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.027

An hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing; driven by a 36″x 3/32″ capillary line with integral power element, the contol was representative a new generation of miniature, snap action controls for original refrigeration and air conditioning equipment manufacturers, as well as for general replacement use, starting in the 1940’s, Ranco, circa 1945.

With this generation of thermo-mechanical, refrigeration thermostat technology the trend was set to move to the end of the century and the introduction of new 21st century control technology in which extended capillary sensing would be replaced by electronic sensing. \r\nIt was to be the last in the series of hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the early 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151].



Item: Miniature refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco Incorporated , Columbus Ohio
Make: Ranco
Model: Type A12; CR7
Features:
The control’s cut-out temperature can be re-calibrated in the field by means of a small internal adjustment screw.

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

This control, representative of the end of the generation of extended, mechanically operated, capillary tube temperature sensors, is a masterpiece of precise engineering and manufacture of the period. Ranco Inc. produced this new generation, of miniature, snap action, capillary line controls for original refrigeration and air conditioning equipment manufacturers, as well as for general replacement use, starting in the 1940’s. Wholesaler’s and jobber’s catalogues of the period list many variations, made to the mounting and performance requirements of the industry.

With this generation of thermo-mechanical, refrigeration thermostat technology the trend was set to move to the end of the 20th century and the introduction of new 21st century control technology in which extended capillary sensing would be replaced with electronic sensing devices.

The contrast between this thermostat in bulk, weight and performance, with the technology of two decades earlier [See items ID 142-151], stands as a remarkable industry achievement. The evolution of the technology would, among other things, support the development of new more elaborate cooling systems, for cabinet refrigerators, with new features and functionality, including automatic defrost and dual temperature cabinets, as well as air conditioners and water coolers.

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration pressure/temperature control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.028

An early, commercial application, hydraulic bellows actuated, dual function, automatic pressure and temperature control, for refrigeration systems requiring extended capillary tube temperature sensing; equipped with tilting mercury tube, line voltage switching and heavy, press formed, galvanised, steel enclosure, Mercoid, 1930.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers, profiling a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing various design modifications made to same basic configuration. [See items ID # 153- 155]



Item: Refrigeration pressure/temperature control
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Company Mercoid Control No.848-
Make: Mercoid, Detroit Lubricator
Model: Detroit Lubrica
Features:
Of special interest is the glass enclosed, mercury bulb switch, still in tact and operable. These are immensely fragile devices by definition and seldom have a long life, particularly after being taken out of service.

Note large electrical junction box with 4 electrical connector knock-outs, representative of the wiring practice approved for commercial equipment of the period, which required heavy steel shielded twin conductor cable referred to as BX.

Technical Significance:
An exemplar of what is likely the first generation of wide spread, commercially manufactured and marketed pressure and temperature refrigeration controllers, popularly found in Canada.

Connected by a small copper tube to the refrigeration compressor, this dual bellows controller provided high pressure cut-out protection. As well as it provided low side, refrigerator temperature control by means of a thermal bulb on the end of long coiled capillary tube attached to a second hydraulic bellows. The bulb would likely have been attached to the refrigeration-cooling unit [evaporator]. A simple ingenious mechanical mechanism allowed the mercury switch to be operated by either bellows, turning the refrigeration on or off in response to both high pressure and refrigerator temperature

The electrical switching properties of mercury had been discovered and the tilting mercury bulb would become the switching method of choice for much of the early 20th century for fractional HP applications. It was a period in which little empirical design data was available on alternating current switching. With an induction motor rating of up to 1 HP, and a split-phase rating of 1/4 HP this controller and most like it of the period was limited to fractional HP applications.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers, profiling a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing design modifications made to this basic configuration. This economic, robust configuration provided a platform readily adaptable to a wide range of commercial refrigeration field requirements [See items ID # 153- 155].

Industrial Significance:
A range of corporate names appear on the controls in the series, suggesting a range of corporate partnerships between Mercoid and other early players in the refrigeration control field: American Radiator Company; The Federal Gauge Company; Detroit Lubricator Company. The genre would give way within the decade to smaller, more sophisticated engineering approaches, yielding increasingly more precise refrigeration system control [See ID # 163 to 165].


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘Mercoid’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.029

An early, commercial application, hydraulic bellows actuated, ambient temperature sensing, automatic temperature control; equipped with line voltage, tilting mercury tube switch and unusual rotary quick-make-and-break, manual on-off switch, for use in small food store, walk-in-refrigerators, Mercoid, 1930.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers, profiling a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing various design modifications made to same basic configuration. [See items ID # 153- 155]



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘Mercoid’
Manufacturer: Mercoid Control, American Radiator Company, USA [S
Make: Mercoid, American Radiator Company
Model: Un-marked
Features:
Of special interest is the glass enclosed, mercury bulb switch, still in tact and operable. These are immensely fragile devices by definition and seldom have a long life, particularly after being taken out of service.

Unusual Danfield rotary quick-make-and-break, snop action, manual on-off switch, HEPC approved, with white porcelain base and black Bakelite cover and control knob,with handsome corporate logo.

Smith and Stone, with facilities in George town Ontario, 5 amp conduit fitting base for rotary switch

Large electrical junction box with 4 electrical connector knock-outs, representative of the wiring practice approved for commercial equipment of the period, which required heavy steel shielded twin conductor cable referred to as BX.

Technical Significance:
An exemplar of what is likely the first generation of wide spread, commercially manufactured and marketed pressure and temperature refrigeration controllers, popularly found in Canada.

The control, designed to mounted inside the refrigerated space, sensed the temperature through a copper sheathed bellows mechanism. A line voltage, manual on-off switch was attached for convenience. The rotary quick-make-and-break style was popular in the period, being extensively used on electrical stoves

The electrical switching properties of mercury had been discovered and the tilting mercury bulb would become the switching method of choice for much of the early 20th century for fractional HP applications. It was a period in which little empirical design data was available on alternating current switching. With an induction motor rating of up to 1 HP, and a split-phase rating of 1/4 HP this controller and most like it of the period was limited to fractional HP applications.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers, profiling a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing design modifications made to this basic configuration. This economic, robust configuration provided a platform readily adaptable to a wide range of commercial refrigeration field requirements [See items ID # 153- 155].

Industrial Significance:
A range of corporate names appear on the controls in the series, suggesting a range of corporate partnerships between Mercoid and other early players in the refrigeration control field: American Radiator Company; The Federal Gauge Company; Detroit Lubricator Company. The genre would give way within the decade to smaller, more sophisticated engineering approaches, yielding increasingly more precise refrigeration system control [See ID # 163 to 165].


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘Mercoid’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.030

An early, commercial application, hydraulic bellows actuated, dual function, automatic pressure and temperature control, for refrigeration systems requiring extended capillary tube temperature sensing; similar to ID # 152, except with tilting mercury tube not included, Mercoid, 1930.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers. The set profiles a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing various design modifications made to the same basic configuration [See items ID # 153- 155].



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘Mercoid’
Manufacturer: Mercoid Control, The Federal Gauge Co. USA [See no
Make: Mercoid, The Federal Gauge Co.
Model: unknown see ID
Features:
Note large electrical junction box with 4 electrical connector knock-outs, representative of the wiring practice approved for commercial equipment of the period, which required heavy steel shielded twin conductor cable referred to as BX.

Technical Significance:
An exemplar of what is likely the first generation of wide spread, commercially manufactured and marketed pressure and temperature refrigeration controllers, popularly found in Canada.

Connected by a small copper tube to the refrigeration compressor, this dual bellows controller provided high pressure cut-out protection. As well, it provided low side, refrigerator temperature control by means of a thermal bulb on the end of long coiled capillary tube attached to a second hydraulic bellows. The bulb would likely have been attached to the refrigeration-cooling unit [evaporator]. A simple ingenious mechanical mechanism allowed the mercury switch to be operated by either bellows, turning the refrigeration on or off in response to both high pressure and refrigerator temperature

The electrical switching properties of mercury had been discovered and the tilting mercury bulb would become the switching method of choice for much of the early 20th century for fractional HP applications. It was a period in which little empirical design data was available on alternating current switching. With an induction motor rating of up to 1 HP, and a split-phase rating of 1/4 HP this controller and most like it of the period was limited to fractional HP applications.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers, profiling a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing design modifications made to this basic configuration. This economic, robust configuration provided a platform readily adaptable to a wide range of commercial refrigeration field requirements [See items ID # 153- 155].

Industrial Significance:
A range of corporate names appear on the controls in the series, suggesting a range of corporate partnerships between Mercoid and other early players in the refrigeration control field: American Radiator Company; The Federal Gauge Company; Detroit Lubricator Company. The genre would give way within the decade to smaller, more sophisticated engineering approaches, yielding increasingly more precise refrigeration system control [See ID # 163 to 165].


Refrigeration pressure/temperature control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.031

An early, commercial application, hydraulic bellows actuated, dual function, automatic pressure and temperature control, for refrigeration systems requiring extended capillary tube temperature sensing; similar to ID # 154, with tilting mercury tube and pressure bellows not included, Mercoid, 1930.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers. The set profiles a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing various design modifications made to the same basic configuration. [See items ID # 153- 155]



Item: Refrigeration pressure/temperature control
Manufacturer: Mercoid Control, American Radiator Company [See no
Make: Mercoid, American Radiator Company
Model: unknown see ID
Features:
Note large electrical junction box with 4 electrical connector knock-outs, representative of the wiring practice approved for commercial equipment of the period, which required heavy steel shielded twin conductor cable referred to as BX.

Technical Significance:
An exemplar of what is likely the first generation of wide spread, commercially manufactured and marketed pressure and temperature refrigeration controllers, popularly found in Canada.

Connected by a small copper tube to the refrigeration compressor, this dual bellows controller provided high pressure cut-out protection. As well, it provided low side, refrigerator temperature control by means of a thermal bulb on the end of long coiled capillary tube attached to a second hydraulic bellows. The bulb would likely have been attached to the refrigeration-cooling unit [evaporator]. A simple ingenious mechanical mechanism allowed the mercury switch to be operated by either bellows, turning the refrigeration on or off in response to both high pressure and refrigerator temperature

The electrical switching properties of mercury had been discovered and the tilting mercury bulb would become the switching method of choice for much of the early 20th century for fractional HP applications. It was a period in which little empirical design data was available on alternating current switching. With an induction motor rating of up to 1 HP, and a split-phase rating of 1/4 HP this controller and most like it of the period was limited to fractional HP applications.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers, profiling a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing design modifications made to this basic configuration. This economic, robust configuration provided a platform readily adaptable to a wide range of commercial refrigeration field requirements [See items ID # 153- 155].

Industrial Significance:
A range of corporate names appear on the controls in the series, suggesting a range of corporate partnerships between Mercoid and other early players in the refrigeration control field: American Radiator Company; The Federal Gauge Company; Detroit Lubricator Company. The genre would give way within the decade to smaller, more sophisticated engineering approaches, yielding increasingly more precise refrigeration system control [See ID # 163 to 165].


Refrigeration pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.032

An early automatic low side pressure control for commercial refrigeration\r\napplications, made in the form of the then familiar Bourdon tube actuated pressure gauge; equipped with line-voltage, tilting mercury bulb switch, with glass viewing window, Mercoid Switch, Federal Gauge Chicago, Ill., Circa 1928.



Item: Refrigeration pressure control
Manufacturer: Mercoid Switch, Chicago, Federal Gauge Chicago, Il
Make: Mercoid Switch
Model: Type H, Reset
Features:
rear mounted manual adjustments, executed in brass see below; Beautifully etched name plate in sheet broass

Technical Significance:
An example of early pressure gauge design and construction based on the use of a relatively crude Bourdon tube-actuating device, found prior to the wide spread introduction of hydraulic bellows and extended capillary line actuators – See ID # 151-154

See also notes on significance, ID # 151

Mercoid Division , Dwyer Instruments Inc, Michican City Ind. Currently show in their catalogue listings a range of Bourdon tube pressure switches of very similar construction and operation, indicating something of the precision and reliability to be expected of this genre of commercial and industrial controller technology. See note 1

Industrial Significance:
The development of early automatic pressure controls started with the materials and understandings of the day. In the early 1920’s these included the Bourdon pressure tube and the mercury bulb switch.

The circular Bourdon tube is designed to responds to changes in internal pressure by changing its curvature, used here to move a mercury bulb switch through a simple and elegant brass linkage.

The control has a manual set knob on the back, as well as a means of repositioning the bulb, so as to re-set its control point.

The control is designed to operate over the commercial, So2 pressure/temperature range of 7-1/2 lbs. pressure to 5 inch of vacuum, requiring a large tube to respond to these low pressures.

A crude device, when compared with even mid-20th century practices, it provided the essential beginnings for the development of fully automated refrigeration equipment.


Refrigeration ‘silver dollar’ thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.033

An early automatic temperature control for commercial refrigeration\r\napplications, employing a “silver dollar” style hydraulic power element and extended capillary tube sensor; with line-voltage, four pole open contact switch, mounted in heavy two-piece, screw assembled, cast enclosure with rubber sealing gasket, Tag Snapon, Circa 1928

One of a set of two controllers, demonstrating variations in design and engineering by the manufacturer, as well as the various effects of natural ageing in use, disuse, abuse and abandonment.



Item: Refrigeration ‘silver dollar’ thermostat
Manufacturer: C. J. Tagliabue Mfg Co, Brooklyn N. Y.
Make: Tag Snapon Controller
Model: Type C-1
Features:
“Silver dollar” style hydraulic power element; original porcelain electrical box connector representative of practice in the period; original wiring harness, using an early form of twin, stranded wire, SJ cable; original two wire black backbite attachment cap; Cast enclosure overcoated with aluminium paint, employing a dispersion of aluminium particles in petroleum-based paint vehicle, new for the period.

Technical Significance:
Representative of one of the broad range of approaches to the engineering, design and construction of temperature controllers being experimented with by “me too manufactures”. It was a period of rapid growth in what appeared to be an expanding, economically attractive market place

The heavy, open style, four pole switching marked the controller as able to handle larger HP applications than the mainstream of tilting mercury bulb controllers of the time – although current and HP ratings are not shown

The unusual attention given here to robust ,water proof [drip proof] construction and other design attributes is symptomatic of the period. It was one in which, in the absence of field-based experience and codified engineering data, manufactures tended, in many ways, to over design. The effects of progressive simplification can be seen in other controllers in the 7.02 series.

Other significant aspects of the controller include: “Silver dollar” style hydraulic power element; original porcelain electrical box connector representative of practice in the period; original wiring harness, using an early form of twin, stranded wire, SJ cable; original two wire black backbite attachment cap

Industrial Significance:
See above


Refrigeration ‘silver dollar’ thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.034

An early automatic temperature control for commercial refrigeration\r\napplications, employing a “silver dollar” style hydraulic power element, capillary tube sensor and bulb with liquid tight dealing gland; line-voltage, four pole open contact switch, mounted in heavy two-piece, screw assembled, cast enclosure with rubber sealing gasket, Tag Snapon, Circa 1928

One of a set of two controllers, demonstrating variations in design, engineering and application by the manufacturer, as well as the various effects of natural ageing in use, disuse, abuse and abandonment.



Item: Refrigeration ‘silver dollar’ thermostat
Manufacturer: C. J. Tagliabue Mfg Co, Brooklyn N. Y.
Make: Tag Snapon Controller
Model: Un marked
Features:
Brass, screw threaded, water tight sealing gland allowing immersion of temperature sensing bulb in liquid bath; “Silver dollar” style hydraulic power element; Cast enclosure overcoated with black paint

Technical Significance:
Representative of one of the broad range of approaches to the engineering, design and construction of temperature controllers being experimented with by “me too manufactures”. It was a period of rapid growth in what appeared to be an expanding, economically attractive market place

The heavy, open style, four pole switching marked the controller as able to handle larger HP applications than the mainstream of tilting mercury bulb controllers of the time – although current and HP ratings are not shown

The unusual attention given here to robust, waterproof [drip proof] construction and other design attributes is symptomatic of the period. It was one in which, in the absence of field-based experience and codified engineering data, manufactures tended, in many ways, to over design. The effects of progressive simplification can be seen in other controllers in the 7.02 series.

Industrial Significance:
See above


Refrigeration ‘pancake’ thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.035

An early, crude, mechanically refrigerated cabinet temperature control, engineered with large “pan-cake” style hydraulic power element with large, built-in, thermal sensing bulb; open, single pole heavy copper switch contacts, mounted on steel plate base with press formed sheet steel cover, handsomely decorated in gold and black, Frigidaire, circa 1926.



Item: Refrigeration ‘pancake’ thermostat
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Un-marked
Features:
Cover decorated in black with gold lettering, detailing monthly oiling instructions for condensing unit; Visual pleasing, unusual, oval, pressed steel cover with twin knurled brass hold-down nuts; Unusually rugged mechanical switch construction, with larger copper contact surfaces, a construction style which would soon disappear with the advent of increasingly smaller more finely engineered control technology, see for example ID # 165, code 7.02-10

Technical Significance:
An unusually crude, weighty and rugged, automated, mechanical switching device in iron plate and steel bolted construction, a quintessential product of Canada’s early period of industrialization. In its design and execution it appears, in many ways, much more like the product of a local blacksmith or iron monger than that of an industrial manufacturing process.

It stands as a classic marker and supreme accomplishments of its industrial times. Its significance is as an embryonic product of engineering and manufacturing know-how in the field of automated, electrical switching devices. It represented a know-how that would shortly be seen as the end of a genre. The genre would give way to a new generation of much more sophisticated engineering design concepts, made possible by a new generation of engineering theory building and practice, materials and manufacturing methods. See for example ID # 161 to 164.

Of special interest, in benchmarking and appreciating the technology represented here, is in contrasting it with micro-switch technology in common use in automated controllers in Canada by the 1950’s. The contrast in precision engineering, manufacture and performance represents a vast step ahead. See for example ID # 165, code 7.02-10

Industrial Significance:
See above


Refrigeration hydraulic pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.036

Hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic pressure control for mid 20th century, commercial refrigeration applications, with dual high-low pressure functions, for control of low-side temperature and high pressure cut-out, a new generation thermal motor overload protection and manual reset, Frigidaire, Circa 1937.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic pressure control
Manufacturer: Frigidaire, Div of General Motors Corp, Dayton Ohi
Make: Frigidaire
Model: type YD, Model

Technical Significance:
It was the mid 1930’s and the refrigeration and air conditioning industry was a buss with the promise of a post depression and pre WWW II period. As a marker, a new generation of well-integrated and carefully engineered refrigeration condensing units, readily adapted to a wide range of field applications was in production at Frigidaire – reflecting the market optimism of the period.

According to Frigidaire’s installation and service manual No. SER,-405, for products manufactured prior to 1937, the YD series of controls had just been put on the market.

With new engineering and manufacturing know-how, the control was designed and built to performs the 3 functions of low side operating temperature/pressure, high side pressure protection and motor overload cut-out, using spring compensated bellows and overload heater coil with manual reset.

With the market optimism of the time, the control series was produced in a wide range of models, covering various functional combinations for installation on all Frigidaire condensing units. Included were low and high pressure, as well as temperature sensing bulbs, all with various lengths of capillary line, plus a range of motor overload, trip, heater coils from 1 to 15 amperes.

Industrial Significance:
The control stands as a marker of significantly changing times in the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry and the consumer market place that motivated and sustained it

Creating and responding to market forces for automated refrigeration and air conditioning systems, pressure control technology evolved rapidly in the late 1930’s. Better engineering data, new materials and new more precise manufacturing methods all helped the industry to respond to thye now vastly changing times.

Engineers were learning how to combine multiple functions within the same control device – low side operating pressure, high side safety cut-out and automatic motor over load protection.


Refrigeration hydraulic pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.037

Hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic refrigeration cabinet temperature control for mid 20th century, commercial refrigeration appliances, with user friendly temperature adjustment control knob, extended capillary line temperature sensor and new generation thermal motor overload protection with manual reset, in attractive gloss black Bakelite enclosure, Frigidaire, Circa 1938.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic pressure control
Manufacturer: Frigidaire, Div of General Motors Corp, Dayton Ohi
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Model T00, Type
Features:
Gloss black Bakelite temperature control knob, user friendly, calibrated 0-5, warm and cold; Original cable connector demonstrating installation trade practices of the times; Original motor overload heater selection table.; Tightly coiled, extendable capillary line, with 4in. bulb

Technical Significance:
An extended capillary tube temperature control standing a quintessential product of the engineering designer’s and manufacture’s art form of the mid 1930’s.

To understand the nature and scope of the advances made by the industry, in matters of engineering design, performance precision, materials applications and utilization, as well as manufacturing and production prowess, it must be contrasted with the technology offered by the industry a decade or so earlier [See ID # 157-160]

The device demonstrates the growing interest by equipment manufacturers of the time in producing increasingly, visually attractive, as well as increasingly functional and efficient product lines. The era of the industrial designer was close at hand. [for comparison , see for example ID # 157 to 160]

The appearance of such automated controllers, made possible by a new generation of engineering precision and know-how, as well by new industrial mass production methods, was a response to, as well as a driver of, an astonishingly broad range of new refrigerated appliances to be found on main street Canada. Included were: ice cream cabinets, water coolers, small food merchandisers, reach-in and packaged walk-in coolers, and packaged, self contained air conditioners. Frigidaire’s and Kelvinator’s product and service manuals of the late 1930’s and 40.s tell this remarkable story of sector achievement and profound market shifts.

Industrial Significance:
The artifact is symptomatic of the vast changes taking place in the manner in which the refrigeration and air conditioning industry was re-organizing itself, in order to take advantage of post-depression market expectations. The industrial giants of the period were eyeing the sector as a potentially expanding and profitable one. The General Motors Corp. would purchase Frigidaire, and with its engineering and capital reserves, quickly turn it in to a dominant player in the field, with a comprhensive product line which would dwarf other players in the industry .

Frigidaire’s market profile was a remarkable one through to the 1960’s in the range of products produced, from controls of the variety shown here to stylish household cabinet refrigerators and commercial refrigerated appliances and large central station installations, employing low-pressure refrigerants of the period.


Refrigeration hydraulic pressure control ‘FHP’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.038

An early, crude, hydraulic bellows actuated, FHP, single pole, snap action, refrigeration system, low-side pressure/temperature controller, in black cast iron enclosure, configured and levered much like a door lock of the period, appearing much more like the product of a locksmith than a new generation of early 20th century, automatic electric control engineers [incomplete assembly], Penn, circa 1929.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic pressure control ‘FHP’
Manufacturer: Penn Electric Switch Co. Des Moines Ida.
Make: Penn Electric
Model: Type E
Features:
Handsome, etched brass name plate decorated in black enamel; Full operating instructions and diagram on inside of cover plate

Technical Significance:
The controller, although itself an incomplete assembly, when seen in the context of the offerings by other suppliers to the field [see the range of other artifacts of the period held by HHCC in the 7.02 series], helps to demonstrate the wide range of engineering design concepts being offered by the industry, as it experimented with the materials and know-how of the times to respond to potential market needs, and to grow the industry.

This controller, much like the door lock, which seems to have inspired it, is a quintessential statement of serviceability. The cover plate, removable by means of a single wing nut, reveals the simplest of mechanical actions with levers and springs in door lock style.

To further reinforce the strongly held value of maintainablility and serviceability the inside of the cover plate carries a still very readable account of the control and its operation, along with a full drawing of the control showing all operating components.

Industrial Significance:
The control admirably demonstrates the lengths original equipment manufactures of the times went to assist, often ill trained field installation and service personnel to understand and maintain the equipment.


Refrigeration hydraulic low pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.039

Automatic, hydraulic bellows actuated, low pressure control for commercial and industrial refrigeration equipment applications, with fully adjustable, user friendly range and differential settings, and tilting mercury bulb switching, in attractive, streamlined heavy, plated steel enclosure and handsome cover plate in stylish green, Minneapolis-Honeywell, Circa 1945.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic low pressure control
Manufacturer: Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co. Minneapolis, M
Make: Minneapolis-Honeywell
Model: Type L414-1
Features:
Attractive, simple elegant styling with plated steel, bright enclosure, long radius streamlined corners and decorated nameplate cover in green.

A mercury bulb controller, with precision mechanism, it includes calibrated scales for cut-out and differential field adjustment and out-board replaceable and interchangeable bellows. Beautifully engineered, it is enclosed in 3 1/2″ x 4 “x 2″deep 1/16” formed steel box with full, front, access cover,

With miniature, built-in pendulum to help ensure plumb mounting needed for the precise operation of the mercury bulb at designated control point.

Technical Significance:
A sophisticated state of the art automated refrigerant low-side pressure controller of the mid 20th century. Representative of the 1940’s and the new generation of commercial and industrial, refrigeration pressure and temperature controls that came with it – compact, precisely engineered by earlier standards,

They were well supported with installation instructions and service personnel, new for the period

The L series, in its many variations, is well documented in company catalogues and in field instruction sheets, variously dated through the latter 1940’s and 50’s.

The control was made in a number of versions for industrial, as well as commercial refrigeration applications, including farm milk coolers, refrigerated display cases, walk-in coolers and freezer cabinets.

Industrial Significance:
Models with snap action switching, replacing the mercury bulb, were available for applications where vibration and tilting were concerned.

The Minneapolis-Honeywell L control series represented well the mid-century control technology of the times, enabling the development of a vast range of new refrigeration applications by the Canadian refrigeration industry.


Refrigeration pressure/temperature control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.040

Automatic, hydraulic bellows actuated, dual function, high pressure and low-side temperature control with extended capillary tube, for commercial and industrial refrigeration equipment applications, equipped with fully adjustable, user friendly range and differential settings, and tilting mercury bulb switching, in attractive, streamlined heavy, plated steel enclosure, now telling the many stories of natural use on a farm milk cooler in York Region, Minneapolis-Honeywell, Circa 1945.



Item: Refrigeration pressure/temperature control
Manufacturer: Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co. Minneapolis, M
Make: Minneapolis-Honeywell
Model: Type L413-1
Features:
Attractive, simple elegant styling with plated steel, bright enclosure, long radius streamlined corners and decorated nameplate cover in green.

A mercury bulb controller, with precision mechanism, it includes calibrated scales for cut-out and differential field adjustment and out-board replaceable and interchangeable bellows.

With miniature, built-in pendulum to help ensure plumb mounting needed for the precise operation of the mercury bulb at designated control point.

Once beautifully engineered, it is enclosed in stream lined, formed steel, bright plated enclosure with, full front, access cover: but now stained and spotted with white paint telling the stories of many years of use on Ontario farm near Aurora, on a typical, early, mechanically refrigerated, water bath milk cooler

Technical Significance:
Representative of leading practice in the engineering of sophisticated state of the art, dual function, automated refrigerant high pressure cut-out and low-side temperature controllers of the mid 20th century.

Built on a platform that was readily adaptable to a wide range of functions and applications it represented a significant advance in the field, enabling an ever widening range of functionality, and equipment manufacture’s needs. [See also ID # 163, 7.02-8]

New also for the period was the attention given by leading control manufacturers to product support. The L series, in its many variations, is well documented in company catalogues and in field instruction sheets, variously dated through the latter 1940’s and 50’s.

The control was made in a number of versions for industrial, as well as commercial refrigeration applications, including farm milk coolers, refrigerated display cases, walk-in coolers and freezer cabinets.

Industrial Significance:
The Minneapolis-Honeywell L control series represented well the mid-century control technology of the times, enabling the development of a vast range of new refrigeration applications by the Canadian refrigeration industry.


Compressor parts

Other Refrigerating and Air conditioning Components and Parts – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.071

An assembly of historic, open system, reciprocating, refrigeration compressor parts, for cabinet, household refrigerators, many in their original cartons. Including refrigerant shaft seals, demonstrating what they are; what they do; and how they worked in keeping noxious refrigerants in the refrigeration system and out of the Canadian kitchen of the 1920’s and 30’s, Various manufacturers, circa 1937

[For additional compressor parts see also items 8.02-1, 8.02-2 and 8.02-3]



Item: Compressor parts
Manufacturer: Various manufacturers, including Kelvinator, Frigi

Refrigerated meat sales counter

Other Refrigerating and Air conditioning Components and Parts – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.010

Meat sales counter for mechanical refrigeration, display section, in 1/4 inch plate glass and solid oak cabinet with clear, light golden varnished finish, 1930.



Item: Refrigerated meat sales counter
Manufacturer Believed to be Sherer-Gillet Co. Ltd, Quelph Ontar
Make: Unknown, believed to be Sherer-Gillet Co. Ltd, Quelph Ontario, See Note #1
Model: Unknown
Features:
Sliding oak framed, 1/4 “, plate glass access doors, fitted to oil impregnated, oak runners, with top plate glass lights, plate glass end panels and sloping front, with top plate glass customer viewing window.

Technical Significance:
This classic, refrigerated, commercial meat display case from the early years of the 20th century reflects well the state of refrigeration, application engineering of the period. Here refrigeration equipment manufacturers are seen reaching out for new innovated applications for their technology, making the technology a part of indispensable, everyday experience in the life of the nation. Here, too, we see the evolution of the new food industry and culture, mechanically refrigerated foods from producer, to neighbourhood merchant to the household refrigerator. The new industry would provide new foods never experienced before by the consumer, as well as traditional ones but fresher safer and longer lasting. The embryoniuc years of the modern food retailer are to be found in this early, refrigerated, meat display fixture
The design idiom, construction techniques, available for cabinet technology, as well as materials of social preference are also well illustrated here, plate glass and solid oak in natural finish. What is illustrated is an early offering of the refrigeration industry. A product of the “wooden ice box culture”, this idiom was about to change dramatically, however, as customer preference moved to a more modern look for a new time.
Henceforth, refrigeration fixtures would appear with cabinetry executed in gleaming white porcelain steel panels, brake formed using the increasingly sophisticated manufacturing techniques and machinery, much of it developed in Ontario for Ontarians, by a new innovated generation of designers, engineers and production line craftsman. 1) The refrigeration fixture catalogues of the period tell many interesting stories of social and cultural change, as well as the massive technological and social values driven changes, driving a new Ontario economy.

Industrial Significance:
A classic example of a “transitional” or “sandwich” technology, one caught on the fly. Here the snapshot is between two cooling technologies, cooling with ice and mechanical refrigeration – often a little of both in the early yearsSocio-economic Significance


Compressor parts

Other Refrigerating and Air conditioning Components and Parts – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.072

An assembly of historic, open system, reciprocating, refrigeration compressor parts, for commercial refrigeration applications, many parts in their original cartons. Including refrigerant shaft seals, valves and fittings demonstrating what they are; what they do; and how they worked in the groceries, bakeshops, confectioneries, restaurants and institutions, as well as in industrial applications in Canada in the 1920’s to 1940’s Various manufacturers, circa 1948.
[For additional compressor parts see also items 8.02-1, 8.01-1 and 8.02-3]



Item: Compressor parts
Manufacturer: Various manufacturers, including Kelvinator, Frigi

Compressor parts

Other Refrigerating and Air conditioning Components and Parts – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.073

An assembly of historic, open system, reciprocating, refrigeration compressor parts, for commercial refrigeration applications, many parts in their original cartons. Including refrigerant shaft seals, valves and fittings demonstrating what they are; what they do; and how they worked in the groceries, bakeshops, confectioneries, restaurants and institutions, as well as in industrial applications in Canada in the 1920’s to 1940’s Various manufacturers, circa 1948.
[For additional compressor parts see also items 8.02-1, 8.01-1 and 8.02-3]



Item: Compressor parts
Manufacturer: Various manufacturers, including Kelvinator, Frigi

Compressor parts

Other Refrigerating and Air conditioning Components and Parts – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.074

An assembly of historic, open system, reciprocating, refrigeration compressor parts, for small, commercial refrigeration applications, many parts in their original cartons. Including valve plates and valves, demonstrating what they are; what they do; and how they worked in grocery stores, bakeshops, confectioneries and institutions in Canada in the 1920’s to 1940’s Various manufacturers, circa 1948.
[For additional compressor parts see also items 8.02-1, 8.01-1 and 2]



Item: Compressor parts
Manufacturer: Various manufacturers, including Kelvinator, Frigi

Refrigeration water regulator ’68A’

Other Refrigerating and Air conditioning Components and Parts – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.086

A modulating, water flow, regulating valve for use on water cooled refrigerant condensers, equipped with brass body and 2 ply copper bellows, operates on refrigerant system head pressure to minimize water consumption, adjusting water flow to meet the needs of the system without overrun and wastage, Model 68A, Automatic Products, 1948.



Item: Refrigeration water regulator ’68A’
Manufacturer: Automatic Products, Milwaukee, Wis.
Make: Automatic Products [AP]
Model: 68A
Features:
Brass casing with aluminium sleeve

Technical Significance:
It was the mid 20th century, a period before water conservation was a matter of wide spread public interest and concern. Yet water costs were escalating in many urban centres, where water metering had been introduced – thus making water conservation much more a matter of economics than an essential and mandatory conservation practice.

Industrial Significance:
Many early commercial refrigeration applications in dairies, food stores and confectioneries, were water-cooled systems. More efficient than air cooling the practice prevailed through out much of the 20th century, where the cost of water made it an affordable condensing medium.

In larger and multiple installations involving a number of condensing units a water tower would be used allowing the water to be evaporatively cooled and recycled.

Air cooling became increasingly popular in the latter part of the 20th century, with water conservation an ever increasing public issue, and with the development of large remote, multiple pass air condensers and head pressure control devices [See item ID # 195]


Water flow regulating valve

Other Refrigerating and Air conditioning Components and Parts – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.087

A compact, modulating, water flow, regulating valve for use on water cooled refrigerant condensers, equipped with brass body, external power element and 2 foot capillary line, calibrated for Freon 12 and 22, operates on refrigerant system head pressure to minimize water consumption, adjusting water flow to meet the needs of the system without overrun and wastage, Model 2300, Penn Controls, 1955.



Item: Water flow regulating valve
Manufacturer: Penn Controls Inc. Goshen, Ind.
Make: Penn Controls
Model: 2300, Type 246P03AR
Features:
– Eexternal, replaceable power element and capillary line

Technical Significance:
– It was the mid 20th century, a period before water conservation was a matter of wide spread public interest and concern. Yet water costs were escalating in many urban centres, where water metering had been introduced – thus making water conservation much more a matter of economics than an essential and mandatory conservation practice.

Industrial Significance:
– Many early commercial refrigeration applications in dairies, food stores and confectioneries, were water-cooled systems. More efficient than air cooling the practice prevailed through out much of the 20th century, where the cost of water made it an affordable condensing medium.
– In larger and multiple installations involving a number of condensing units a water tower would be used allowing the water to be evaporatively cooled and recycled.
– Air cooling became increasingly popular in the latter part of the 20th century, with water conservation an ever increasing public issue, and with the development of large remote, multiple pass air condensers and head pressure control devices [See item ID # 195]


5 cu.ft. household refrigerator

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Cabinet Refrigerators

Accession # HHCC.2003.001

Five Cubic Foot household, Cabinet Refrigerator With Condensing Unit For Remote Mounting, Kelvinator, Circa 1926.



Item: 5 cu.ft. household refrigerator
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator
Model: See Note #1

Features:
This condensing unit, noisy and dirty, often with the smell of sulphur dioxide was designed for “remote” mounting in the basement of the home, to be reconnected to the refrigerator cabinet with copper tubing

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen: This refrigerator stands as a statement of the earliest, embryonic years of refrigerating technology in Canada. Showing the natural effects of ageing and constant use and repair over its 50 year, active, life span. The condensing unit is in original pristine condition with the exception of the 25 cycle motor replaced at the time of frequency conversion in Ontario in 1948, up to which point the machine had been in constant use. The evaporator is likely not original with this machine, but typical of the brine-tank evaporators used in that period. It was a period in which refrigerators were subject to high maintenance, repair over a long life span.

Industrial Significance:
This specimen tells the stories of the early years of the development of the industry in North America, where the commitment of the Industry was to the inherently noisy, mechanically troubled compression refrigeration cycle, with slow speed, often crudely machined “chunking” compressors, open motor drives and fan cooled “whirring” condensers.The marketing of absorption systems, as an alternative, developed by Electrolux in Europe, and licensed to Servel in Evanseville Ind,. would still be several years away.
The early patent and world-wide registration marks Kelvinator as a pioneer in the field, as well as an aggressive global North American marketer. It had high expectations for industry leadership and domination.


8 cu.ft. household refrigerator

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Cabinet Refrigerators

Accession # HHCC.2003.002

Household, Eight Cubic Cabinet Kelvinator Refrigerator In All Porcelain Cabinet, Kelvinator,1931.



Item: 8 cu.ft. household refrigerator
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator
Model: PK7 See Note #1
Features:
Sliding crispers, egg racks, butter keepers interior cabinet lights and new easy to operate latching systems were the vanguard of many new amenities which would henceforth drive the field, along with “modern” new styling looks. – An added cabinet feature (not shown in the specification sheet) is an “elbow” operated door latch.

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen: The embryonic and early developmental years behind it, Kelvinator’s PK7 marked the beginning of its early growth years in Canada. By the mid 1930’s, in spite of the depression, electric refrigerator had made its mark on the consumer public. By now the electric refrigerator was more stable and quieter in operation with higher speed compressors and spring mounted condensing units and above all new modern styling befitting the period.

Industrial Significance:
The electric refrigerator was, all of a sudden, more attractive in appearance, with gleaming, easy to clean surfaces and fully rounded corners. It clearly had come into its own with its own unique aesthetic. No longer did it appear to the public as a thinly disguised ice box, an image which the public was, by now, quite happy to leave behind. As symbolised here, the PK7 was an important transition point in the development of the industry. Manufactures could see that their continued success would require more than merely well built, efficient and reliable refrigerating machines.
As an increasing number of manufacturers entered the field, the battle for market share was on; customer appeal and features were to become the key to customer sales. One authoritative source reported in 1933 specifications for 24 national manufacturers of household compression cycle refrigerators along with 5 absorption system manufacturers, including Elecrolux of Evansville Ind (See Ref. No. 3.1).


4 cu.ft. household refrigerator

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Cabinet Refrigerators

Accession # HHCC.2003.003

Household, Four Cubic Cabinet Refrigerator, Kelvinator 1934.



Item: 4 cu.ft. household refrigerator
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator
Model: N, See Note #1

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen: This machine symbolises a unique period in the development of the industry. It was part of the first growth period of the household refrigerator as a mass consumer good, moving beyond the embryonic years and the exclusive appeal to the elite market – once believed to be the only market. A second significant growth period would follow the pent up consumer demand of the late 1940’s a consequence of the Second World War. At that time, it was a first-time buyer’s market without trade-ins to be contended with. But for now the industry was targeting the first time buyer of modest means. It was a “refrigerator in every kitchen marketing” – following the lead of ther auto industry.

Industrial Significance:
By the early 1930’s it was realized that the much hoped for growth period of the industry, like that of the automobile industry, would come not from the manufacture and sale of high-end products, but also through the production of much more popularly affordable machines for middle class consumption, ones configured much better for the kitchens of the nation. – This refrigerator represents the early 1930’s market response to “the refrigerator in every kitchen” movement, paralleling the “automobile in every garage” movement of the times. It was originally priced at a low of $216.00 (See Ref. 1.2, Section 2, Form, C4916AA, price list dated Feb. 1 1935), for a replacement price in 1996 dollars of $2,650 – yet still a very sizeable investment for most households.


13 cu.ft. household refrigerator

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Cabinet Refrigerators

Accession # HHCC.2003.004

Household, 13 cubic Foot Refrigerator with Food Freezing Compartment, McClary, 1958.



Item: 13 cu.ft. household refrigerator
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario for General S
Make: McClary,
Model: ZD13-85-1,

Features:
Modern Post World War II design, reminiscent of the design idiom of the day, Moving from the curved lines of the pre-war Art Deco periodNew child-proof safety door lock, response to the loss of life by chidden and the safety promotions taken up by the industry itself ( See early examples of industry safety promotions)

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
As a result, Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen: is an example of a particular genre in the evolution of two temperature refrigeration system engineering for the household. Although the engineering design adopted here would be relatively short lived, it represented a major advance in refrigeration engineering, allowing a full two temperature refrigerator in a single cabinet, with single condensing unit. A a simple, transitional technology, the use of two static evaporators, operating at different temperatures was a major step in the evolution of the home refrigerator.
The advent of the two-temperature refrigerator, one in every kitchen of the nation, would be a goal of the industry, one largely achieved well before the end of the century. The impact on the way Canadians lived and their expectations for daily diet and life style was significant- for it was the “TV dinner” era had arrived along with the TV in the living room and the refrigerator freezer in the kitchen.

Industrial Significance:
An excellent example of the impressive Canadian manufacturing facilities for major appliances that developed in the 1950 to 60 in Ontario, prior to changing markets and increased competition leading to down-sizing, consolidation and globalisation of the industry. This is an icon from the golden age of Canadian appliance manufacturing. The changing market would soon see the demise of Kelvinator of Canada as the pioneer in refrigeration manufacturing in Canada. During the early post WWII years Kelvinator sought to build production capacity in its London Ontario plant by manufacturing for other, “come lately” companies, looking for a share of the post war boom market – such as General Steel Wares and Admiral.


14 cu.ft. household freezer

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Cabinet Refrigerators

Accession # HHCC.2003.005

Household, 14 cubic Foot, Vertical Freezer, Kelvinator, 1965.



Item: 14 cu.ft. household freezer
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator
Model: KVM 14-R

Features:
Modern Post World War II styling, in keeping with the design idiom of the day, square cornered, a departure from the smoothly rounded corners of the earlier Art Deco perod of the 1940’s

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
As a result, Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen: The advent of the vertical home freezer, as represented here by an acknowledged market leader of the period, Kelvinator, made possible and accelerated a significant movement in the consumer culture of the 1950’s and 60’s. It moved Canadian society and culture solidly into pre-packaged, frozen foods, one of the hall-marks of the dietary and consumer cultures of the last half of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
The long life, trouble and maintenance free, refrigerating technolgy represented in this machine [50 years] and others of the period, marked a plateau in the field, an achievement almost unimagined a decade earlier. This now historic artifact of canada’s material culture of technology stands as a prime offering of Canada’s golden age of appliance manufacturing [See also THOC-HVACR-004]. The engineering and production of this line of consumer products by Kelvinator of Canada would mark the maturity and decline of the company as a pioneer in the Canadian refrigeration and appliance industry. Competitive pressures and the changing nature of the market place would make it difficult for small innovative manufactures like Kelvinator of Canada to survive. Within a few years the company would be sold to a large corporate conglomerate, and the name Kelvinator would soon become a marketing label and little more.


Room air conditioner ‘Frigidaire’

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Air Conditioners

Accession # HHCC.2003.006

Household, Through-the-Window, Room Air Conditioner, Frigidaire, 1956.



Item: Room air conditioner ‘Frigidaire’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Products Canada Ltd, Scarborough, Ont
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Super 33

Features:
Automatic temperature control, Outside fresh air damper Air filter Complete, original installation kit

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen stands as a marker of the embryonic years of household air conditioning in Canada. While vastly under powered, by the standards that would follow, it was for most urban dwellers affordable and a significant market opener.

Industrial Significance:
The development of high heat transfer, capacity compressors, condensers, evaporators and flow control devices, at a price that home owners were likely to find affordable, would be a major challenge and success story for the refrigeration industry in the early years of home air conditioning. The industry would quickly adapting what had been learned in the design of reliable hermetic compressors and coiling for the food industry to high heat transfer systems required for household air conditioning applications.Suddenly the refrigeration and air conditioning industry expanded dramatically with a number of new non-traditional players designing, manufacturing and marketing equipment for household and commercial applications. In the face of increasing competition from manufactures with massive engineering and production facilities, many of the traditional suppliers to the refrigeration field would quickly fade from their earlier position of market leadership, including Kelvinator and Frigidaire.


Room air conditioner ‘GE’

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Air Conditioners

Accession # HHCC.2003.007

Household, Through-the-Wall, Room, Air Conditioner, General Electric, 1959.



Item: Room air conditioner ‘GE’
Manufacturer: GE, Louisville USA
Make: General Electric
Model: 1R32NA
Features: Automatic temperature control, out-side air damper, air filter air frshning cartridge Unused equipment with original price tag and original owners manual

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
As a result, Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
The Significance of this Specimen rests in its special transitional status as a “sandwich technology”, between the window, room air conditioner and central summer cooling for the Canadian home, which would soon follow for all those who could afford it.

Industrial Significance:
Beautifully engineered and crafted this machine stands as a model of the refrigeration engineering know-how of the period, as well as the sophisticated production engineering that industry giants, with massive economic resources, such as GE, could bring to the field.


Double door refrigerator

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Commercial Refrigerating Equipment

Accession # HHCC.2003.008

Nine and One Half Cubic Foot, Double door, Cabinet Refrigerator, Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: Double door refrigerator
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont.
Make: Kelvinator
Model: 233
Features:
Four heavy galvanised steel wire shelves; evaporator baffles (evaporator not included), early refrigerator lift latches in pristine condition

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
As a result, Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
The Significance of this Specimen: The significant contribution of refrigerators, represented by this specimen lies in the market for the technology opened up for larger refrigerators, which would grace the kitchens of wealthy estates throughout the 1930’s, as well as being found in a new generation of food retailers, the family run,”mumma and papa” store of the pre WW II era.


Double door refrigerator

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Commercial Refrigerating Equipment

Accession # HHCC.2003.009

Nine and One Half Cubic Foot, Double door, Cabinet Refrigerator, Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: Double door refrigerator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire, Electric Refrigerator, Frigidaire Corp
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Cabinet MP7

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
As a result, Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen, along with inventory item No.008 help to profile the significant changes in the industry’s public offerings over a brief 2 years, from 1926 to 1928. The last half of the decade was a period remarkable styling, engineering and manufacturing innovation in the industry, inspired by the rapid market growth of the period. Included, as highlighted in contrasting the two specimens, are styling [square to round, modern corners of the Art deco], finish [yellowing paint to gleaming white porcelain], size and weight of condensing unit.


Two tray evaporator ‘CT31X’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.011

Two tray, ice maker evaporator with low-side float, Cooling Unit for Household Cabinet Refrigerator, Kelvinator,1930.



Item: Two tray evaporator ‘CT31X’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: CT31X

Technical Significance:
The technological significance of the evaporator in a mechanical refrigeration system lies in its ability to evaporate liquid refrigerant (allowing it to absorb latent heat and thus perform useful cooling). In the public mind, however, the useful work was more simply that of cooling. This lead astute manufactures to popularise the use of the term “cooling unit” in place of evaporator. It was the term adopted by the industry in the early years, as it attempted to connect with the human experience of the times to better promote its wares, gaining market share in the embryonic years of Canada’s emerging consumer society. (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada)
Human experience and the social culture of the 1920’s also associated useful cooling with the melting of ice. Historically manufactures successfully played to this sense of public understanding by further marketing cooling units as icemakers. By this means they appealed to wide spread cultural understandings of how things got cooled, through the controlled melting of ice (the popular Canadian icebox of the 1920’s and 30’s). In a peculiar twist, it was often the job of the refrigeration sales or service man to explain to the homemaker that it was not really the ice in the ice cube trays that cooled the refrigerator, but the motor and compressor underneath.
In the 1920’s manufactures of mechanical refrigerators for the home appealed to the consumer public by promoting ice and ice cream as the new consumables, the new food sensations available for all those sufficiently affluent to enjoy the experience. Promotional literature focused on the pleasant sensation of ice cold beverages and on ice cream making at home – using the latest cooling unit. A recipe and food life style book came with the refrigerator for the edification and instruction of the homemaker (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada). Ice and ice cream making in the home was, in fact, one of the significant, new “Gee whiz”, household technologies of the times.
This specimen is an early example of the genre, engineered by Kelvinator for use in one of its household cabinet refrigerators. Trouble prone, the flooded evaporator with low-side float would be would quickly be replaced, however, with less expensive and more trouble free evaporator technology well within the decade.

Industrial Significance:
With complex, demanding construction, the evaporator would make many demands on manufacturing and materials engineering in Ontario in the early years of the 20th century.


Two tray evaporator ‘CT31X’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.012

Two tray, icemaker evaporator with low-side float; white porcelain front panel and chromium control mounting, a cooling unit up-scaled for use on Kelvinator’s “Yukon”, a deluxe household cabinet Refrigerator, Kelvinator,1930.



Item: Two tray evaporator ‘CT31X’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: CT31X
Features:
White porcelain front plate with chromium control plate mounting, ice cube trays with deep chromium plated front plates and handles, reflective not only the increasing sophistication available to the refrigeration industry (in terms of materials and manufacturing techniques), but also of the public desire for clean, crisp, easy to clean modern looking surfaces – a far cry from the icebox the nation wished now to leave behind.

Technical Significance:
The technological significance of the evaporator in a mechanical refrigeration system lies in its ability to evaporate liquid refrigerant (allowing it to absorb latent heat and thus perform useful cooling). In the public mind, however, the useful work was more simply that of cooling. This lead astute manufactures to popularise the use of the term “cooling unit” in place of evaporator. It was the term adopted by the industry in the early years, as it attempted to connect with the human experience of the times to better promote its wares, gaining market share in the embryonic years of Canada’s emerging consumer society. (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada)
Human experience and the social culture of the 1920’s also associated useful cooling with the melting of ice. Historically manufactures successfully played to this sense of public understanding by further marketing cooling units as icemakers. By this means they appealed to wide spread cultural understandings of how things got cooled, through the controlled melting of ice (the popular Canadian icebox of the 1920’s and 30’s). In a peculiar twist, it was often the job of the refrigeration sales or service man to explain to the homemaker that it was not really the ice in the ice cube trays that cooled the refrigerator, but the motor and compressor underneath.
In the 1920’s manufactures of mechanical refrigerators for the home appealed to the consumer public by promoting ice and ice cream as the new consumables, the new food sensations available for all those sufficiently affluent to enjoy the experience. Promotional literature focused on the pleasant sensation of ice cold beverages and on ice cream making at home – using the latest cooling unit. A recipe and food life style book came with the refrigerator for the edification and instruction of the homemaker (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada). Ice and ice cream making in the home was, in fact, one of the significant, new “Gee whiz”, household technologies of the times.
This specimen demonstrates the way the basic technology of the cooling units of the period was gentrified. What was being sold was much less a fully functioning refrigerated household appliance than style, a technique discovered and successfully applied by auto makers at about the same time.


Two tray evaporator ‘1TF’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.013

Two tray, icemaker evaporator with low-side float; cooling unit for household cabinet refrigerator, Frigidaire,1926.



Item: Two tray evaporator ‘1TF’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire, USA
Make: Frigidaire
Model: 1TF

Technical Significance:
The technological significance of the evaporator in a mechanical refrigeration system lies in its ability to evaporate liquid refrigerant (allowing it to absorb latent heat and thus perform useful cooling). In the public mind, however, the useful work was more simply that of cooling. This lead astute manufactures to popularise the use of the term “cooling unit” in place of evaporator. It was the term adopted by the industry in the early years, as it attempted to connect with the human experience of the times to better promote its wares, gaining market share in the embryonic years of Canada’s emerging consumer society. (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada)
Human experience and the social culture of the 1920’s also associated useful cooling with the melting of ice. Historically manufactures successfully played to this sense of public understanding by further marketing cooling units as icemakers. By this means they appealed to wide spread cultural understandings of how things got cooled, through the controlled melting of ice (the popular Canadian icebox of the 1920’s and 30’s). In a peculiar twist, it was often the job of the refrigeration sales or service man to explain to the homemaker that it was not really the ice in the ice cube trays that cooled the refrigerator, but the motor and compressor underneath.
In the 1920’s manufactures of mechanical refrigerators for the home appealed to the consumer public by promoting ice and ice cream as the new consumables, the new food sensations available for all those sufficiently affluent to enjoy the experience. Promotional literature focused on the pleasant sensation of ice cold beverages and on ice cream making at home – using the latest cooling unit. A recipe and food life style book came with the refrigerator for the edification and instruction of the homemaker (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada). Ice and ice cream making in the home was, in fact, one of the significant, new “Gee whiz”, household technologies of the times.
This specimen is a particularly early, a well-preserved sample of cooling unit art form (Frigidaire shows this evaporator as discontinued May 5, 1928). Crude in manufacturing techniques, by subsequent standards, the industry would move quickly to modernise the look of its products and to develop the materials and manufacturing processes needed to produce them. (See for example items 011 and 012)


Two tray evaporator ‘Norge’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.014

Two tray, flooded evaporator with low-side float, modern, formed front plate and hinged door in white porcelain, decorated with black trim and built in temperature control mount; cooling unit for Norge household cabinet refrigerator, Norge, 1936.



Item: Two tray evaporator ‘Norge’
Manufacturer: Borg Warner Corp. Michigan
Make: Norge
Model: unknown
Features:
Styled with modern curved line and form, this cooling unit reflects the Art Deco influences of the mid 1930’s. Of special note is the built in temperature control and on-off switch, conveniently place for the homemaker. The control is equipped with a manual, reset overload switch by Ranco, a leading innovation in control technology for the times

Technical Significance:
The technological significance of the evaporator in a mechanical refrigeration system lies in its ability to evaporate liquid refrigerant (allowing it to absorb latent heat and thus perform useful cooling). In the public mind, however, the useful work was more simply that of cooling. This lead astute manufactures to popularise the use of the term “cooling unit” in place of evaporator. It was the term adopted by the industry in the early years, as it attempted to connect with the human experience of the times to better promote its wares, gaining market share in the embryonic years of Canada’s emerging consumer society. (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada)
Human experience and the social culture of the 1920’s also associated useful cooling with the melting of ice. Historically manufactures successfully played to this sense of public understanding by further marketing cooling units as icemakers. By this means they appealed to wide spread cultural understandings of how things got cooled, through the controlled melting of ice (the popular Canadian icebox of the 1920’s and 30’s). In a peculiar twist, it was often the job of the refrigeration sales or service man to explain to the homemaker that it was not really the ice in the ice cube trays that cooled the refrigerator, but the motor and compressor underneath.
In the 1920’s manufactures of mechanical refrigerators for the home appealed to the consumer public by promoting ice and ice cream as the new consumables, the new food sensations available for all those sufficiently affluent to enjoy the experience. Promotional literature focused on the pleasant sensation of ice cold beverages and on ice cream making at home – using the latest cooling unit. A recipe and food life style book came with the refrigerator for the edification and instruction of the homemaker (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada). Ice and ice cream making in the home was, in fact, one of the significant, new “Gee whiz”, household technologies of the times.
This specimen is a remarkable icon of its time, marking a dramatic change in engineering, manufacturing and styling, as the industry geared up to move beyond its embryonic development years. Of particular note, technically, is the inclusion of an automatic overload device, with manual reset. This was representative of the early years of safety control technology designed for equipment protection and personal safety.

Industrial Significance:
With the mid 1930’s came increased competition in the refrigeration appliance field, as companies such as Borg Warner and General Motors/Frigidaire, with significant engineering and production experience and resources behind them made major investments in the now rapidly expanding field.


Three tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.015

Three tray, dry evaporator for High-side float, in formed, rolled steel and heavy white porcelain, fast freezing shelf in stainless steel, for household cabinet refrigerator, Kelvinator, 1936.



Item: Three tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Klelvinator of Canada, London Ont.
Make: Kelvinator

Technical Significance:
See Technological Significance documentation for THOC-HVACR 014. Like specimen 014, this historical artifact of the Canadian HVACR industry is a remarkable icon of its time, marking a dramatic change in engineering, manufacturing and styling, as the industry geared up to move well beyond its embryonic development years of the 1920’s.

Industrial Significance:
The offering was a significant attempt by Kelvinator and the Canadian refrigeration industry to improve system, cooling and thermodynamic efficiencies, reduce manufacturing costs by investing in new materials, construction and manufacturing technologies, as well as to capture a second market interest in frozen foods.


Four tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.016

Horizontal, four tray, dry evaporator for high-side float, in formed, rolled steel and heavy white porcelain, with fast freezing shelf in stainless steel, “high tech” remote bulb temperature control, defrost and overload controllers, for use on household cabinet refrigerator, Kelvinator, 1936.



Item: Four tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont.
Make: Kelvinator
Features:
Gleaming white porcelain finish; full back cooling unit with door in brushed aluminium ( a new designer material of the mid 30’s) with a classic design idiom.

Technical Significance:
See Technological Significance documentation for THOC-HVACR 014 and 015. Like specimens 014 and 015, this historical artifact of the Canadian HVACR industry is a remarkable icon of its time, marking a dramatic change in engineering, concepts, manufacturing and styling, as the industry geared up to move well beyond its embryonic development years of the 1920’s. Of special note is the level of automation and refrigeration system regulation reflected here, in remote bulb temperature controlling, defrost control and motor over load protection (See also historical artifacts THOC-HVACR Group 7.00 ). Seen here are the early manifestations of engineering thought in the practical application of what would become the cybernetic revolution of the 40’s and 50’s, in which mechanical and electrical systems were conceived as purposeful, self-regulating and self-directing entities.
Here, too, the unprepared public would be faced, most for the first time, with a myriad of switches and buttons (three), arrayed on a control panel (not included), which they were expected to understand and use effectively – most did not. The local refrigeration salesman and serviceman, the support network of the times, were constantly on call, if the householder found melted ice-cream, and other dripping contents on opening the refrigerator.
Here, then, are the early manifestations, realised in the engineering concepts and hardware of the period, of the on-coming revolution in the processing of meaningful, purposeful, information through feedback loops. (See “Modern Systems Research for the Behavioral Scientist, W. Buckley, 1968) .

Industrial Significance:
This offering was a significant attempt by Kelvinator and the Canadian refrigeration industry to improve system cooling and thermodynamic efficiencies, reduce manufacturing costs and progressively automate and regulate their systems better. The industry was investing heavily in new materials, construction and manufacturing technologies, in order to capture the interests of a second market buyers market.


Four tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.017

Horizontal, four tray, dry evaporator for high-side float, in formed and rolled steel and heavy white porcelain, “high tech” remote bulb temperature control with defrost and overload controllers and cabinet thermometer, for use on household cabinet refrigerator, Kelvinator, 1936.



Item: Four tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont.
Make: Kelvinator
Features:
Gleaming white porcelain finish; full back cooling unit with door in brushed aluminium ( a new designer material of the mid 30’s) with a classic “K” Kelvinator insignia in modern design idiom.

Technical Significance:
See Technological Significance documentation for THOC-HVACR 014, 015 and 016. Like the above, this historical artifact of the Canadian HVACR industry is a remarkable icon of its time, marking a dramatic change in engineering, concepts, manufacturing and styling, as the industry geared up to move well beyond its embryonic development years of the 1920’s. Of special note is the level of automation and refrigeration system regulation reflected here, in remote bulb temperature controlling, defrost control and motor over load protection (See also historical artifacts THOC-HVACR Group 7.00 ). Seen here are the early manifestations of engineering thought in the practical application of what would become the cybernetic revolution of the 40’s and 50’s, in which mechanical and electrical systems were conceived as purposeful, self-regulating and self-directing entities.
Here, too, the unprepared public would be faced, most for the first time, with a myriad of switches and buttons (three), arrayed on a control panel (not included), which they were expected to understand and use effectively – most did not. The local refrigeration salesman and serviceman, the support network of the times, were constantly on call, if the householder found melted ice-cream, and other dripping contents on opening the refrigerator.
Here, then, are the early manifestations, realised in the engineering concepts and hardware of the period, of the on-coming revolution in the processing of meaningful, purposeful, information through feedback loops. (See “Modern Systems Research for the Behavioral Scientist, W. Buckley, 1968) .

Industrial Significance:
This offering was a significant attempt by Kelvinator and the Canadian refrigeration industry to improve system cooling and thermodynamic efficiencies, reduce manufacturing costs and progressively automate and regulate their systems better. The industry was investing heavily in new materials, construction and manufacturing technologies, in order to capture the interests of a second market buyers market.


Frozen food evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.018

The Canadian refrigeration industry was moving beyond the concept of a refrigerant evaporator as “ice maker” (see item 011), to a cooling unit designed for frozen foods. Using advanced materials engineering for the period, this specimen is fabricated in stainless steel, with high conductivity, rolled and formed refrigerant passages and equipped with an automatic expansion valve, 1940.



Item: Frozen food evaporator
Manufacturer: Unknown, possibly Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont
Make: Unknown, possibly Kelvinator
Features:
Built in mechanical lifters to release ice cube trays and frozen food packages

Technical Significance:
The industry was moving rapidly to more thermodynamically and mechanically efficient refrigerating systems, with the development of non-noxious, refrigerants, and hermetically sealed refrigeration systems and a new generation of smaller less trouble prone flow controls – represented here by the automatic expansion valve (See artifact Group 3.00) .

Industrial Significance:
The Canadian refrigeration industry was continuing to invest heavily in new materials and manufacturing technology to meet the market potential of the period. Much of the design and engineering development of the time was both facilitated and accelerated by the research of wartime years, as well as being constrained by the shortages of materials and skilled labour.


Frozen food evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.019

A precursor of the high style, amenity driven, frozen food, household refrigerator cooling unit of the middle years of the 20 th century, this one is equipped for capillary refrigerant flow control. It employs high conductivity, smoothly articulated surfaces, here executed in stainless steel, employing sophisticated engineering and manufacturing methods, here-to not available to the industry, Norge, 1942.



Item: Frozen food evaporator
Manufacturer: Borg Warner Corp. Michigan
Make: Norge
Model: unknown
Features:
High style evaporator door in white porcelain, with gold monographNatural rubber door gasket in pigmented grey.
Rear mounted refrigerator light

Technical Significance:
The significance of this specimen rests in its evolutionary context. It is part of the dynamic, rapidly changing pattern of developmental events that saw the Canadian refrigeration industry move beyond its crude, early offerings to the households of the nation and do so in a period of much less than two decades. Markers of the changing times evident here include: large, fast freezing surfaces for frozen foods, modern amenities and styling, along with technologically elegant refrigerant flow control methods. Taking advantage of war time research and development in the aluminium industry, the industry would shortly move to its use, as the material of choice in the fabrication of household evaporators – but not with out considerable growing pains.

Industrial Significance:
See report #014 for the special contribution of companies like Borg Warner to the work of the Canadian refrigeration industry


Replacement 2 tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.020

A general replacement, 2 tray cooling unit for household refrigerator. A transition evaporator technology; fabricated in aluminium, using coiled, tinned copper tubing, sandwiched between aluminium plates;. equipped with Ranco type KW remote bulb temperature control, Air Coils Oakville Ont. 1946.



Item: Replacement 2 tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Air Coils, Oakville Ont.
Make: Air Coils
Model: 31-17

Technical Significance:
The significance of this specimen, like 019, rests in its evolutionary context. It is part of the dynamic, rapidly changing pattern of developmental events that saw the Canadian refrigeration industry move beyond its crude, early offerings to the households of the nation and do so in a period of much less than two decades. Of special significance, technologically, is the dramatic tansition from the crude designs of the 1920’s and 30’sto those of the 40’s enabled by new materials science and newly informed engineering theory and practice.


Refrigerant flow control

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.041

An early, refrigerant flow control, using an automatic expansion valve principle, a pioneering contribution by Kelvinator to the embryonic years of the refrigeration industry in Canada. Handsomely executed in a 5 lb. solid cast brass body and large pressure actuated diaphragm operator, it was engineered for noxious sulphur dioxide, the then newly developed, low pressure refrigerant of choice, Model B1, Kelvinator, circa 1926.

On of a rare set of three similar valves, demonstrating the array of adaptations and applications conceived by Kelvinator for this refrigerant flow control devices, all emerging from the same basic platform. See ID #3.01-1 A, B, C, See Kevinator manuals of the period for depictions of applications and adaptations.



Item: Refrigerant flow control
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan
Make: Kelvinator
Model: B1
Features:
Heavy, 5 lb. cast brass body; Handsomely embossed with kelvinator logo; Over coated with aluminium paint, employing a dispersion of aluminium particles in oil-based paint vehicle, new for the period;

Adjustment screw capped and water sealed with knurled brass, screw in cover plate; Heavy brass, threaded access ports for the service of internal mechanism

The valve was conceived by Kelvinator with a spring compensated, 3″ round diaphragm and brass needle seat, and equipped with built-in strainer and pressure adjustment screw, the precursor of much more sophisticated devices to come.

Technical Significance:
A rare specimen of a self-regulating, spring compensated, automatic expansion valve patented by Kelvinator in 1923 and used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

One of a rare set of three similar valves, demonstrating the vast array of adaptations and applications conceived by Kelvinator for this refrigerant flow control devices, all emerging from the same basic platform. See ID #3.01-1 A, B, C Kelvinator’s various manual of the period show the many applications and adaptations that would flow from this basic design concept.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts], it had the advantage of reliability and price, as well as serviceability.

The device demonstrates the manner in which the scientific knowledge, materials and manufacturing methods of the times would come to be used in a refrigerant flow control, popularly appearing in the kitchens of the privileged across the nation.

The artifact is suggestive of the problems faced by the emerging refrigeration service sector in Canada. Kelvinator’s service manual, March 1928 gave full details for cleaning and adjustment on which the homeowner would regularly depend, and in turn the manufacturer, for continued customer satisfaction.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘B’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.042

One of a number of later design variants and simplifications of the early automatic, B series, expansion valve by Kelvinator [see also ID #165 & 167]. Handsomely executed in a 5 lb. solid cast brass body with large pressure actuated diaphragm operator, it was engineered for flange mounting for noxious sulphur dioxide, then the low pressure refrigerant of choice, Model B3, Kelvinator, circa 1927.

On of a rare set of three similar valves, demonstrating the array of adaptations and applications conceived by Kelvinator for this refrigerant flow control devices, all emerging from the same basic platform. See ID #3.01-1 A, B, C, See Kevinator manuals of the period for depictions of applications and adaptations.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘B’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan
Make: Kelvinator
Model: B3
Features:
Heavy, 5 lb. cast brass body; Handsomely embossed with kelvinator logo; Adjustment screw capped and water sealed with knurled brass, screw in cover plate; Heavy brass, threaded access ports for the service of internal mechanism; The valve was conceived by Kelvinator with a spring compensated, 3″ round diaphragm and brass needle seat, suction line mounting flange and pressure adjustment screw, the precursor of much more sophisticated devices to come.

Technical Significance:
A rare specimen of a self-regulating, spring compensated, automatic expansion valve patented by Kelvinator in 1923 and used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

One of a rare set of three similar valves, demonstrating the vast array of adaptations and applications conceived by Kelvinator for this refrigerant flow control devices, all emerging from the same basic platform, over a period of half a decade or more possibly from about 1922 through to 1929. See ID #3.01-1 A, B, C Kelvinator’s various manual of the period show the many applications and adaptations that would flow from this basic design concept.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts], it had the advantage of reliability and price, as well as serviceability.

The device demonstrates the manner in which the scientific knowledge, materials and manufacturing methods of the times would come to be used in a refrigerant flow control, popularly appearing in the kitchens of the privileged across the nation.

The artifact is suggestive of the problems faced by the emerging refrigeration service sector in Canada. Kelvinator’s service manual, March 1928 gave full details for cleaning and adjustment on which the homeowner would regularly depend, and in turn the manufacturer, for continued customer satisfaction.

Note the signs of progressive design simplification and economies in size and manufacturing represented here over item ID #165.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘B’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.043

One of a number of later design variants and simplifications of the early automatic, B series, expansion valve by Kelvinator [see also ID #165 & 167]. Handsomely executed in a 5 lb. solid cast brass body with large pressure actuated diaphragm operator, it was engineered for flange mounting for noxious sulphur dioxide, then the low pressure refrigerant of choice, Model B2, Kelvinator, circa 1927.

On of a rare set of three similar valves, demonstrating the array of adaptations and applications conceived by Kelvinator for this refrigerant flow control devices, all emerging from the same basic platform. See ID #3.01-1 A, B, C, See Kevinator manuals of the period for depictions of applications and adaptations.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘B’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan
Make: Kelvinator
Model: B2
Features:
Heavy, 5 lb. cast brass body; Handsomely embossed with kelvinator logo; Adjustment screw capped and water sealed with knurled brass, screw in cover plate; Heavy brass, threaded access ports for the service of internal mechanism; The valve was conceived by Kelvinator with a spring compensated, 3″ round diaphragm and brass needle seat, suction line mounting flange and pressure adjustment screw, the precursor of much more sophisticated devices to come.

Technical Significance:
A rare specimen of a self-regulating, spring compensated, automatic expansion valve patented by Kelvinator in 1923 and used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

One of a rare set of three similar valves, demonstrating the vast array of adaptations and applications conceived by Kelvinator for this refrigerant flow control devices, all emerging from the same basic platform, over a period of half a decade or more possibly from about 1922 through to 1929. See ID #3.01-1 A, B, C Kelvinator’s various manual of the period show the many applications and adaptations that would flow from this basic design concept.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts], it had the advantage of reliability and price, as well as serviceability.

The device demonstrates the manner in which the scientific knowledge, materials and manufacturing methods of the times would come to be used in a refrigerant flow control, popularly appearing in the kitchens of the privileged across the nation.

The artifact is suggestive of the problems faced by the emerging refrigeration service sector in Canada. Kelvinator’s service manual, March 1928 gave full details for cleaning and adjustment on which the homeowner would regularly depend, and in turn the manufacturer, for continued customer satisfaction.

Note the signs of progressive design simplification and economies in size and manufacturing represented here over item ID #165.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.044

An early, second generation, compact, spring compensated, adjustable, automatic expansion valve with solid, cast brass body, built-in inlet filter screen, original moisture protection cap in natural rubber, engineered for noxious sulphur dioxide, then the low pressure refrigerant of choice, Model M, American Injector, circa 1930.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘M’
Manufacturer: American Injector Co., Detroit
Make: American Injector
Model: M
Features:
Adjustment screw capped with original cap in natural rubber; Liquid line inlet screen

Technical Significance:
An example of the new generation of compact, more precisely engineered and performing expansion valves emerging early in the 1930’s, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

Dramatises the major gains made by the industry over a period of less than 5 years, during a period of feverish research and development using the scant knowledge and experience available to workers in the field at the time, compare ID # 165 to 168

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology, the automatic expansion valve. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of more costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts], it had the advantage of reliability and price, as well as serviceability.

Industrial Significance:
The engineering sophistication and advancements in manufacturing, assembly and materials utilization, represented here, in contrast to ID # 1655-168 stands as a remarkable industry achievement.

Not untypical of the times, the American Injector Company stands as an early innovator in the field of refrigerant flow controls without a sustained history in the industry. A current search of the WWW reveals no such name, possibly long since evolved into another corporate identity.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘672’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.045

An early, second generation, compact, spring compensated, adjustable, automatic expansion valve for use on “dry evaporators made by arguably the leader in the technology of the period, Detroit Lubricator, with cast brass body and aluminium overcoat, built-in inlet filter screen, original moisture protection cap in natural rubber, engineered for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, Model 672, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1935.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘672’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 672, Series 10C
Features:
Adjustment screw capped with original moisture protecting cap in natural rubber. Rubber is preserved in original condition, unusual for the 1930’s, where rubbers deteriorated quickly, especially in contact with oil. The caps were needed to protect the valve-adjusting stem from condensation water dripping of the coiling unit. Condensation would typically re-freeze along the adjustment screw, causing the valve to loose its calibrated setting.

Removable liquid line inlet screen

Technical Significance:
An example of the new generation of compact, more precisely engineered and performing expansion valves emerging early in the 1930’s, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

Dramatises the major gains made by the industry over a period of less than 5 years, during a period of feverish research and development using the scant knowledge and experience available to workers in the field at the time, compare ID # 165 to 168

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology, the automatic expansion valve. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of more costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts, ID # 175 and 176 for example], it had the advantage of reliability, maintainability and affordability, as well as serviceability.

Industrial Significance:
The engineering sophistication and advancements in manufacturing, assembly and materials utilization, represented here, in contrast to ID # 165-168 stands as a remarkable industry achievement.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘672’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.046

An early, second generation, compact, spring compensated, adjustable, automatic expansion valve for use on “dry evaporators made by arguably the leader in the technology of the period, Detroit Lubricator, with cast brass body and aluminium overcoat, built-in inlet filter screen, engineered for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, Model 672, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1935.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘672’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 672
Features:
Removable liquid line inlet screen

Technical Significance:
An example of the new generation of compact, more precisely engineered and performing expansion valves emerging early in the 1930’s, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

Dramatises the major gains made by the industry over a period of less than 5 years, during a period of feverish research and development using the scant knowledge and experience available to workers in the field at the time, compare ID # 165 to 168

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology, the automatic expansion valve. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of more costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts, ID # 175 and 176 for example], it had the advantage of reliability, maintainability and affordability, as well as serviceability.

Industrial Significance:
The engineering sophistication and advancements in manufacturing, assembly and materials utilization, represented here, in contrast to ID # 165-168 stands as a remarkable industry achievement.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘670’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.047

An early, compact, spring compensated, adjustable, automatic expansion valve for use on “dry evaporators”, made by arguably the leader in the technology of the period, Detroit Lubricator, with heavy cast brass body, brass bellows, screw shaft adjustment seal and inlet filter screen, engineered for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, Model 670, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1932.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘670’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 670, Series 1
Features:
Removable liquid line inlet screen

Technical Significance:
The Detroit Model 670 would proceed the 672 [see ID # 169 and 170], equipped with bellows adjustment stem seal and beautifully machined brass body, it would no doubt prove to be a costly device to produce.

An example of the new generation of compact, more precisely engineered and performing expansion valves emerging early in the 1930’s, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

Dramatises the major gains made by the industry over a period of less than 5 years, during a period of feverish research and development using the scant knowledge and experience available to workers in the field at the time, compare ID # 165 to 168

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology, the automatic expansion valve. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of more costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts, ID # 175 and 176 for example], it had the advantage of reliability, maintainability and affordability, as well as serviceability.

Industrial Significance:
The engineering sophistication and advancements in manufacturing, assembly and materials utilization, represented here, in contrast to ID # 165-168 stands as a remarkable industry achievement.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘C1’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.048

An early, compact, spring compensated, adjustable, automatic expansion valve for use on “dry evaporators”, apparently manufactured for Kelvinator by the M B Company, with heavy cast brass body, flange mounted and equipped with bronze bellows, screw adjustment shaft seal, engineered for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, Kelvinator Model C1, circa 1932. One of a set of two identical valves, see Ref code 3.01-5B, ID # 173.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘C1’
Manufacturer: M B Company
Make: M B for Kelvinator
Model: Kelvinator C1

Technical Significance:
An example of the new generation of compact, more precisely engineered and performing expansion valves emerging early in the 1930’s, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

Dramatises the major gains made by the industry over a period of less than 5 years, during a period of feverish research and development using the scant knowledge and experience available to workers in the field at the time, compare ID # 165 to 168

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology, the automatic expansion valve. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of more costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts, ID # 175 and 176 for example], it had the advantage of reliability, maintainability and affordability, as well as serviceability.

Industrial Significance:
It was a period of rapid industry growth, as well as technological development and innovation in the refrigeration industry. Systems were becoming increasingly complex as the industry moved to improve their reliability and performance. Small satellite manufacturers, characterized here by the M B Company, were attracted to the rapidly evolving field in the hopes of securing contracts for the production of component parts. The phenomena of industrial out-souring had been discovered by Kelvinator.

The fact that the M B Company seems to have been relatively short lived tells many of the stories of the times – companies without the resources for sustainability in a rapidly evolving field.

The engineering sophistication and advancements in manufacturing, assembly and materials utilization, represented here, in contrast to ID # 165-168 stands as a remarkable industry achievement.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘C1’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.049

An early, compact, spring compensated, adjustable, automatic expansion valve for use on “dry evaporators”, apparently manufactured for Kelvinator by the M B Company, with heavy cast brass body, flange mounted and equipped with bronze bellows, screw adjustment shaft seal, engineered for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, Kelvinator Model C1, circa 1932. One of a set of two identical valves, see Ref code 3.01-5A, ID # 172.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘C1’
Manufacturer: M B Company
Make: M B for Kelvinator
Model: Kelvinator C1

Technical Significance:
An example of the new generation of compact, more precisely engineered and performing expansion valves emerging early in the 1930’s, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

Dramatises the major gains made by the industry over a period of less than 5 years, during a period of feverish research and development using the scant knowledge and experience available to workers in the field at the time, compare ID # 165 to 168

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology, the automatic expansion valve. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of more costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts, ID # 175 and 176 for example], it had the advantage of reliability, maintainability and affordability, as well as serviceability.

Industrial Significance:
It was a period of rapid industry growth, as well as technological development and innovation in the refrigeration industry. Systems were becoming increasingly complex as the industry moved to improve their reliability and performance. Small satellite manufacturers, characterized here by the M B Company, were attracted to the rapidly evolving field in the hopes of securing contracts for the production of component parts. The phenomena of industrial out-souring had been discovered by Kelvinator.

The fact that the M B Company seems to have been relatively short lived tells many of the stories of the times – companies without the resources for sustainability in a rapidly evolving field.

The engineering sophistication and advancements in manufacturing, assembly and materials utilization, represented here, in contrast to ID # 165-168 stands as a remarkable industry achievement.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘AP204’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.050

A mid 20th century, compact, spring compensated, adjustable, automatic expansion valve for use on “dry evaporators”, with tin coated, cast brass body, flange mounting and wrench pads, finely calibrated and rated for sulphur dioxide, methyl chloride and Freon 12 refrigerant [Incomplete Assembly] Automatic Products, Model AP204, circa 1944.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘AP204’
Manufacturer: Automatic Products Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Make: Automatic Products [AP]
Model: AP204
Features:
Original manufacturer’s installation and service instruction sheet; Inlet screen; Moisture proof, more robust metal cap and seal [not included]

Technical Significance
An example of the new generation of compact, more precisely engineered and performing expansion valves emerging early in the 1940’s, calibrated and engineered the wider range of refrigerants then in use, including mainly sulphur dioxide, menthol chloride and Freon 12

Dramatises the major gains made by the industry over a period of less than 10 years, during a period of feverish research and development using the scant knowledge and experience available to workers in the field at the time, compare ID # 165 to 173

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology, the automatic expansion valve. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of more costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts, ID # 175 and 176 for example], it had the advantage of reliability, maintainability and affordability, as well as serviceability.

Industrial Significance:
Following W.W.II, in the 1940’s, the refrigeration and air conditioning industry went through a second major growth spurt. By then it was armed with new technology, manufacturing and engineering know-how, as well as new materials to work with – much of it the results of war-time research, development and field practice.

This valve in many ways characterizes the world change that had taken place, encouraging, allowing and facilitating many new refrigeration and air conditioning applications. These were especially evident in the emergence of sophisticated “packaged systems”. Using the new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants [e.g., Freon 12], the systems were smaller more compact, quieter and more user friendly.


Refrigeration float control ‘E1’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.051

An early high side float control for household cabinet refrigerator, housed in refrigerant receiver and used for metering liquid refrigerant into a flooded evaporator \r\nModel E1, Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont., Circa 1933.



Item: Refrigeration float control ‘E1’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont
Make: Kelvinator
Model: E1
Features:
Liquid line valve moulded foam rubber insulated cover

Technical Significance:
Typical of the technology of the period, a series of high side floats were developed and used in various applications by Kelvinator, principally in their household cabinet refrigerators in the mid and latter 1930’s – including their model series D and E float assemblies.

A brass float valve and needle seat assembly was located in the base of the refrigerant, liquid receiver, from where the liquid was metered into an insulated liquid line carrying it to the inlet of the evaporator. The float opens the valve at a predetermined level of refrigerant in the receiver, as it is returned from the high side of the compressor.

The system is subject to critical refrigerant charge, much like the capillary tube device to follow. However maintaining the critical charge necessary for trouble free operation in open type condensing units, subject to compressor seal and other leaks was always a challenge.

Industrial Significance:
The high side float refrigerant meter system, used for flooded evaporators, was the source of some engineering interest and production in the mid 1930’s, but was then largely abandoned, along with the low side float, for the mainstream of household and small commercial refrigeration applications – for reasons of cost, reliability and serviceability and the engineering design constraints it introduced. By this time much simpler trouble free metering technology was at hand.


Refrigeration float control

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.052

Representative of the new generation of compact, more finely calibrated high side float controls for household cabinet refrigerators that emerged into the 1940’s. Housed in a refrigerant receiver, it was used for metering liquid refrigerant into a flooded evaporator

Model unknown, Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont., Circa 1945.



Item: Refrigeration float control
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont
Make: Kelvinator
Model: unknown
Features:
Section of liquid line moulded foam rubber insulated cover; Inverted flare tubing connectors, part of a compact tubing connector system evolved in the 1940’s for household and packaged commercial refrigeration equipment applications.

Technical Significance:
Typical of the technology as it emerged into the 1940’s, as used briefly, principally by Kelvinator in their household cabinet refrigerators.

A brass float valve and needle seat assembly was located in the base of the refrigerant, liquid receiver, from where the liquid was metered into an insulated liquid line carrying it to the inlet of the evaporator. The float opens the valve at a predetermined level of refrigerant in the receiver, as it is returned from the high side of the compressor.

The system is subject to critical refrigerant charge, much like the capillary tube device to follow. However maintaining the critical charge necessary for trouble free operation in open type condensing units, subject to compressor seal and other leaks was always a challenge.

Industrial Significance:
The high side float refrigerant meter system, used for flooded evaporators, was the source of some engineering interest and production in the mid 1930’s, but was then largely abandoned, along with the low side float, for the mainstream of household and small commercial refrigeration applications – for reasons of cost, reliability and serviceability and the engineering design constraints it introduced.

By this time much simpler trouble free metering technology was at hand. Kelvinator, it seems, continued the practice later than others, possibly because they had experience and an investment in the technology that others had not.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘LM’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.053

An amazingly compact, light weight [8oz.], new generation of brass body, adjustable thermostatic expansion valves, for household and small commercial equipment applications, with 30″ capillary tube and bulb, designed for a methyl chloride, and beautifully engraved in script, “made for Kelvinator”, Patented 1934, Model LM, Mayson Mfg. Co. Detroit. Circa 1938. [one of a matched set of two, see ID # 178]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘LM’
Manufacturer: Mayson Mfg. Co. Detroit
Make: Mason for Kelvinator
Model: LM, B41
Features:
Beautifully proportioned body with engraved marking in script “made for Kelvinator”

Technical Significance:
The advances in the engineering, production and application of thermostatic expansion [TX] valve technology throughout the industry in the 1930’s were truly impressive, as the valve moved into the mainstream of refrigerant flow control applications, replacing much cruder metering devices including float valves and automatic pressure setting valves. TX valve technology enabled much more efficient use of evaporator [cooling unit] surface and thus the use of smaller evaporators

Now designed for a new generation of fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, these valves were engineering masterpieces of their times, compact, precisely calibrated, and reliable refrigerant flow control devices. Valves were refrigerant specific.

An exquisitely engineered and crafted brass body valve, it is driven by a miniature brass bellows, with extended copper capillary line and 3/8″ sensing bulb – an impressive example of precision, mass production and quality control methods of the period.

Compact and reliable, with capacities up to 1/3 ton, Mayson’s Model L series TX valves would become a kind of “work horse” for the repair and replacement field, to be shown in wholesalers’ and jobbers’ catalogues through into the 1960’s. see bibliographic note

It was often used to up-date earlier equipment using an automatic expansion valve, in order to improve evaporator efficiency, and sometimes accompanying a conversion from methyl chloride to R12 refrigerant.

Industrial Significance:
This historic artifact of refrigeration technology in Canada marks the early movement by large, brand label manufacturers to out “sourceing”. As the technology developed in sophistication and complexity so did the engineering and manufacturing become more specialised and costly. Small speciality manufacturers, such as Mayson, soon moved into the field, anxious for the challenge.

The care taken in the “branding” of the valve, with engraved script, illustrates the careful attention given to the matter of maintaining the Kelvinator name in the public eye.

This valve carries the surprisingly early patent date of 1934, marking Mayson as one of a small number of pioneers in the early development of TX valve technology for a new generation of refrigerants and refrigeration applications.

The contrast between the sophistication of this valve and the offerings of Frigidaire, a brand label, is most marked, much smaller and more polished in appearance, see for example ID #179, and others that follow.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘LM’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.054

An amazingly compact, light weight [8oz.], new generation of brass body, adjustable thermostatic expansion valves, for household and small commercial equipment applications, with 30″ capillary tube and bulb, designed for a methyl chloride, Patented 1934, Model LM, Mayson Mfg. Co. Detroit. Circa 1938. [one of a matched set of two, see ID # 177, similar to ID #177 without Kelvinator markings]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘LM’
Manufacturer: Mayson Mfg. Co. Detroit
Make: Mason for Kelvinator
Model: 4LM, C40
Features:
Beautifully proportioned brass body with engraved markings

Technical Significance:
The advances in the engineering, production and application of thermostatic expansion [TX] valve technology throughout the industry in the 1930’s were truly impressive, as the valve moved into the mainstream of refrigerant flow control applications, replacing much cruder metering devices, including float valves and automatic pressure setting valves. TX valve technology enabled much more efficient use of evaporator [cooling unit] surface and thus the use of smaller evaporators

Now designed for a new generation of fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, these valves were engineering masterpieces of their times, compact, precisely calibrated, and reliable refrigerant flow control devices. Valves were ordered refrigerant specific.

An exquisitely engineered and crafted brass body valve, it is driven by a miniature brass bellows, with extended copper capillary line and 3/8″ sensing bulb – an impressive example of precision, mass production and quality control methods of the period.

Compact and reliable, with capacities up to 1/3 ton, Mayson’s Model L series TX valves would become a kind of “work horse” for the repair and replacement field, to be shown in wholesalers’ and jobbers’ catalogues through into the 1960’s. see bibliographic note

It was often used to up-date earlier equipment using an automatic expansion valve, in order to improve evaporator efficiency, and sometimes accompanying a conversion from methyl chloride to R12 refrigerant.

Industrial Significance:
This valve carries the surprisingly early patent date of 1934, marking Mayson as one of a small number of pioneers in the early development of TX valve technology for a new generation of refrigerants and refrigeration applications.

The contrast between the sophistication of this valve and the offerings of Frigidaire, a brand label, is most marked, much smaller and more polished in appearance, see for example ID #179, and others that follow.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘N’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.055

An early automatic, adjustable expansion valve, a pioneering contribution by Frigidaire to the embryonic years of the refrigeration industry; housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with integral two point mounting bracket, with galvanised over coat; pressure actuated 2 inch diaphragm; engineered for sulphur dioxide, the then newly developed, low pressure refrigerant of choice; Model N, Frigidaire, circa 1929. [On of a set of two, see #ID 180]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘N’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation
Make: Frigidaire
Model: N

Technical Significance:
A rare specimen of a self-regulating, spring compensated, automatic expansion valve, one of the earliest in production by Frigidaire, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts], it had the advantage of reliability and price, as well as serviceability.

The valve taken out of service in the 1950’s attests to its robust nature, with an operating life of 20 years and more.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘N’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.056

An early automatic, adjustable expansion valve, a pioneering contribution by Frigidaire to the embryonic years of the refrigeration industry; housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with integral two point mounting bracket, with galvanised over coat; pressure actuated 2 inch diaphragm; engineered for sulphur dioxide, the then newly developed, low pressure refrigerant of choice; Model N, Frigidaire, circa 1929. [On of a set of two, see #ID 179]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘N’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation
Make: Frigidaire
Model: N

Technical Significance:
A rare specimen of a self-regulating, spring compensated, automatic expansion valve, one of the earliest in production by Frigidaire, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts], it had the advantage of reliability and price, as well as serviceability.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘S’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.057

A Second generation, Frigidaire, automatic, adjustable expansion valve; housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with galvanised over coat; with integral two point mounting bracket, inlet screen and Bakelite moisture proof cap; pressure actuated bellows design; engineered for sulphur dioxide or Freon 12 refrigerant; Model S, Frigidaire, circa 1934.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘S’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation
Make: Frigidaire
Model: S

Technical Significance:
An advanced design expansion valves produced by Frigidaire, following their early experience in expansion valve engineering for dry evaporators.

Significant for the period was the calibration of the valve for alternate use on the then new series of chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, Freon 12, as well as for sulphur dioxide.

Large inlet filter screen has also been provided on this model, a necessary feature for helping to ensure reliable, service free operation over extended periods of time.

Frigidaire moved to the use of a bellows pressure activating mechanism in this generation of valves, rather than the earlier diaphragm mechanism, following the trend.

A perennial, problem with such valves, experienced by Frigidaire and other manufacturers was freeze up do to moisture entering the valve through the manual adjustment mechanism. Frigidaire’s answer was, here, in the form of a condensation retarding, Bakelite cap, as an alternative to rubber and metal caps


Refrigeration expansion valve ’33’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.058

A compact, fully adjustable, late pre WW II, automatic expansion valve by a new generation of manufacturers drawn to the now rapidly expanding market for refrigeration and air conditioning products, factory sealed, with inlet screen, Fedders, Model 33, circa 1938.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ’33’
Manufacturer: Fedders
Make: Fedders
Model: 33

Technical Significance:
A factory sealed, non-field serviceable expansion valve would seem to mark a new era in the development of expansion valve technology.

More confident in the engineering performance and reliability of the product, the manufacturer has been able to reduce costs, and produce a more compact, lighter weight valve, without the need for field service access. Bolted flanges and gaskets have disappeared, with the accompanying risks of refrigerant leaks.

The contrast with the construction of valves by Frigidaire a few years earlier is marked. See for example ID # 181, 180.

Industrial Significance:
With the post WW II years would come a profound shift in the structure of the refrigeration and air conditioning industry. A new generation of manufacturers would be drawn to the now rapidly expanding market for refrigeration and air conditioning products. The brand names of Kelvinator and Frigidaire would gradually fade from prominence, as new players, such as Fedders, captured an ever increasing proportion of market share.

It has been noted that the name Fedders was associated with the manufacture of automobile radiators in the pre WW II years, a matter to be confirmed. Experienced in finned radiator engineering and assembly would provide such a manufacturer with a possible entry point into the refrigeration and air conditioning business.

Shortly after WW II, the Fedders name came to be associated with the manufacturer of name brand window air conditioners, in the late 1940, and 50.

A well honoured name, the company still manufactures and markets air treatment and thermal technology products, including air conditioners, de humidifiers air cleaners etc, under a wide range of well known trade marks, including: Emerson, Airtemp, and Trion [Business. Com web site, 050321]


Coil spring condensing unit

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.030

A second generation, coil spring mounted medium speed, condensing unit with belt driven, single cylinder, reciprocating compressor, copper tube and finned, single pass air cooled condenser and 4 lb refrigerant receiver, with 1/6th HP electric motor. A refrigerating machine for the Canadian home, with a new sense of quiet that it would be characteristic of the best of the industry’s offerings in the early growth years of the household refrigerator in Canada. Designed and manufactured by an acknowledged market leader of the times with facilities in London Ontario, Kelvinator, 1930.



Item: Coil spring condensing unit
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator
Model: CA530

Technical Significance:
As significant marker of a new level of quiet and smooth operation for rfrigerating machines of the time, to be tolerated in the kitchens of the nation the

Industrial Significance:
Helped to establish London and Western Ontario as a major hot-bed of manufacturing practice in refrigeration and appliance production.


Coil spring condensing unit

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.031

A medium duty, second generation, coil spring mounted medium speed, condensing unit with belt driven, single cylinder, reciprocating compressor, copper tube and finned, two pass air cooled condenser, with 1/4th HP electric motor. A refrigerating machine for the large Canadian estate home, or family food store application. Like #030, it came with a new sense of quiet that would be characteristic of the best of the industry’s offerings in the early growth years of the household refrigerator in Canada. Designed and manufactured by an acknowledged market leader of the times with facilities in London Ontario, Kelvinator, 1932.



Item: Coil spring condensing unit
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator

Technical Significance:
A significant marker of a new level of quiet and smooth operation for refrigerating machines of the time, to be tolerated in the kitchens of the nation

Industrial Significance:
Helped to establish London and Western Ontario as a major hotbed of manufacturing practice in refrigeration and appliance production.


Refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.032

A smoothly designed mid 1930’s, coil spring mounted medium speed, condensing unit with belt driven, single cylinder, reciprocating compressor, copper tube and finned, single pass air cooled condenser with 3 lb refrigerant receiver, with 1/6th HP electric motor, and a new generation of quiet 3 blade cloverleaf fan. The machine by Universal Refrigeration, demonstrates their special contribution to the design and production of refrigerating machines in Canada, in what was quickly becoming an increasingly competitive market segment, Universal Cooler Brantford Ontario, 1936.



Item: Refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Universal Cooler, Brantford Ontario
Make: Universal Cooler
Model: A16
Features:
This refrigerating machine is equipped with a new style, for the period of condensing air cooling fan. The clover life design evoved as a quieter more efficient blade than the simpler straight cut propeller type of an earlier generation of condensing units in Canada.Whether this blade was original or installed, as part of a subsequent up-grade is unknown. Air noise in the family kitchen was an on-going irritation and refrigeration mechanics would do what they could to minimise it, in the interests of good customer relations and product satisfaction

Technical Significance:
One of an early breed of Canadian made condensing units [along with Kelvinator of Canada] moving from the use of highly noxious SO2 to methyl chloride, heralding the massive swing to the chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants by the end of the decade (F12).

Industrial Significance:
Demonstrates the craftsmanship, manufacturing methods and breadth of design and manufacturing options being explored by Canadian refrigeration manufacturers by the mid 1930’sWestern Ontario was fast becoming the heartland and Mecca for refrigeration design and manufacturing in Canada.


Refrigeration machine ‘Gilson’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.033

Refrigerating machinery by this manufacturer, a uniquely and distinctively Canadian company, made a special contribution to Canada’s material culture of refrigerating technology. The Gilson Manufacturing Co. of Guelph Ontario was part of the new industrialism growing up in the Ontario hinterlands, between the Wars, to service the needs of rural Ontario, much less than the provinces urban elites.

Executed in the company’s distinctive aqua , blue/green, tones it would be a well recognised part of the Canadian refrigeration landscape through the middle years of the 20th century – seen by many as its “golden” years. A condensing unit with belt driven, single cylinder, reciprocating compressor, copper tube and finned, single pass air cooled condenser, and 1/6th HP electric motor, it was assembled on a distinctive cast iron, foundry produced frame, a hallmark of much Gilson’s production of the period, Gilson Mfg. Co, Circa 1945.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Gilson’
Manufacturer: Gilson Manufacturing Co, Guelph Ontario
Make: Gilson
Model: A2MA

Technical Significance:
One of an early breed of Canadian made condensing units [along with Kelvinator of Canada, and Universal Cooler} moving from the use of highly noxious SO2 to methyl chloride, heralding the massive swing to the chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants by the end of the decade (F12).

Industrial Significance:
The assembly process employed, in the years before more sophisticated hermetically sealed condensing units became popular, allowed small, start-up manufactures to get into a growth market with relatively small capital investment and know-how. This would have a profound effect on the speciality companies such as Kelvinator and Frigidaire , who manufactured a full line of component parts and backed much of the research on which the rest of industry relied.


Refrigeration machine ‘Rollator’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.034

A “high tech” refrigerating machine of the mid 1930’s, the “Norge Rollator” was a precursor of profound change in the technology offerings of the Canadian refrigeration industry. By making use of the best engineering knowledge of the times, this innovative machine both responded to public desire for a less crude mechanical monster in the kitchens of the nation, and at the same time built further expectations for what was to soon come. It was a whole new design concept, by a new generation of world class engineering companies who had entered the now rapidly expanding North American home appliance market, the Borg Warner Corporation of Sweden, Norge Division, Borg-Warner Corp. Detroit Mich, 1935.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Rollator’
Manufacturer: Borg-Warner Corp. Detroit, Mich
Make: Norge
Model: S4237

Technical Significance:
It was a whole new design concept, by a new generation of world class engineering companies who had entered the rapidly expanding North American home appliance market, the Borg Warner Corporation of Sweden, Norge Division, Borg-Warner Corp. Detroit Mich, 1945.What was signalled here was the end of the refrigeration condensing unit as a mere assemblage by mere assemblers of parts based, variously, on a range of buy- make decisions appropriate for the market conditions of the moment [See for example #033].The commitment of the industry would be increasingly to specialised compressor design and to smoothly integrated systems applying state of the art systems thinking [See for example #036.

Industrial Significance:
Of significance in the Canadian industrial context is the Rogers connection with leading edge innovations in the refrigeration field. Toronto based Rogers-Majestic, by 1928, was the largest manufacturers of radio broadcast receivers in Canada, enjoying the market boom of the times. The Rogers empire was founded on innovative the work of Edward S. Rogers, who received a Dominion of Canada patent for a “rectifying system” on June 16, 1925. By August of that year Rogers was in mass production of the worlds first practical AC radio tube and the first Rogers Batteryless radio broadcast receiver.
By the early 1930’s the company was looking to expand and consolidate its reputation for technological innovation and market leader. Rogers acquired the rights to Norge name in the early to mid 1930’s to further establish themselves as Canadian leaders in the rapidly growing field of household, consumer technology [See advertisement in “Radio Trade Builder”, March 1935]
This international partnership arrangement would also represent a model for much of what was to come. Much in the Canadian HVACR industry would come as a consequence of corporate arrangements of convenience between Canadian and international manufacturers and suppliers to the Canadian HVACR field.


Refrigeration machine ‘Norge’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.035

As in the case of #034 this is a “high tech” refrigerating machine of the mid 1930’s, a precursor of profound change in the technology offerings of the Canadian refrigeration industry. It was a whole new design concept, by a new generation of world class engineering companies who had entered the now rapidly expanding North American home appliance market, the Borg Warner Corporation of Sweden, Norge Division, Borg-Warner Corp. Detroit Mich, 1935. A special marker [See electric motor] of the momentous times through which this machine operated is the story it tells of Ontario’s now almost forgotten mega project of the late 1940’s, the conversion of the province from 25 to 60 cycle power.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Norge’
Manufacturer: Borg-Warner Corp. Detroit, Mich
Make: Norge
Model: S518

Technical Significance:
It was a whole new design concept, by a new generation of world class engineering companies who had entered the rapidly expanding North American home appliance market, the Borg Warner Corporation of Sweden, Norge Division, Borg-Warner Corp. Detroit Mich, 1945.What was signalled here was the end of the refrigeration condensing unit as a mere assemblage by mere assemblers of parts based, variously, on a range of buy- make decisions appropriate for the market conditions of the moment [See for example #033].The commitment of the industry would be increasingly to specialised compressor design and to smoothly integrated systems applying state of the art systems thinking [See for example #036.
This artifact of the early years of the Canadian HVACR industry has special significance as historic marker. I t is driven by a GE motor carrying Ontario Hydro Electric’s name plate and specification data. The conversion of the Province from 25 to 60 cycle was a mega project of unprecedented size and complexity, before or since. It involved among other things the Hydro authority working closely with Canadian motor manufacturers and rewind shops to produce the specialised motors needed, of which this remains a prime example and historic artifact of this momentous period in Canadian technological development

Industrial Significance:
Of significance in the Canadian industrial context is the Rogers connection with leading edge innovations in the refrigeration field. Toronto based Rogers-Majestic, by 1928, was the largest manufacturers of radio broadcast receivers in Canada, enjoying the market boom of the times. The Rogers empire was founded on innovative the work of Edward S. Rogers, who received a Dominion of Canada patent for a “rectifying system” on June 16, 1925. By August of that year Rogers was in mass production of the worlds first practical AC radio tube and the first Rogers Batteryless radio broadcast receiver.
By the early 1930’s the company was looking to expand and consolidate its reputation for technological innovation and market leader. Rogers acquired the rights to Norge name in the early to mid 1930’s to further establish themselves as Canadian leaders in the rapidly growing field of household, consumer technology [See advertisement in “Radio Trade Builder”, March 1935]
This international partnership arrangement would also represent a model for much of what was to come. Much in the Canadian HVACR industry would come as a consequence of corporate arrangements of convenience between Canadian and international manufacturers and suppliers to the Canadian HVACR field.


Aberrant refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.036

A condensing unit with vertically mounted, belt driven, rotary compressor, an aberrant event, a mere blips on the Canadian refrigeration industry landscape. It serves to dramatise the rich array of engineering configurations and manufacturers, many short lived, all part of Canada’s early developmental “golden Age” of refrigeration technology, leading up to the 1950’s. Manufacturer unknown, circa 1938.



Item: Aberrant refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Unknown
Make: Unknown
Model: UnknownMotor mo

Industrial Significance:
The electric motor by Robbins Myers, Brampton Ont. Serves to further high light Brantford as the rapidly growing refrigeration capital of Canada.


Refrigeration machine ‘Sunbeam’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.037

By the mid 1930’s the North American refrigeration industry was moving rapidly to the adoption of much more sophisticated engineering conceptions of what the refrigeration machine might now become, based on a decade or more of manufacturing, engineering and research experience. Moving beyond the notion of stand-alone condensing unit, a significant step was the development of condensing units with integral evaporators, close coupled, to produce a single unified refrigeration mechanism for a cabinet refrigerator. The Sunbeam Electric Mfd. Co., Evansville Ind. made a significant contribution to this important evolutionary stage of development, 1936.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Sunbeam’
Manufacturer: The Sunbeam Electric Mfd. Co., Evansville Ind.
Make: Sunbeam
Model: SA623

Technical Significance:
Stands as a significant marker in the evolution of cabinet refrigeration systems working towards highly integrated specialised systems which would increasigly be the norm in the latter part of the century


Refrigeration machine ‘Sunbeam’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.038

A later adaptation of the Sunbeam Electric’s, advanced, integrated, open system refrigeration technology, demonstrated in #037, this machine illustrates the market that the technology was able to command over half a decade or more later. Originally engineered for SO2 refrigerant, with an advanced evaporator design in formed and rolled stainless steel, this unit was further up-dated by Howard Oliver, probably in the latter 1940’s, converting it to less toxic methyl chloride refrigerant – the Sunbeam Electric Mfd. Co., Evansville Ind., 1945.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Sunbeam’
Manufacturer: The Sunbeam Electric Mfd. Co., Evansville Ind.
Make: Sunbeam
Model: dual name plate
Features:
A-P automatic expansion valve made in Cooksville Ontario, Model AP207C, a high-tech, miniature valve of the period made for a new generation of chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants

Technical Significance:
Stands as a significant marker in the evolution of cabinet refrigeration systems working towards highly integrated specialised systems, which would increasingly be the norm in the latter part of the century. The so called “hermetic” system with electric motor and compressor sealed in a single shell were already being marketed by Kelvinator and Frigidaire


Hermetic refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.039

By the late 1930’s the North American refrigeration industry was moving rapidly to the adoption of fully “hermetic” systems, in which the motor and compressor where sealed in a single steel dome, which was connected to the evaporator in a seamless, integrated design not requiring the services of a skilled, field, refrigeration mechanic. The fully hermetic design for the household cabinet refrigerator was the next evolutionary step towards improving performance, reliability and life expectancy, all of which would increase dramatically. Kelvinator made significant contribution to the development of hermetic system design, Kelvinator of Canada, Circa 1955.



Item: Hermetic refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Admiral
Model: 712407

Technical Significance:
The change in performance, reliability and life expectancy which accompanied the wing to hermetic design could scarcely be over estimated. The period of regular motor oiling, drive belt replacement and leaking compressors and tubing connectors was gone. The operating life expectancy of such systems was all of a sudden 20 years or more.

Industrial Significance:
This refrigeration system produced by Kelvinator for Admiral, marked the period of multiple entries into the Canadian appliance market by secondary manufactures who established partnership arrangements for the production of the machines. Kelvinator were prominent in this work as suppliers to other Canadian corporations such as General Steel Wares of London Ontario.


50 lb. SO2 compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.087

An early, crude piece of industrial looking machinery, this 50 lb. compressor was made in Brantford Ont. It comes as close to marking the beginning of the Canadian refrigeration manufacturing industry, as may be possible. Accompanied by the odour of sulphur dioxide, it would be tentatively accepted into Canadian households in the mid 1920’s with much trepidation and often discomfort., Frigo-Matic Ltd., Brampton Ont., 1926.



Item: 50 lb. SO2 compressor
Manufacturer: Frigo-Matic Ltd., Brantford Ont.,
Make: Frigo-Matic

Technical Significance:
Manufactured in Brantford, Ontario, it would help to establish Brantford as the “refrigeration capital of Canada”, starting in the early years of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
While the name “Frigo-Matic” would not echo down through the years, as have the names of other pioneers of the period such as Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it was none-the-less an important marker in the history of the Canadian HVACR industry.


50 lb. SO2 compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.088

An early, crude piece of industrial looking machinery, this 50 lb. compressor was made in Brantford Ont. It comes as close to marking the beginning of the Canadian refrigeration manufacturing industry, as may be possible. Accompanied by the odour of sulphur dioxide, it would be tentatively accepted into Canadian households in the mid 1920’s with much trepidation and often discomfort., Frigo-Matic Ltd., Brampton Ont., 1926.



Item: 50 lb. SO2 compressor
Manufacturer: Frigo-Matic Ltd., Brantford Ont.,
Make: Frigo-Matic

Technical Significance:
Manufactured in Brantford, Ontario, it would help to establish Brantford as the “refrigeration capital of Canada”, starting in the early years of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
While the name “Frigo-Matic” would not echo down through the years, as have the names of other pioneers of the period such as Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it was none-the-less an important marker in the history of the Canadian HVACR industry.


Early SO2 compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.089

An early, crude compressor, possibly part of the earliest commercial production by Kelvinator marketed in Canada. Like the Frigo-Matic [see #087 and 088] it marks the earliest, embryonic years of the Canadian refrigeration industry. It too would be tentatively accepted into Canadian households in the mid 1920’s with much trepidation and often discomfort. It brought new noises, foreign to home life and often the odour of sulphur dioxide throughout the household, as well as frequent visits from the refrigeration serviceman, 1926.



Item: Early SO2 compressor
Manufacturer: See above
Make: Possibly Kelvinator of Canada, reminiscent of their Model J production in the la
Model: Body casting ma

‘J’ style compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.090

Moving with the market, and with a new sense of what it would take to put a refrigerator in every Canadian household, the industry quickly moved beyond its crude beginnings. If the mechanical refrigeration machine, with clanking reciprocating compressor, was to be acceptabled into the homes of the nation, it must be much smoother, quieter and appear more friendly to the householder. The later “J” style Kelvinator, engineered for higher speed and greatly reduced mass [50 to 30 lbs.], would be a significant step along the way, Kelvinator of Canada, 1929.



Item: ‘J’ style compressor
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Later “J” style

Model ‘A’ compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.091

By the early 1930’s the Canadian refrigeration industry was moving beyond its embryonic years into a period of early development. Compressors were becoming much more “domesticated” in appearance, as pioneer manufacturers, such as Kelvinator, moved confidently into what appeared to be a promising, growing market. The Kelvinator Model A, still faster and smaller, would help to move the cabinet refrigerator into middle class and working Canadian homes [see #003], well beyond the exclusive realm of the country’s elite, Kelvinator 1932.



Item: Model ‘A’ compressor
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: A

Technical Significance:
This single cylinder, reciprocating compressor, of similar but significantly more advanced engineering than 5 years earlier, was small and high speed, by comparison [fly wheel diameter was reduced by Kelvinator from 14″ to 8.5″] and much quieter in operationBy now condensing units were also smaller, much more polished in appearance, and routinely designed for inclusion in the base of the household cabinet refrigerator. Although many would still be “remoted” in the basement by the local refrigeration mechanic.
Substantial manufacturing facilities came to maturity in this period to supply the specialized developmental needs of firms such as Kelvinator and Frigidaire. A significant new industrial sector had been born, patterned after the exploding automobile industry of the times.
These were the years, too, of the birth of the refrigeration trade in Canada. Manufacturers were dependent on informed and trained workers for installation and providing the all to frequent service needed – and knew it.
The reciprocating compressor, its engineering challenges not-with-standing, would remain largely the standard of the industry throughout the 20th century, although alternative rotary designs would appear on the market and be sustained for brief periods, from time to time.

Industrial Significance:
While designed for sulphur dioxide these compressors, built with amazing precision and to close tolerances for the period, would see life over the next 20 years and more, on refrigeration machines converted to new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants. The Model A would be a standard of the industry up to the late 1930’s and the advent of the sealed, “hermetic” motor compressor


Model ‘A’ compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.092

By the early 1930’s the Canadian refrigeration industry was moving beyond its embryonic years into a period of early development. Compressors were becoming much more “domesticated” in appearance, as pioneer manufacturers, such as Kelvinator, moved confidently into what appeared to be a promising, growing market. The Kelvinator Model A, still faster and smaller, would help to move the cabinet refrigerator into middle class and working Canadian homes [see #003], well beyond the exclusive realm of the country’s elite, Kelvinator 1932.



Item: Model ‘A’ compressor
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: A

Technical Significance:
This single cylinder, reciprocating compressor, of similar but significantly more advanced engineering than 5 years earlier, was small and high speed, by comparison [fly wheel diameter was reduced by Kelvinator from 14″ to 8.5″] and much quieter in operationBy now condensing units were also smaller, much more polished in appearance, and routinely designed for inclusion in the base of the household cabinet refrigerator. Although many would still be “remoted” in the basement by the local refrigeration mechanic.
Substantial manufacturing facilities came to maturity in this period to supply the specialized developmental needs of firms such as Kelvinator and Frigidaire. A significant new industrial sector had been born, patterned after the exploding automobile industry of the times.
These were the years, too, of the birth of the refrigeration trade in Canada. Manufacturers were dependent on informed and trained workers for installation and providing the all to frequent service needed – and knew it.
The reciprocating compressor, its engineering challenges not-with-standing, would remain largely the standard of the industry throughout the 20th century, although alternative rotary designs would appear on the market and be sustained for brief periods, from time to time.

Industrial Significance:
While designed for sulphur dioxide these compressors, built with amazing precision and to close tolerances for the period, would see life over the next 20 years and more, on refrigeration machines converted to new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants. The Model A would be a standard of the industry up to the late 1930’s and the advent of the sealed, “hermetic” motor compressor


Chlorinated hydrocarbon compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.093

Designed for the new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, and with advanced valve design and over all performance, this open style, belt driven compressor of the mid 1930’s, developed by Kelvinator for its household, cabinet refrigerators, would be about as good as a compressor gets. It provided the householder with a new sense of quiet that would be characteristic of the best of the industry’s offerings, prior to the imminent introduction of the sealed “hermetic” motor compressor, Kelvinator, 1935.



Item: Chlorinated hydrocarbon compressor
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Part number 186


Light weight compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.094

The 1920s and 30s were periods extra-ordinarily obsessed with the promise of the piston and the reciprocating machine, whether manifest in the steam or internal combustion engine or in the refrigeration compressor. Inventors were constantly at work attempting to improve its performance, while reducing its cost. In the refrigeration industry inventors and start-up companies worked assiduously, producing a wide range of engineering designs and market options, which together would significantly alter the lives of Canadians. With many distinguishing features, this early, petit, light weigh, unusual compressor design is by the Brunner Manufacturing Co. of Utica N.Y., circa 1927. [See also #057, item 402-19]



Item: Light weight compressor
Manufacturer: Brunner Manufacturing Co. of Utica N.Y.
Make: Brunner
Model: Unknown

Compressor ‘Brunner’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.095

By the latter half of the 1930’s there were an increasing number of manufacturers all bargaining for a spot in the now rapidly expanding, but increasingly over crowed North American, domestic refrigeration market. It left many of its founders such as Kelvinator and Frigidaire struggling for survival. It was soon evident that marketing, in addition to sound, innovative engineering was needed. The Brunner Manufacturing Co. would leave the domestic field to focus on its commercial and industrial markets, leaving behind this historic examples of a well engineered compressors, as marker of times past, Brunner, circa 1939. [see also #94 and Group 5.02 items]



Item: Compressor ‘Brunner’
Manufacturer: Brunner Manufacturing Co, Utica, N. Y.
Make: Brunner

Compressor ‘Moffat’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.096

A single cylinder refrigeration compressor of early mid 20th century vintage, with “Moffat Ltd” embossed on the head. Crafted after the clean lines of the “Chieftain” compressor, Tecumseh Products Co., with 11-inch flywheel in red, over painted in black. its genealogy is uncertain. A reminder of the proliferation of compressor manufacturers, near manufacturers and models that flooded the market for small, FHP, open system refrigeration compressors in the 1940, prior to the wide spread adoption of the hermetically sealed motor compressor assembly, “Moffat Ltd” 1945.



Item: Compressor ‘Moffat’
Make: “Moffat Ltd”, genealogy unknown
Model: Body casting no

Replacement compressor ‘Chieftain’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.097

CHIEFTAIN MID 20TH CENTURY,REPLACEMENT COMPRESSOR, TECUMSEH PRODUCTS, 1949: A single cylinder, FHP, open market, general replacement refrigeration compressor of the late 1940’s, heavily marked throughout the trade as a replacement for worn out original equipment, much of it by now 10 to 20 years into its life cycle. With vastly reduced size and weight, with forced feed lubrication, it was the result of superior engineering and much more precise manufacturing processes, than those 2 decades earlier. Many refrigeration machines bearing the names of Kelvinator and Frigidaire would live out their latter years with a Chieftain compressor upgrade.



Item: Replacement compressor ‘Chieftain’
Manufacturer: Tecumseh Products, Tecumseh Mich.
Make: Chieftain
Model: 500

Single cylinder compressor ‘Type A’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.098

UNIVERSAL COOLER, TYPE “A” COMPRESSOR, 1949: A single cylinder, FHP, original equipment manufacturer’s [OEM’s], refrigeration compressor of the mid 20th century, just prior to the wide spread adoption of hermetic motor compressors. Astonishingly small, lightweight, and operating at elevated speeds, it stands as an historic marker of the advancements in open system compressor design and performance by OEM’s over two decades from the late 1920’s.



Item: Single cylinder compressor ‘Type A’
Manufacturer: Universal Cooler, Brantford Ont.
Make: Universal Cooler
Model: Type A

Compressor ‘ILG’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.099

ILG, SINGE CYLINDER, FHP, REFRIGERATION COMPRESSOR, 1940: A remarkable, truly innovative, piece of refrigeration engineering of the early mid/ 20th century, from its cast aluminium body to its eccentric mechanism, valve design, and distinctive green, high gloss enamel finish, it was meant to raise eyebrows. Making use of the new materials and engineering know-how of the times, it is a reminder of the diversity and immense inventiveness of this period of rapid growth, all part of the rich heritage of HVACR’s engineering applications, on which the industry now builds.



Item: Compressor ‘ILG’

Twin cylinder compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.100

AN EARLY, FRIGIDAIRE, TWIN CYLINDER COMPRESSOR, FOR HOUSEHOLD CABINET REFRIGERATOR, 1929: equipped with a unique,massive, 14″, fan hub, “grooved”, flat belt flywheel, re-cast for “V” belt drive. The machine stands as an historic marker of the fundamental shift from flat to V belts in the first quarter of the 20th century, and the evolution in the engineering and manufacture of the V belt that made it possible.



Item: Twin cylinder compressor
Manufacturer: Frigidaire
Make: Frigidaire Corp. Dayton Ohio
Model: Frigidaire 1-1

Compressor ‘Model G’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.101

A FRIGIDAIRE, MODEL G, TWIN CYLINDER, 1/4 HP, ULTRA SLOW SPEED COMPRESSOR, 1929: With 16″ flywheel, operating at 350 RPM, this compressor, used in large cabinet refrigerators, would stand as a kind of “metaphor”, a shortcut in language, standing for an historic genre of high displacement, slow speed compressors for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, part of the design idiom of the time, dictated by conservative engineering preference, limited know-how, materials and manufacturing methods.



Item: Compressor ‘Model G’

Compressor ‘Model A’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.102

A FRIGIDAIRE, MODEL A, TWIN CYLINDER, 1/4 HP, COMPRESSOR, DISTINGUISHED, BY ITS FLAT SURFACED FLYWHEEL, DESIGNED FOR “V ” BELT DRIVE, 1931: With reduced, 12″, flat flywheel, engineered for V belt operation, this compressor stands as an historic marker of two simultaneous trends in refrigeration machine engineering, the shift to modest increases in machine speed and the cautious transition to fully engineered V belt drives, based on the company’s cumulative engineering experience of the day.



Item: Compressor ‘Model A’

Early, slow speed compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.103

AN EARLY, SLOW SPEED, HIGH DISPLACEMENT, FHP, REFRIGERATION COMPRESSOR OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURER, 1932: It serves to dramatise the rapid expansion of the refrigeration machinery manufacturing industry, with many new, now long forgotten, start-up companies in the early 1930’s. As well, it suggests the proliferation of design concepts and construction methods being explored collectively by the industry, during its early growth years.



Item: Early, slow speed compressor

1-cylinder refrigeration compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.202

ILG, SINGE CYLINDER, FHP, REFRIGERATION COMPRESSOR, 1940: A remarkable, truly innovative, piece of refrigeration engineering of the early mid/ 20th century, from its cast aluminium body to its eccentric mechanism, valve design, and distinctive green, high gloss enamel finish, it was meant to raise eyebrows. Making use of the new materials and engineering know-how of the times, it is a reminder of the diversity and immense inventiveness of this period of rapid growth, all part of the rich heritage of HVACR’s engineering applications, on which the industry now builds.



Item: 1-cylinder refrigeration compressor
Manufacturer: ILG Electric Ventilating Co, Chicogo, Ill, see note
Make: ILG
Model: RG-2


2-cylinder refrigeration compressor ‘G’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.203

A FRIGIDAIRE, MODEL G, TWIN CYLINDER, 1/4 HP, ULTRA SLOW SPEED COMPRESSOR, 1929: With 16″ flywheel, operating at 350 RPM, this compressor, used in large cabinet refrigerators, would stand as a kind of “metaphor”, a shortcut in language, standing for an historic genre of high displacement, slow speed compressors for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, part of the design idiom of the time, dictated by conservative engineering preference, limited know-how, materials and manufacturing methods.



Item: 2-cylinder refrigeration compressor ‘G’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: G
Features:
16 inch, light weight, pressed steel, riveted fly wheel, with fan hub, representing new approach in flywheel design by Frigidaire, in contrast the heavy cast iron fly wheel exemplified in item # 100

Technical Significance:
The slow speed, high displacement, engineering design idiom manifest here stands in sharp contrast to high (medium) speed, low displacement designs emerging about the same time, for example by Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario. Designed also for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, but with 8 inch flywheels, their engineering would allow them to operate at close to twice the speed, making for much more compact lighter weight refrigeration equipment. See for example items #090 to #093


2-cylinder refrigeration compressor ‘A’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.204

A FRIGIDAIRE, MODEL A, TWIN CYLINDER, 1/4 HP, COMPRESSOR, DISTINGUISHED, BY ITS FLAT SURFACED FLYWHEEL, DESIGNED FOR “V ” BELT DRIVE, 1931: With reduced, 12″, flat flywheel, engineered for V belt operation, this compressor stands as an historic marker of two simultaneous trends in refrigeration machine engineering, the shift to modest increases in machine speed and the cautious transition to fully engineered V belt drives, based on the company’s cumulative engineering experience of the day.



Item: 2-cylinder refrigeration compressor ‘A’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: A

Air cooled replacement condenser

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.066

An after-market, replacement air-cooled condenser manufactured for household, cabinet refrigerators and ice cream cabinets using anhydrous sulphur dioxide refrigerant. Fabricated with steel frame, 1/4inch steel tube and soldered, serpentine fin in heavy tin plate, with brazed, extended, sealed, 1/4 inch copper pigtails and SAE flare nuts, supplied by Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario to their dealers, 1938.



Item: Air cooled replacement condenser
Manufacturer: Likely Kelvinator of Canada, see bibliographic ref
Make: Likely Kelvinator of Canada, see bibliographic reference
Model: see bibliograph

Technical Significance:
Kelvinator of Canada, in their 1948 parts catalogue [see bibliographic reference] show a series of such replacement condensers for ice cream cabinets and domestic refrigerator applications. Condensers were “consumables” in the period when the major refrigerant in use was sulphur dioxide, highly corrosive by nature. Much construction was in tinned steel with tin coatings subject to break down.Considerable damage was also the result of fan blades coming loose on their motor shafts and cutting through the condenser wall. The effect for the owner was both catastrophic and chaotic. The machines would contain sufficient noxious refrigerant to quickly fill the house or store, leading to frantic search for men to remove the offending unit and a call to the refrigeration service man, often several hours away.
The serpentine, soldered fin construction represented a 2 nd or 3 rd generation of fin engineering, with higher conductivity and thermal performance, to earlier generations with simple un-secured plate fins. The manufacturing process for producing the fins and soldering them in place was a mark of the increasing sophistication of Canadian manufacturing methods, in place by the end of the 1930’s.
As manufacturing methods evolved the Canadian industry would move to non-ferrous tube and fin construction [copper], see code no. 6.02-7, and eventually to non-corrosive refrigerants, including methyl chloride and Freon 12. But for now this construction genre remained as the state of the art, an important snapshot in time.
See also items 6.01-2, 6.01-3, 6.02-7, 6.02-8


Two pass replacement condenser

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.067

Staggered, two pass, after-market, replacement air-cooled condenser manufactured for household, cabinet refrigerators and ice cream cabinets using anhydrous sulphur dioxide refrigerant. Fabricated with steel frame, 1/4inch steel tube and soldered, serpentine fin in heavy tin plate, with brazed, extended, 24″, sealed, 1/4 inch copper pigtails and SAE flare nuts, supplied by Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario to their dealers, 1938.



Item: Two pass replacement condenser
Manufacturer: Likely Kelvinator of Canada, see bibliographic ref
Make: Likely Kelvinator of Canada, see bibliographic reference

Technical Significance:
Kelvinator of Canada, in their 1948 parts catalogue [see bibliographic reference] show a series of such replacement condensers for ice cream cabinets and domestic refrigerator applications. Condensers were “consumables” in the period when the major refrigerant in use was sulphur dioxide, highly corrosive by nature. Much construction was in tinned steel with tin coatings subject to break down.Considerable damage was also the result of fan blades coming loose on their motor shafts and cutting through the condenser wall. The effect for the owner was both catastrophic and chaotic. The machines would contain sufficient noxious refrigerant to quickly fill the house or store, leading to frantic search for men to remove the offending unit and a call to the refrigeration service man, often several hours away.
The serpentine, soldered fin construction represented a 2 nd or 3 rd generation of fin engineering, with higher conductivity and thermal performance, to earlier generations with simple un-secured plate fins. The manufacturing process for producing the fins and soldering them in place was a mark of the increasing sophistication of Canadian manufacturing methods, in place by the end of the 1930’s.
The staggered double pass design represents an added level of complexity in manufacturing processes
As manufacturing methods evolved the Canadian industry would move to non-ferrous tube and fin construction [copper], see code no. 6.02-7, and eventually to non-corrosive refrigerants, including methyl chloride and Freon 12. But for now this construction genre remained as the state of the art, an important snapshot in time.
See also items 6.01-2, 6.01-3, 6.02-7, 6.02-8, together they profile the evolution of the tube and fin, air-cooled condenser for FHP refrigeration machines in Canada


OEM condensers

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.068

A set of three early, “original equipment manufacturer” (OEM), fin and tube, air-cooled condensers of varying capacities, from the 1930’s, representing a range of Canadian OEM engineering and fabrication practices in ferrous and non ferrous materials (copper and aluminium) for use on refrigeration machines, with anhydrous sulphur dioxide refrigerant, 1930’s.



Item: OEM condensers
Manufacturer: 1) Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario2) Kelvinat
Make: 1) Kelvinator2) Kelvinator3) Gilson

Technical Significance:
Simple plate fins, engineered for a press fit on the condenser tube, as in examples 1 and 3 were relatively easily achieved. The serpentine, soldered fin construction in example 2 represented a 2 nd or 3 rd generation of fin engineering, with higher conductivity and thermal performance. The manufacturing process for producing the fins and soldering them in place was a mark of the increasing sophistication of Canadian manufacturing methods, in place by the end of the 1930’s. As manufacturing methods evolved the Canadian industry would move to non-ferrous tube and fin construction [copper], see code no. 6.02-7, and eventually to non-corrosive refrigerants, including methyl chloride and Freon 12. But for now this construction genre remained as the state of the art, an important snapshot in time.
See also items 6.01-2, 6.01-3, 6.02-7, 6.02-8, together they profile the evolution of the tube and fin, air-cooled condenser for FHP refrigeration machines in Canada


Refrigeration pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.001

An early, “low side” refrigeration system pressure control, for controlling evaporator temperature, equipped with 5 point, manual adjustable setting. Devised by Frigidaire in the 1920’s, it was to be a viable alternative to direct temperature-sensing technology, then in a crude stage of development, Frigidaire, Circa 1926. One of a rare set of 5 controllers, demonstrating the range of applications devised by Frigidaire, the various stages of deterioration expected, due to natural use, misuse, abuse and abandonment.



Item: Refrigeration pressure control
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Appeared in a n
Features:
Some models, such as this one, used on household cabinet refrigerators, included a front-mounted, “cold control”, with off position and 5 temperature settings. This allowed the owners to adjust the temperature of the refrigerator, over a limited range of suction pressures without calling the service mechanic.

Technical Significance:
The significance of the device lies in the immense ingenuity it demonstrates in the period, in conceiving ways to automatically start and stop a refrigeration system at a predetermined temperature.

For it was a time in which little was known and understood about automatic sensors and electric control and regulation devices. The very notion of a mechanical device which would start and stop with out the touch of human hand was worrying. For much of the population of the time was brought up to be wary of gadgets of all varieties, often portrayed as mere hoaxes, possibly dangerous, and not to be trusted.


Refrigeration pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.002

An early, “low side” refrigeration system pressure control, for controlling evaporator temperature, equipped with 5 point, manual adjustable setting. Devised by Frigidaire in the 1920’s, it was to be a viable alternative to direct temperature-sensing technology, then in a crude stage of development, Frigidaire, Circa 1926. One of a rare set of 5 controllers, demonstrating the range of applications devised by Frigidaire, the various stages of deterioration expected, due to natural use, misuse, abuse and abandonment.



Item: Refrigeration pressure control
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Appeared in a n
Features:
Some models, such as this one, used on household cabinet refrigerators, included a front-mounted, “cold control”, with off position and 5 temperature settings. This allowed the owners to adjust the temperature of the refrigerator, over a limited range of suction pressures without calling the service mechanic.

Technical Significance:
The significance of the device lies in the immense ingenuity it demonstrates in the period, in conceiving ways to automatically start and stop a refrigeration system at a predetermined temperature.

For it was a time in which little was known and understood about automatic sensors and electric control and regulation devices. The very notion of a mechanical device which would start and stop with out the touch of human hand was worrying. For much of the population of the time was brought up to be wary of gadgets of all varieties, often portrayed as mere hoaxes, possibly dangerous, and not to be trusted.


Refrigeration pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.003

An early, “low side” refrigeration system pressure control, for controlling evaporator temperature, equipped with 5 point, manual adjustable setting. Devised by Frigidaire in the 1920’s, it was to be a viable alternative to direct temperature-sensing technology, then in a crude stage of development, Frigidaire, Circa 1926. One of a rare set of 5 controllers, demonstrating the range of applications devised by Frigidaire, the various stages of deterioration expected, due to natural use, misuse, abuse and abandonment.



Item: Refrigeration pressure control
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Appeared in a n

Technical Significance:
The significance of the device lies in the immense ingenuity it demonstrates in the period, in conceiving ways to automatically start and stop a refrigeration system at a predetermined temperature.

For it was a time in which little was known and understood about automatic sensors and electric control and regulation devices. The very notion of a mechanical device which would start and stop with out the touch of human hand was worrying. For much of the population of the time was brought up to be wary of gadgets of all varieties, often portrayed as mere hoaxes, possibly dangerous, and not to be trusted.


Refrigeration pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.004

An early, “low side” refrigeration system pressure control, for controlling evaporator temperature, equipped with 5 point, manual adjustable setting. Devised by Frigidaire in the 1920’s, it was to be a viable alternative to direct temperature-sensing technology, then in a crude stage of development, Frigidaire, Circa 1926. One of a rare set of 5 controllers, demonstrating the range of applications devised by Frigidaire, the various stages of deterioration expected, due to natural use, misuse, abuse and abandonment.



Item: Refrigeration pressure control
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Appeared in a n
Features:
Oiling instructions for the refrigeration condensing unit are set out on gold transfer on front face of control, a clear reminder of the critical need for regular lubrication of electric motors of the period. Also shown are the instructions for fusing, a mystery to many home owners of the times.

Technical Significance:
The significance of the device lies in the immense ingenuity it demonstrates in the period, in conceiving ways to automatically start and stop a refrigeration system at a predetermined temperature.

For it was a time in which little was known and understood about automatic sensors and electric control and regulation devices. The very notion of a mechanical device which would start and stop with out the touch of human hand was worrying. For much of the population of the time was brought up to be wary of gadgets of all varieties, often portrayed as mere hoaxes, possibly dangerous, and not to be trusted.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.005

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated automatic temperature control [thermostat] with fixed factory setting, equipped with glycerine immersion cup for household cabinet refrigerator, senses evaporator suction line temperature, late Model E, Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont. Circa 1925

One of a rare matched set of six Kelvinator Model E thermostats profiling the evolution of one of the earliest commercially marketed, self-regulating, temperature sensing, electric motor control devices. The model was offered by Kelvinator in various forms from 1923 through to about 1927. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 3) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 4) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-2A, B, C, D, E, F.; ID # 129, 130, and 138 to 141.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan, Div of Electric Refr
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Late Model E w

Industrial Significance:
Kelvinator’s model E thermostat [temperature control], engineered for their early series household, cabinet refrigerators, is a unique study in the design and manufacture of complex automatic, analogue, mechanical switching in the early 1920’s.

Contrasting the design of the Model E thermostat, with those of some 30 years later [See R20], provides a dramatic example of the principle of progressive, engineering simplification – usually hard won.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.006

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated automatic temperature control [thermostat] with fixed factory setting, equipped with glycerine immersion cup for household cabinet refrigerator, senses evaporator suction line temperature, late Model E, Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont. Circa 1925.

One of a rare matched set of six Kelvinator Model E thermostats profiling the evolution of one of the earliest commercially marketed, self-regulating, temperature sensing, electric motor control devices. The mode was offered by Kelvinator in various forms from 1923 through to about 1927. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 3) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 4) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-2A, B, C, D, E, F.; ID # 129, 130, and 138 to 141.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan, Div of Electric Refr
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Late Model E w

Technical Significance:
Possibly the 1st commercially produced electric thermostat for mechanical, household, cabinet refrigerators.

Industrial Significance:
Kelvinator’s model E thermostat [temperature control], engineered for their early series household, cabinet refrigerators, is a unique study in the design and manufacture of complex automatic, analogue, mechanical switching in the early 1920’s.

Contrasting the design of the Model E thermostat, with those of some 30 years later [See R20], provides a dramatic example of the principle of progressive, engineering simplification – usually hard won.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.007

An early, adjustable, hydraulic bellows actuated control, totally enclosed in 1930’s, modern Bakelite housing, senses evaporator surface temperature, Model R, made for Kelvinator, by Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co. Columbus, Ohio [A.R.C.B. Co], Circa 1931.

One of a rare matched set of six Ranco Model R controllers profiling the evolution of this early self-regulating temperature sensing electric motor control device, likely over several years from 1929 through to the early 1930’s. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) design adaptations made as required for different models and styles of Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, 3) different approaches to user friendly and convenient manual temperature setting by the householder, 4) the application of different mounts and accessories, 4) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 5) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 6) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-3A, B, C, D, E, F. ID # 131 to # 136.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.
Make: For Kelvinator, by Ranco
Model: RA-10 [see note
Features:
Chrome plated, push-pull, control arm, with Bakelite handle; See Items 7.01-3 B to G for design and application variations involving special features

Technical Significance:
The Model R series thermostat represented a remarkable engineering achievement in 6 or 7 years. A compact design, totally enclosed control, crafted in, then, modern two tone, Bakelite, dielectric material. One third of the size and weight of the Kelvinator E, it was a user friendly, fully adjustable thermostat.

Industrial Significance:
The thermostat also marks the early entrance of the Ranco name into the refrigeration and air conditioning temperature control business, supporting the major equipment manufacturers of the period. The Ranco name would survive for many years as a leader in the HVACR control field.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.008

An early, adjustable, hydraulic bellows actuated control, totally enclosed in 1930’s, modern Bakelite housing, senses evaporator surface temperature, Model R, made for Kelvinator, by Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co. Columbus, Ohio [A.R.C.B. Co], Circa 1931

One of a rare matched set of six Ranco Model R controllers profiling the evolution of this early self-regulating temperature sensing electric motor control device, likely over several years from 1929 through to the early 1930’s. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) design adaptations made as required for different models and styles of Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, 3) different approaches to user friendly and convenient manual temperature setting by the householder, 4) the application of different mounts and accessories, 4) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 5) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 6) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-3A, B, C, D, E, F. ID # 131 to # 136.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.
Make: For Kelvinator, by Ranco
Model: RA-10 [see note
Features:
Tinned, steel wire bracket mount; See Items 7.01-3 B to G for design and application variations involving special features

Technical Significance:
The Model R series thermostat represented a remarkable engineering achievement in 6 or 7 years. A compact design, totally enclosed control, crafted in, then, modern two tone, Bakelite, dielectric material. One third of the size and weight of the Kelvinator E, it was a user friendly, fully adjustable thermostat.

Industrial Significance:
The thermostat also marks the early entrance of the Ranco name into the refrigeration and air conditioning temperature control business, supporting the major equipment manufacturers of the period. The Ranco name would survive for many years as a leader in the HVACR control field.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.009

An early, adjustable, hydraulic bellows actuated control, totally enclosed in 1930’s, modern Bakelite housing, senses evaporator surface temperature, Model R, made for Kelvinator, by Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co. Columbus, Ohio [A.R.C.B. Co], Circa 1931

One of a rare matched set of six Ranco Model R controllers profiling the evolution of this early self-regulating temperature sensing electric motor control device, likely over several years from 1929 through to the early 1930’s. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) design adaptations made as required for different models and styles of Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, 3) different approaches to user friendly and convenient manual temperature setting by the householder, 4) the application of different mounts and accessories, 4) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 5) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 6) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-3A, B, C, D, E, F. ID # 131 to # 136



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.
Make: For Kelvinator, by Ranco
Model: RA-10 [see note
Features:
Mounting clamp; Rotary temperature adjustment with black Bakelite pointer knob and quadrant drive gear assembly; See Items 7.01-3 B to G for design and application variations involving special features

Technical Significance:
The Model R series thermostat represented a remarkable engineering achievement in 6 or 7 years. A compact design, totally enclosed control, crafted in, then, modern two tone, Bakelite, dielectric material. One third of the size and weight of the Kelvinator E, it was a user friendly, fully adjustable thermostat.

Industrial Significance:
The thermostat also marks the early entrance of the Ranco name into the refrigeration and air conditioning temperature control business, supporting the major equipment manufacturers of the period. The Ranco name would survive for many years as a leader in the HVACR control field.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.010

An early, adjustable, hydraulic bellows actuated control, totally enclosed in 1930’s, modern Bakelite housing, senses evaporator surface temperature, Model R, made for Kelvinator, by Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co. Columbus, Ohio [A.R.C.B. Co], Circa 1931

One of a rare matched set of six Ranco Model R controllers profiling the evolution of this early self-regulating temperature sensing electric motor control device, likely over several years from 1929 through to the early 1930’s. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) design adaptations made as required for different models and styles of Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, 3) different approaches to user friendly and convenient manual temperature setting by the householder, 4) the application of different mounts and accessories, 4) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 5) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 6) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-3A, B, C, D, E, F. ID # 131 to # 136



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.
Make: For Kelvinator, by Ranco
Model: RA-10 [see note
Features:
Rotary temperature control with quadrant drive gear, control knob and top cap assembly not included; See Items 7.01-3 B to G for design and application variations involving special features

Technical Significance:
The Model R series thermostat represented a remarkable engineering achievement in 6 or 7 years. A compact design, totally enclosed control, crafted in, then, modern two tone, Bakelite, dielectric material. One third of the size and weight of the Kelvinator E, it was a user friendly, fully adjustable thermostat.

Industrial Significance:
The thermostat also marks the early entrance of the Ranco name into the refrigeration and air conditioning temperature control business, supporting the major equipment manufacturers of the period. The Ranco name would survive for many years as a leader in the HVACR control field.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.011

An early, adjustable, hydraulic bellows actuated control, totally enclosed in 1930’s, modern Bakelite housing, senses evaporator surface temperature, Model R, made for Kelvinator, by Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co. Columbus, Ohio [A.R.C.B. Co], Circa 1931

One of a rare matched set of six Ranco Model R controllers profiling the evolution of this early self-regulating temperature sensing electric motor control device, likely over several years from 1929 through to the early 1930’s. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) design adaptations made as required for different models and styles of Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, 3) different approaches to user friendly and convenient manual temperature setting by the householder, 4) the application of different mounts and accessories, 4) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 5) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 6) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-3A, B, C, D, E, F. ID # 131 to # 136.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.
Make: For Kelvinator, by Ranco
Model: RA-10 [see note
Features:
See Items 7.01-3 B to G for design and application variations involving special features

Technical Significance:
The Model R series thermostat represented a remarkable engineering achievement in 6 or 7 years. A compact design, totally enclosed control, crafted in, then, modern two tone, Bakelite, dielectric material. One third of the size and weight of the Kelvinator E, it was a user friendly, fully adjustable thermostat.

Industrial Significance:
The thermostat also marks the early entrance of the Ranco name into the refrigeration and air conditioning temperature control business, supporting the major equipment manufacturers of the period. The Ranco name would survive for many years as a leader in the HVACR control field.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.012

An early, adjustable, hydraulic bellows actuated control, totally enclosed in 1930’s, modern Bakelite housing, senses evaporator surface temperature, Model R, made for Kelvinator, by Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co. Columbus, Ohio [A.R.C.B. Co], Circa 1931

One of a rare matched set of six Ranco Model R controllers profiling the evolution of this early self-regulating temperature sensing electric motor control device, likely over several years from 1929 through to the early 1930’s. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) design adaptations made as required for different models and styles of Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, 3) different approaches to user friendly and convenient manual temperature setting by the householder, 4) the application of different mounts and accessories, 4) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 5) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 6) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-3A, B, C, D, E, F. ID # 131 to # 136.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.
Make: For Kelvinator, by Ranco
Model: RA-10 [see note
Features:
See Items 7.01-3 B to G for design and application variations involving special features

Technical Significance:
The Model R series thermostat represented a remarkable engineering achievement in 6 or 7 years. A compact design, totally enclosed control, crafted in, then, modern two tone, Bakelite, dielectric material. One third of the size and weight of the Kelvinator E, it was a user friendly, fully adjustable thermostat.

Industrial Significance:
The thermostat also marks the early entrance of the Ranco name into the refrigeration and air conditioning temperature control business, supporting the major equipment manufacturers of the period. The Ranco name would survive for many years as a leader in the HVACR control field.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.013

An early, adjustable, hydraulic bellows actuated control, totally enclosed in 1930’s, modern Bakelite housing, senses evaporator surface temperature, Model R, made for Kelvinator, by Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co. Columbus, Ohio [A.R.C.B. Co], Circa 1931

One of a rare matched set of six Ranco Model R controllers profiling the evolution of this early self-regulating temperature sensing electric motor control device, likely over several years from 1929 through to the early 1930’s. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) design adaptations made as required for different models and styles of Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, 3) different approaches to user friendly and convenient manual temperature setting by the householder, 4) the application of different mounts and accessories, 4) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 5) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 6) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-3A, B, C, D, E, F. ID # 131 to # 136.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.
Make: For Kelvinator, by Ranco
Model: R 10 [see note
Features:
See Items 7.01-3 B to G for design and application variations involving special features

Technical Significance:
The Model R series thermostat represented a remarkable engineering achievement in 6 or 7 years. A compact design, totally enclosed control, crafted in, then, modern two tone, Bakelite, dielectric material. One third of the size and weight of the Kelvinator E, it was a user friendly, fully adjustable thermostat.

Industrial Significance:
The thermostat also marks the early entrance of the Ranco name into the refrigeration and air conditioning temperature control business, supporting the major equipment manufacturers of the period. The Ranco name would survive for many years as a leader in the HVACR control field.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.014

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated automatic temperature control [thermostat] with fixed factory setting, equipped with glycerine immersion cup for household cabinet refrigerator, senses evaporator suction line temperature, late Model E, Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont. Circa 1925.

One of a rare matched set of six Kelvinator Model E thermostats profiling the evolution of one of the earliest commercially marketed, self-regulating, temperature sensing, electric motor control devices. The mode was offered by Kelvinator in various forms from 1923 through to about 1927. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 3) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 4) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-2A, B, C, D, E, F.; ID # 129, 130, and 138 to 141.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan, Div of Electric Refr
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Late Model E w

Technical Significance:
Possibly the 1st commercially produced electric thermostat for mechanical, house hold, cabinet refrigerators.

Industrial Significance:
Kelvinator’s model E thermostat [temperature control], engineered for their early series household, cabinet refrigerators, is a unique study in the design and manufacture of complex automatic, analogue, mechanical switching in the early 1920’s.

Contrasting the design of the Model E thermostat, with those of some 30 years later [See R20], provides a dramatic example of the principle of progressive, engineering simplification – usually hard won.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.015

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated automatic temperature control [thermostat] with fixed factory setting, exquisitely cast in fragile white porcelain, with delicately embossed Kelvinator logo, senses evaporator suction line temperature. Likely an early Model E, Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont. Circa 1925.

One of a rare matched set of six Kelvinator Model E thermostats profiling the evolution of one of the earliest commercially marketed, self-regulating, temperature sensing, electric motor control devices. The model was offered by Kelvinator in various forms from 1923 through to about 1927. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 3) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 4) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-2A, B, C, D, E, F.; ID # 129, 130, and 138 to 141.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan, Div of Electric Refr
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Model E, here w

Technical Significance:
Possibly the 1st commercially produced electric thermostat for mechanical, house hold, cabinet refrigerators.

Industrial Significance:
Kelvinator’s model E thermostat [temperature control], engineered for their early series household, cabinet refrigerators, is a unique study in the design and manufacture of complex automatic, analogue, mechanical switching in the early 1920’s.

Contrasting the design of the Model E thermostat, with those of some 30 years later [See R20], provides a dramatic example of the principle of progressive, engineering simplification – usually hard won.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.016

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature control [thermostat] with fixed factory setting, senses evaporator suction line temperature. Shown with collapsed bellows and fully extended compensating pressure spring. Likely an early Model E, as suggested by the absence of bellows immersion cup, Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont. Circa 1924.

One of a rare matched set of six Kelvinator Model E thermostats profiling the evolution of one of the earliest commercially marketed, self-regulating, temperature sensing, electric motor control devices. The mode was offered by Kelvinator in various forms from 1923 through to about 1927. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 3) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 4) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-2A, B, C, D, E, F.; ID # 129, 130, and 138 to 141.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan, Div of Electric Refr
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Model E [See No
Features:
Collapsed bellows [a common form of precipitous failure, indicating it has been punctured, possibly due to frost build up. and as a result lost its sulphur dioxide gas charge. As a consequence the heavy, wire wound, coil, bellows compensating spring has moved to its fully extended position.

Technical Significance:
Possibly the 1st commercially produced electric thermostat for mechanical, household, cabinet refrigerators.

Industrial Significance:
Kelvinator’s model E thermostat [temperature control], engineered for their early series household, cabinet refrigerators, is a unique study in the design and manufacture of complex automatic, analogue, mechanical switching in the early 1920’s.

Contrasting the design of the Model E thermostat, with those of some 30 years later [See R20], provides a dramatic example of the principle of progressive, engineering simplification – usually hard won.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.017

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature control [thermostat] with fixed factory setting, senses evaporator suction line temperature. Shown with collapsed and distorted bellows and fully extended compensating pressure spring. Likely an early Model E, as suggested by the absence of bellows immersion cup, Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont. Circa 1924.

One of a rare matched set of six Kelvinator Model E thermostats profiling the evolution of one of the earliest commercially marketed, self-regulating, temperature sensing, electric motor control devices. The mode was offered by Kelvinator in various forms from 1923 through to about 1927. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 3) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 4) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-2A, B, C, D, E, F.; ID # 129, 130, and 138 to 141.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan, Div of Electric Refr
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Model E [See No
Features:
Collapsed and distorted bellows [a common form of precipitous failure, indicating it has been damaged likely due to frost build up. and as a result lost its sulphur dioxide gas charge. As a consequence the heavy, wire wound, coil, bellows compensating spring has moved to its fully extended position.

Technical Significance:
Possibly the 1st commercially produced electric thermostat for mechanical, household, cabinet refrigerators.

Industrial Significance:
Kelvinator’s model E thermostat [temperature control], engineered for their early series household, cabinet refrigerators, is a unique study in the design and manufacture of complex automatic, analogue, mechanical switching in the early 1920’s.

Contrasting the design of the Model E thermostat, with those of some 30 years later [See R20], provides a dramatic example of the principle of progressive, engineering simplification – usually hard won.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘D’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.018

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, and enhanced by manual reset, electric motor overload protection, Ranco, Type D, circa 1935.

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘D’
Manufacturer: ARCB Co., Columbus Ohio
Make: Ranco
Model: Type D

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘D’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.019

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, enhanced by manual reset, electric motor overload protection, and modified with handsome, embossed, polished, aluminium escutcheon plate, Ranco, Type D, circa 1935.

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘D’
Manufacturer: ARCB Co., Columbus Ohio
Make: Ranco
Model: Type D
Features:
with handsome, embossed, polished, aluminium escutcheon plate

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘F’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.020

An hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, equipped with compact totally enclosed bellows, long 42″, coiled capillary and bulb, enhanced by manual reset, electric motor overload protection, all enclosed in further compacted Bakelite case, Ranco, Type F, circa 1937.

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘F’
Manufacturer: ARCB Co., Columbus Ohio
Make: Ranco1935
Model: Type F

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

The Type F was a significant step in the compacting and progressive simplification of these immensely mechanical and essentially clumsy automatic control mechanisms

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘FF’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.021

An hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, equipped with compact totally enclosed bellows, manual reset, electric motor overload protection, and featuring new market driven enhancements: economy adjustment, semi-automatic defrost and fast freeze, all enclosed in compacted Bakelite case, Ranco, Type FF, circa 1939.

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘FF’
Manufacturer: ARCB Co., Columbus Ohio
Make: Ranco
Model: Type F F

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

The Type F F appears to have been a significant step in the incorporation of new market driven features, as refrigerator manufactures looked increasingly to the replacement, consumer up-grade market to maintain productivity

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘KR’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.022

An hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, equipped with manual reset, electric motor overload protection, and a semi-automatic defrost feature, enclosed in new compact stainless steel case, Ranco, Type KR, circa 1945

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘KR’
Manufacturer: ARCB Co., Columbus Ohio
Make: Ranco
Model: Type KR

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

The Type KR series while found on household cabinet refrigerators was most often found on small unitary commercial applications, such as beverage coolers, ice cream cabinets, water coolers, and reach in cabinet refrigerators.

The control with its corroded mechanism illustrates a common cause of failure, in small unitary applications, subject to condensation and water leaks.

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.023

An hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, with compact internally enclosed bellows and equipped with sophisticated manual reset, electric motor overload protection, featuring motor lock-out viewing window, showing flag on shutdown, enclosed in beautifully moulded, gloss black Bakelite case, General Electric, circa 1936

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: General Electric Co. USA
Make: General Electric
Model: CR 1057

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

GE, often viewed by their competitors as a “me too manufacturer”, where household technology was concerned, was capable of moving in and out of a field, as the consumer market place seemed to warrant. They would typically follow the industry’s recognised leader in a field, in this case Ranco.

The engineering know how and the capital resources seemingly available to the company made it a formidable competitor, even if in the short run. Few controls by GE seem to survive to the present day, by comparison with Ranco, suggesting that their inroads into this particular market was, in fact, relatively short lived.

The sophistication of the design and engineering demonstrated here is impressive for the 1930’s, demonstrating what a formidable competitor the company could be – in the short term.

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.024

An hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, with compact internally enclosed bellows and equipped with sophisticated manual reset, electric motor overload protection, featuring motor lock-out viewing window, showing flag on shutdown, enclosed in beautifully moulded, gloss black Bakelite case, with original wiring tag ends, General Electric, circa 1936

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: General Elecrtric Co., USA
Make: General Electric
Model: CR 1057

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

GE, often viewed by their competitors as a “me too manufacturer”, where household technology was concerned, was capable of moving in and out of a field, as the consumer market place seemed to warrant. They would typically follow the industry’s recognised leader in a field, in this case Ranco.

The engineering know how and the capital resources seemingly available to the company made it a formidable competitor, even if in the short run. Few controls by GE seem to survive to the present day, by comparison with Ranco, suggesting that their inroads into this particular market was, in fact, relatively short lived.

The sophistication of the design and engineering demonstrated here is impressive for the 1930’s, demonstrating what a formidable competitor the company could be – in the short term.

The original wiring tag ends demonstrate the appliance trade wiring practices of the mid 1930’s, including the use of twisted, cloth covered lamp cord and “friction” tape

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.025

An hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, with compact internally enclosed bellows and an unusual twisted capillary tube bulb configuration, equipped with manual reset, electric motor overload protection, featuring popout, motor lock-out switch, with high polished chrome bezel, decorated in black and red, with chrome control knobs, enclosed in beautifully moulded, gloss black, Bakelite case, with hand written identification tag, Cutler – Hammer, circa 1937.

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Cutler-Hammer, Milwaukee Illinois, USA
Make: Cutler-Hammer
Model: Bulliten 9502,

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

The Cutler-Hammer Co. of Milwaukee Ill., had made its name in the electrical switching business in the 1930’s was encouraged to enter the automatic temperature control field in this period of rapidly developing pre W.W.II consumer markets. The sophisticated engineering and manufacturing capacity developed by the company as evident here is impressive

The high polished chrome fitments illustrate the increasing emphasis placed on appealing industrial design, and well crafted and finished products in gaining a toehold in what was becoming an increasingly crowded field of consumer equipment manufacturing and production.

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘ILG’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.026

This highly unusual hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature control, employing extended capillary tube sensing, was an aberrant event in the temperature control field of the period, related to an aberration in the field of household cabinet refrigerator manufacturing in Canada. The large somewhat clumsy device, in gloss Bakelite enclosure with etched cover in pea green, identifies the application with the ILG Electric Ventilating Co, with Canadian presence in Renfrew, Ont; equipped with large internally enclosed bellows, long capillary tube, and large auxiliary mounted manual reset motor overload protector, the device appears as a one-off design produced by the control manufacturer to meet ILG’s unique specifications, Cutler-Hammer, circa 1938.

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘ILG’
Manufacturer: Cutler-Hammer , Milwaukee Illinois, USA, for ILG
Make: Cutler-Hammer/ ILG
Model: Cutler-Hammer B
Features:
Original wiring harness, tag end, in rubber covered, two conductor stranded copper

Large paper and foil wound condenser to reduce contact arching.

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

The Cutler-Hammer Co. of Milwaukee Ill., who made its name in the electrical switching business in the 1930’s was encouraged to enter the automatic temperature control field in this period of rapidly developing pre W.W.II consumer markets. The engineering capacity of the company and its ability to respond to unusual requests is well illustrated by the atypical design configuration developed here for ILG, with Canadain facilities in Renfrew Ontario.

Among the significant features are:
– The original wiring harness, tag end, in rubber covered, two conductor stranded copper, illustrating the early construction and design of these cables, and their application to the home appliance market of the period
– The large paper and foil wound condenser, hanging from the back of the control, apparently used to reduce contact arching. It was a period in which there was relatively little codified engineering experience on the design of small, alternating current switching devices. It is unclear whether the condenser was part of the original product engineering, or an after-market, field adaptation.
– The control enclosures in gloss black Bakelite, with attractive etched cover plate, with logo and script in pea green is an example of the early attempts at industrial design. The control was clearly intended to be visible and user friendly part of the Canadian household. This had not been a major priority manufactures here-to for.
– The costly, 24 inch, copper capillary line, with large 3/8 inch control bulb reflects much more commercial control design practice of the period, than residential. The relatively large and overall clumsy nature of the control may well reflect ILG’s new arrival in the consumer product field. Its engineering experience having been primarily in commercial and industrial applications [see reference below]

Industrial Significance:
see above


Miniature refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.027

An hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing; driven by a 36″x 3/32″ capillary line with integral power element, the contol was representative a new generation of miniature, snap action controls for original refrigeration and air conditioning equipment manufacturers, as well as for general replacement use, starting in the 1940’s, Ranco, circa 1945.

With this generation of thermo-mechanical, refrigeration thermostat technology the trend was set to move to the end of the century and the introduction of new 21st century control technology in which extended capillary sensing would be replaced by electronic sensing. \r\nIt was to be the last in the series of hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the early 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151].



Item: Miniature refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco Incorporated , Columbus Ohio
Make: Ranco
Model: Type A12; CR7
Features:
The control’s cut-out temperature can be re-calibrated in the field by means of a small internal adjustment screw.

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

This control, representative of the end of the generation of extended, mechanically operated, capillary tube temperature sensors, is a masterpiece of precise engineering and manufacture of the period. Ranco Inc. produced this new generation, of miniature, snap action, capillary line controls for original refrigeration and air conditioning equipment manufacturers, as well as for general replacement use, starting in the 1940’s. Wholesaler’s and jobber’s catalogues of the period list many variations, made to the mounting and performance requirements of the industry.

With this generation of thermo-mechanical, refrigeration thermostat technology the trend was set to move to the end of the 20th century and the introduction of new 21st century control technology in which extended capillary sensing would be replaced with electronic sensing devices.

The contrast between this thermostat in bulk, weight and performance, with the technology of two decades earlier [See items ID 142-151], stands as a remarkable industry achievement. The evolution of the technology would, among other things, support the development of new more elaborate cooling systems, for cabinet refrigerators, with new features and functionality, including automatic defrost and dual temperature cabinets, as well as air conditioners and water coolers.

Industrial Significance:
see above


Compressor parts

Other Refrigerating and Air conditioning Components and Parts – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.071

An assembly of historic, open system, reciprocating, refrigeration compressor parts, for cabinet, household refrigerators, many in their original cartons. Including refrigerant shaft seals, demonstrating what they are; what they do; and how they worked in keeping noxious refrigerants in the refrigeration system and out of the Canadian kitchen of the 1920’s and 30’s, Various manufacturers, circa 1937

[For additional compressor parts see also items 8.02-1, 8.02-2 and 8.02-3]



Item: Compressor parts
Manufacturer: Various manufacturers, including Kelvinator, Frigi

Room air conditioner ‘Frigidaire’

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Air Conditioners

Accession # HHCC.2003.006

Household, Through-the-Window, Room Air Conditioner, Frigidaire, 1956.



Item: Room air conditioner ‘Frigidaire’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Products Canada Ltd, Scarborough, Ont
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Super 33

Features:
Automatic temperature control, Outside fresh air damper Air filter Complete, original installation kit

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen stands as a marker of the embryonic years of household air conditioning in Canada. While vastly under powered, by the standards that would follow, it was for most urban dwellers affordable and a significant market opener.

Industrial Significance:
The development of high heat transfer, capacity compressors, condensers, evaporators and flow control devices, at a price that home owners were likely to find affordable, would be a major challenge and success story for the refrigeration industry in the early years of home air conditioning. The industry would quickly adapting what had been learned in the design of reliable hermetic compressors and coiling for the food industry to high heat transfer systems required for household air conditioning applications.Suddenly the refrigeration and air conditioning industry expanded dramatically with a number of new non-traditional players designing, manufacturing and marketing equipment for household and commercial applications. In the face of increasing competition from manufactures with massive engineering and production facilities, many of the traditional suppliers to the refrigeration field would quickly fade from their earlier position of market leadership, including Kelvinator and Frigidaire.


Plate and tube evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.021

Early plate and tube refrigerant evaporator, fabricated in 3/8″ copper tube, with 2″x 16″ rolled copper header with soldered end plates and refrigerant access port; 2 ” tinned copper, brake formed fins, soldered to 16x 24″, brake formed, tinned copper backing plate,1926.



Item: Plate and tube evaporator
Make: Hand made

Industrial Significance:
This historic relic is, in a sense, representative of the embryonic and earliest development years of any industri3es beginnings. It is here when those with skills, interests, tools and entrepreneurial energy find themselves captivated by the possibilities of the moment, striking out to see what successes are to be had. The birth and early years of the Canadian HVACR industry would be characterised by just such adventurers, whether in heating, ventilation, air conditioning or refrigeration.
As carriage makers found themselves imagining themselves in the early years of the automobile business, so metal shops and mechanics would see in the earliest rumblings of HVACR possibilities and opportunities for new human experience, personal growth and development, as well as economic return for their efforts.


3 tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.022

Three tray, ice maker evaporator with low-side float, using an early form of modular design and construction, made in tinned copper tube and brake formed copper sheet. Cooling unit and icemaker for small commercial cabinet refrigerator, Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: 3 tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division, General Motors Corp.,Dayton O
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Marked 25 1/4 M
Features:
Of special interest is the “building block” construction design technique adopted here. An early example of modular construction concept, the design allows additional ice cube tray slide in boxes to be added for constructing larger capacity cooling units (See items 023,024, 025). By the use of modular construction it was possible to “grow an ice maker evaporator, and that is exactly what was done – as items 023, 024, and 025 demonstrate. Considerable economy in manufacture and assembly was possible, with predictable performance.Note the attention to the design of the lower tray box, constructed to be used as a deep drawer or for bulk frozen food, it would double as a 2 tray ice cube maker by sliding in a metal divider shelf

Technical Significance:
See background notes on technological significance of early mechanical cooling units (evaporator), THOC-HVACR inventory item 011.This specimen is representative of the proliferation of models and sizes of low-side float operated evaporators of the period, largely by Kelvinator and Figidaire, as they attempted to stretch this making technology to its limit. Dinosaur like, costly, complicated and trouble prone by comparison with the evaporator technologies that would shortly follow, this genre would largely disappear from manufacture’s catalogues by the early 1930’s, although would be operational in the field until after WWII.
To contrast the weight, size, seeming complexity, as well as materials and manufacturing costs with the technology reflected in inventory items 015 to 021 is instructive. The classic process of progressive simplification in technological innovation and change is well exemplified.

Industrial Significance:
With complex, demanding construction, the evaporator would make many demands on manufacturing and materials engineering in the early years of the 20th century.


3 tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.023

Three tray, ice maker evaporator with low-side float, in tinned copper tube and brake formed copper sheet, cooling unit for small commercial cabinet refrigerator, similar to #022, Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: 3 tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division, General Motors Corp.,Dayton O
Make: Frigidaire

Technical Significance:
See background notes on technological significance of early mechanical cooling units (evaporator), THOC-HVACR inventory item 011.This specimen is representative of the proliferation of models and sizes of low-side float operated evaporators of the period, largely by Kelvinator and Figidaire, as they attempted to stretch this ice making technology to its limit. Dinosaur like, costly, complicated and trouble prone by comparison with the evaporator technologies that would shortly follow, this genre would largely disappear from manufacture’s catalogues by the early 1930’s, although would be operational in the field until after WWII – requiring repair shops to rebuild an calibrate floats and needle seats.
To contrast the weight, size, seeming complexity, as well as materials and manufacturing costs with the technology reflected in inventory items 015 to 021 is instructive. The classic process of progressive simplification in technological innovation and change is well exemplified.

Industrial Significance:
With complex, demanding construction, the evaporator would make many demands on manufacturing and materials engineering in the early years of the 20th century.


4 tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.024

Four tray, ice maker evaporator with low-side float, using an early form of modular construction, in tinned copper tube and brake formed copper sheet. Cooling unit with gleaming porcelain tray pulls, for small commercial cabinet refrigerator, similar to #022, #023 Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: 4 tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division, General Motors Corp.,Dayton O
Make: Frigidaire
Features:
The early form of modular construction employed allowed the manufacturer to “grow” their evaporators using standard off the shelf components, with relatively predictable performance.

Technical Significance:
See background notes on technological significance of early mechanical cooling units (evaporator), THOC-HVACR inventory item 011.This specimen is representative of the proliferation of models and sizes of low-side float operated evaporators of the period, largely by Kelvinator and Figidaire, as they attempted to stretch this ice making technology to its limit. Dinosaur like, costly, complicated and trouble prone by comparison with the evaporator technologies that would shortly follow, this genre would largely disappear from manufacture’s catalogues by the early 1930’s, although would be operational in the field until after WWII – requiring repair shops to rebuild an calibrate floats and needle seats.
To contrast the weight, size, seeming complexity, as well as materials and manufacturing costs with the technology reflected in inventory items 015 to 021 is instructive. The classic process of progressive simplification in technological innovation and change is well exemplified.

Industrial Significance:
With complex, demanding construction, the evaporator would make many demands on manufacturing and materials engineering in the early years of the 20th century.


6 tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.025

Six tray, ice maker evaporator with low-side float, using an early form of modular construction, in tinned copper tube and brake formed copper sheet. Cooling unit with shiny tinned copper ice cube trays with gleaming polished chrome tray pulls, for large, commercial, ice maker, cabinet refrigerator, similar to the smaller items #022, #023, #024, Of the genre of the first commercial, North American ice making machine, Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: 6 tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division, General Motors Corp.,Dayton O
Make: Frigidaire
Features:
The early form of modular construction employed allowed the manufacturer to “grow” their evaporators using standard off the shelf components, with relatively predictable performance. The ice cube trays are believed to have been re-tinned and the fronts re-chromed, as part of the refurbishing of the icemaker in T. H. Oliver’s repair shop in Aurora Ontario prior to re application in the 1950’s.

Technical Significance:
See background notes on technological significance of early mechanical cooling units (evaporator), THOC-HVACR inventory item 011.This specimen is representative of the proliferation of models and sizes of low-side float operated evaporators of the period, largely by Kelvinator and Figidaire, as they attempted to stretch this ice making technology to its limit. Dinosaur like, costly, complicated and trouble prone by comparison with the evaporator technologies that would shortly follow, this genre would largely disappear from manufacture’s catalogues by the early 1930’s, although would be operational in the field until after WWII – requiring repair shops to rebuild an calibrate floats and needle seats.
To contrast the weight, size, seeming complexity, as well as materials and manufacturing costs with the technology reflected in inventory items 015 to 021 is instructive. The classic process of progressive simplification in technological innovation and change is well exemplified.
None-the-less this large, modular designed icemaker, “grown” using the same flooded evaporator technology as shown in #024. for example, feed the seemingly endless and ever growing North American market for iced beverages, deserts and product cooling of all sorts . This value set, a distinguishing mark of the North American culture of the times was not to be found to the same extent in urban European setting of the same period.
The stage had been set and the market established for the design and development of the automatic ice cube-making machine, to appear on the market in Canada by the early 1950’s. Icemakers of the general design shown here would prevail up to that time and beyond..

Industrial Significance:
With complex, demanding construction, the evaporator would make many demands on manufacturing and materials engineering in the early years of the 20th century.


Copper tube evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.026

Early copper tube and aluminium fin, static evaporator for small commercial refrigerated fixture, representative of a new, mid-century, high conductivity, high heat transfer cooling unit equipped for thermostatic expansion valve, Circa 1945.



Item: Copper tube evaporator
Manufacturer: Unknown
Make: Unknown

Technical Significance:
The 1950’s brought with them a flood of demands for new small refrigeration fixture applications, for example, for reach-in refrigerators to display cases of all types. The application of secondary, finned surface and the development of a small thermal expansion valve with adjustable superheat provided the market with the first big steps, through vastly improved thermal heat transfer efficiency, as well as the efficient use of refrigerant passages by improved refrigerant flow control.


Heavy copper tube evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.027

Early, heavy copper tube and fin static evaporator with double dip galvanised coating for large “walk-in” refrigerated room, equipped with low-side float and suction line chamber, for low pressure SO2 refrigerant, Frigidaire, Circa 1926.



Item: Heavy copper tube evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Likely model 56
Features:
Matching set of two coils typically used in multiples

Technical Significance:
Refrigerated storage rooms for perishable foods were designed predominantly for high pressure refrigerant, commonly ammonia, in the early years of the 20th century. With the successful entry of lower pressure refrigerants, notably SO2, into the market place, the market was significantly expanded, opening it up to smaller commercial installations, which did not require operating engineers. Food stores, dairies and refrigerated warehouses would welcome the trend. So to the public who would see on the market a whole new range of foods for their health and enjoyment.


Heavy copper tube evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.028

Early, heavy copper tube and fin static evaporator with double dip galvanised coating for large “walk-in” refrigerated room, equipped with low-side float and suction line chamber, for low pressure SO2 refrigerant, Frigidaire, Circa 1926.



Item: Heavy copper tube evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Likely model 56
Features:
Matching set of two coils typically used in tandem

Technical Significance:
Refrigerated storage rooms for perishable foods were designed predominantly for high pressure refrigerant, commonly ammonia, in the early years of the 20th century. With the successful entry of lower pressure refrigerants, notably SO2, into the market place, the market was significantly expanded, opening it up to smaller commercial installations, which did not require operating engineers. Food stores, dairies and refrigerated warehouses would welcome the trend. So to the public who would see on the market a whole new range of foods for their health and enjoyment.


Drop-in evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.029

A mid 20th century, drop-in, evaporator for farm milk can cooler, with electric motor driven water agitator, built in stove pipe configuration, circa 1950.



Item: Drop-in evaporator
Manufacturer: Possibly Woods Co, Guelph Ontario, manufacturer a
Make: Believed to be Woods, Guelph OntarioDelco motor, St Catharines Ont.
Model: Delco motor, Mo

Technical Significance:
A special marker in time, the device represented a relatively low cost solution to simplify the farm milk can cooling process. Such innovations would be relatively short lived, however, with the introduction of farm bulk milk coolers in many areas in the early 1960’s


Refrigerant flow control ‘EB4885’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.059

An early low-side float, liquid refrigerant flow control, in deep draw copper header, with brass float valve assembly mounted on eight bolt brass flange, with heavy galvanised over coat, designed for four-pass fin coil cooling unit; Frigidaire, EB4885, circa 1929.



Item: Refrigerant flow control ‘EB4885’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio.
Make: Frigidaire
Model: EB4885, see Not

Technical Significance:
Following earlier experimentation with automatic expansion valves refrigeration engineers next turned to completely flooded systems for increased evaporator efficiency, using a float valve to meter liquid into the low side of the system.

Low side float metering devices, such as this, were widely employed by the industry in the late 1920’s through the 30’s in both household cabinet refrigerators and commercial applications.

Found in walk-in meat and vegetable coolers in food stores and ware-houses across Canada, these cooling units were to become the work-horses of the commercial refrigeration industry from the 1920’s often through to the 1940

With good maintenance these systems would have a remarkable service life, some in operation for 25 to 30 years, often well into the post WW II period, where they would be replaced by smaller more compact, more efficient systems using the new non-noxious fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, e.g., Freon 12

Costly, delicate, requiring regular service, they would be a short lived solution to refrigerant metering, awaiting the development and refinement of the thermostatic expansion valve

The first widely used, so-called low pressure refrigerant, for household and commercial applications in Canada was sulphur dioxide – highly noxious and corrosive. As a result the prevailing practice in the 1920’s and early 30’s was to make evaporators of copper with a heavy coat of galvanizing.

Industrial Significance:
Much of the Canadian commercial refrigeration service industry would cut its teeth on flooded evaporators and liquid level refrigerant metering float controls. A significant service industry grew up dedicated to maintaining flooded evaporators in good working condition; see extracts from Frigidaire and Kelvinator service manuals.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TS10’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.060

An early, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve, housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with galvanised over coat; thermal power element and 4 ft. capillary tube; engineered for sulphur dioxide and a new generation of forced air cooling unit applications. It would appear much like the company’s earlier Model S automatic expansion valve, on which it was patterned; Model TS10, Frigidaire, circa 1932. [On of a set of two, see #ID 185]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TS10’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: TS 10
Features:
Original capillary bulb, tubing clamp

Technical Significance:
This valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

One of the earliest in production by Frigidaire, then the rapidly developing name brand supplier to the household and commercial refrigeration field.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
These valve would see service well into the 1950’s attesting to their robust construction and field serviceability, with an operating life of 20 to 30 years and more.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘FTS’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.061

An early, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve, housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with galvanised over coat; thermal power element and 4 ft. capillary tube; engineered for the new Feon 12 refrigerant and a new generation of forced air cooling unit applications. It would appear much like the company’s earlier Model S automatic expansion valve, on which it was patterned; Model FTS, Frigidaire, circa 1932. [On of a set of two, see #ID 184]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘FTS’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: FTS
Features:
Original capillary bulb, tubing clamp

Technical Significance:
Adapted for the new generation of non-noxious, hydrocarbon refrigerants, this TX valve design by Frigidaire would find wide spread application in anew generation of refrigeration systems

The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

One of the earliest in production by Frigidaire, then the rapidly developing name brand supplier to the household and commercial refrigeration field.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
These valve would see service well into the 1950’s attesting to their robust construction and field serviceability, with an operating life of 20 to 30 years and more.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.062

An early, compact, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve made by arguably the leader in expansion valve technology of the period; with brass body, “high tech.” Bakelite cover plate, power element and 4 ft. capillary tube, for methyl chloride refrigerant; patterned off the company’s earlier, Model 670, automatic expansion valve; Model 671- M, Series-2, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1936.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 671- M, Series

Technical Significance:
This valve, compact and elegant in design and construction, in contrast to similar valves produced by Frigidaire of the period [See ID # 184 and 185], was the work of a relative new comer in the refrigeration field, Detroit Lubricator. It would prove to be a significant marker of the changing times.

The age of the component parts, systems, specialty manufacturer had arrived, here as in the automotive field. In the future brand name system and equipment suppliers to the HVACR market would concentrate on system development, production and marketing. Increasingly, component technologies would be out sourced to specialty companies with the engineering know how and needed production capacities.

The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673-M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.063

A mid 20th century, thermostatic expansion valve, a work horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry through much of the later part of the century, double bellows construction with wide range superheat adjustment, widely used by original refrigeration equipment manufacturer and for replacement work; made in a wide range of capacities for methyl chloride, Freon 12 and 22, power element and 5 ft. capillary tube, Model 673- M, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1946. [1 of a set of 2, seeID# 188]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673-M’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Mode: l673- M
Features:
Original superheat bulb clamp

Technical Significance:
This artifact of history, a workhorse of its times in the refrigeration, thermostatic expansion valve field tells the many stories of the explosion of commercial refrigeration applications and their wide adoption in Canada throughout the middle and later years of the 20th century.

Much of the success of this technology was due to the wide range of capacities and applications built into the design by Detroit Lubricator

Aware of the exploding market in commercial refrigeration applications, as well as the increasing diversity in system designs and engineering design requirements, the manufacturer built the valve around a basic platform that could be readily adapted with changes in orifice size and inlet and outlet connections to suit a wide range of refrigerants [methyl chloride, Freon 12, and Freon 22], temperature applications [low and commercial range] and refrigerating tonnage capacity ratings [1.2 to 4 tons]. It was a success story that led the industry.

The valve would be the darling of refrigeration wholesalers and original equipment manufacturers, because of the range of applications accommodated [see wholesalers catalogue]


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673-M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.064

A mid 20th century, thermostatic expansion valve, a work horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry through much of the latter part of the century, double bellows construction with wide range superheat adjustment, widely used by original refrigeration equipment manufacturer and for replacement work; made in a wide range of capacities for methyl chloride, Freon 12 and 22, power element and 5 ft. capillary tube, Model 673- M, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1946. [1 of a set of 2, seeID# 187]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673-M’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 673- M
Features:
Original superheat bulb clamp

Technical Significance:
This artifact of history, a workhorse of its times in the refrigeration, thermostatic expansion valve field tells the many stories of the explosion of commercial refrigeration applications and their wide adoption in Canada throughout the middle and later years of the the 20th century.

Much of the success of this technology was due to the wide range of capacities and applications built into the design by Detroit Lubricator

Aware of the exploding market in commercial refrigeration applications, as well as the increasing diversity in system designs and engineering design requirements, the manufacturer built the valve around a basic platform that could be readily adapted with changes in orifice size and inlet and outlet connections to suit a wide range of refrigerants [methyl chloride, Freon 12, and Freon 22], temperature applications [low and commercial range] and refrigerating tonnage capacity ratings [1.2 to 4 tons]. It was a success story that led the industry.

The valve would be the darling of refrigeration wholesalers and original equipment manufacturers, because of the range of applications accommodated [see wholesalers catalogue]


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘Peerless’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.065

A mid to late 20th century, high capacity thermostatic expansion valve, for methyl chloride refrigerant; a special marker of the time when this refrigerant was still being specified by commercial refrigeration system manufacturers, in advance of the wave of conversion to chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, Freon 12 and 22; in heavy, plated brass body with superheat adjustment, highly decorated it would represent an emerging new styling idiom for component part manufacturers, by a late 20th century newcomer to the field, Peerless, 1948.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘Peerless’
Manufacturer: Peerless of America, New York, Chicago, and Los An
Make: Peerless
Model: V
Features:
Original superheat bulb clamp

Technical Significance:
A mid to late 20th century, high capacity thermostatic expansion valve, for methyl chloride refrigerant; a special marker of the time when this refrigerant was still being specified by commercial refrigeration system manufacturers, in advance of the wave of conversion to chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, Freon 12 and 22.

In a heavy, plated brass body, an unusually robust, crisp and polished product for the times, when compared with other valves off the period, see for example #ID 184 and 185.

With colourful orange and black decal and imprinted red and black cover plate the valve would represent a new era in industrial, component, product design, bring with it a fresh new look and sales appeal.

Industrial Significance:
Manufactured by a late 20th century newcomer to the field, one bringing fresh new ideas about how an expansion valve should look and operate.

Highly decorated it would represent the values and interests of a new generation of mid 20th century industrial design.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.066

An amazingly compact, mid capacity, mid to late 20th century, thermostatic expansion valve designed to meet the needs of an increasingly wide range of packaged, compact, commercial refrigeration applications, for methyl chloride and Freon 12 refrigerants, Model 207, Automatic Products Co., Mil., Circa 1945 [1 of a set of 2, see ID#191]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207’
Manufacturer: Automatic Products Co., Mil.
Make: Automatic Products [AP]
Model: AP207, type PF

Technical Significance:
Smaller than the Detroit Lubricator model 673 [see ID#187 and 188] in similar capacity range, this valve would set a new standard of compact, precision operation for the Canadian market place. Engineered by Automatic Products it would help to make possible a new generation of packaged, compact, commercial refrigeration appliances for confectioneries, food stores and similar applications.

In response to the buoyant market for TX valve technology a number of manufacturers, including Detroit Lubricator, Mayson, Automatic Products, Sporlan and Danfoss, among others entered the field in the late 1930’s and 40’s. They produced a remarkable range of design configurations and capacities for different refrigerants and cooling applications – in low temperature, commercial and air conditioning ranges.

The AP207, generally representative of the period, was engineered with a range of interchangeable orifices, variously for methyl chloride, F12 and sulfur dioxide refrigerants, for low, commercial and air conditioning applications, over the range of 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, and 1 ton capacities.

Industrial Significance:
With 60″ capillary line and 3/8″ bulb, wide range of orifice sizes, adjustable superheat feature and built in liquid line screen, this compact valve would help to make possible an explosion of refrigeration and air conditioning applications in the latter part of the 20th century.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.067

An amazingly compact, mid capacity, mid to late 20th century, thermostatic expansion valve designed to meet the needs of an increasingly wide range of packaged, compact, commercial refrigeration applications, for methyl chloride and Freon 12 refrigerants, Model 207, Automatic Products Co., Mil., Circa 1945 [1 of a set of 2, see ID#190]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207’
Manufacturer: Automatic Products Co., Mil.
Make: Automatic Products [AP]
Model: AP207

Technical Significance:
Smaller than the Detroit Lubricator model 673 [see ID#187 and 188] in similar capacity range, this valve would set a new standard of compact, precision operation for the Canadian market place. Engineered by Automatic Products it would help to make possible a new generation of packaged, compact, commercial refrigeration appliances for confectioneries, food stores and similar applications.

In response to the buoyant market for TX valve technology a number of manufacturers, including Detroit Lubricator, Mayson, Automatic Products, Sporlan and Danfoss, among others entered the field in the late 1930’s and 40’s. They produced a remarkable range of design configurations and capacities for different refrigerants and cooling applications – in low temperature, commercial and air conditioning ranges.

The AP207, generally representative of the period, was engineered with a range of interchangeable orifices, variously for methyl chloride, F12 and sulfur dioxide refrigerants, for low, commercial and air conditioning applications, over the range of 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, and 1 ton capacities.

Industrial Significance:
With 60″ capillary line and 3/8″ bulb, wide range of orifice sizes, adjustable superheat feature and built in liquid line screen, this compact valve would help to make possible an explosion of refrigeration and air conditioning applications in the latter part of the 20th century.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.077

An early, compact, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve made by arguably the leader in expansion valve technology of the period, beautifully crafted with brass body, “high tech.” Bakelite cover plate, similar to item ID #186 and #202, but differently fitted with 14 inch remote bulb power element, and flare connection; part of this company’s impressive stable of valves, patterned off its earlier, Model 670, automatic expansion valve; Model 671- M, Series-2, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1936.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 671- M, Series

Technical Significance:
This valve, compact and elegant in design and construction, in contrast to similar valves produced by Frigidaire of the period [See ID # 184 and 185], was the work of a relative new comer in the refrigeration field, Detroit Lubricator. It would prove to be a significant marker of the changing times.

The age of the component parts, systems, specialty manufacturer had arrived, here as in the automotive field. In the future brand name system and equipment suppliers to the HVACR market would concentrate on system development, production and marketing. Increasingly, component technologies would be out sourced to specialty companies with the engineering know how and needed production capacities.

The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
The range of configurations in which this valve was produced was a marker of an increasingly diverse market place for thermostatic expansion valve technology, with different fitments to meet the different requirements of original equipment manufacturers. It was an industry in its first period of rapid growth. See also ID # 186, 201, 202


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.078

An early, compact, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve made by arguably the leader in expansion valve technology of the period, beautifully crafted with brass body, “high tech.” Bakelite cover plate, similar to item ID #186 and #201, but differently fitted, this model licensed under patent to Universal Cooler Corp.; part of an impressive stable of valves, patterned off Detroit Lubricator’s earlier, Model 670, automatic expansion valve; Manufacturer’s name given here as American Radiator, Model 671- M, Series-1, circa 1936.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’
Manufacturer: American Radiator Co., Detroit
Make: American Radiator
Model: 671- M, Series

Technical Significance:
This valve, compact and elegant in design and construction, in contrast to similar valves produced by Frigidaire of the period [See ID # 184 and 185], was the work of a relative new comer in the refrigeration field, Detroit Lubricator. It would prove to be a significant marker of the changing times.

The age of the component parts, systems, specialty manufacturer had arrived, here as in the automotive field. In the future brand name system and equipment suppliers to the HVACR market would concentrate on system development, production and marketing. Increasingly, component technologies would be out sourced to specialty companies with the engineering know how and needed production capacities.

The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
Carrying the name American Radiator, the exact genealogy of this device remains to be determined, including its relationship to Detroit Lubricator,

The range of configurations in which this valve was produced was a marker of an increasingly diverse market place for thermostatic expansion valve technology, with different fitments to meet the different requirements of original equipment manufacturers. It was an industry in its first period of rapid growth. See also ID # 186, 201, 202

The valve is also an industry marker of the early entry of Universal Cooler, destined to be a major new player in the growing commercial refrigeration field.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘Fedders’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.079

An early, large, heavy body, adjustable thermostatic expansion by Fedders, marking the entrance of another national supplier to the commercial refrigeration field, during its first period of rapid expansion in the mid 1930’s; fitted with 4 foot remote bulb power element, with brown Bakelite shell and tinned brass body, with severe stress marks indicating something of its difficult life’s journey, Fedders, circa 1934.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘Fedders’
Manufacturer: Fedders ???
Make: Fedders
Model: 33???
Features:
Heavily stressed body, telling stories of the difficult life’s journey of this valve, its use and abuse in a period of little industry maturity.

Original shop tag telling stories of the life and times of the valve

Technical Significance:
The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
This valve was the work of a relative new comer in the refrigeration field in the mid 1930’s, Fedders. It would prove to be a significant marker of the changing times, with new markets and new suppliers with national aspirations.

The valve, heavy and clumsy by comparison with the work of more mature suppliers to the market place of the period, notably Detroit Lubricator [see ID # 186, 201 and 202], would suggest a less well developed engineering and manufacturing capability.

The heavy stress marks also tell something of the times in which this valve lived out its life. It was a period in which service and installation workers in the refrigeration field were not well trained in this area of speciality, moving into the field from other areas of mechanical work. It was a period too in which few specialized tools where available. The marks on the body suggest the use of brut force without the tools and experience appropriate for the job.

The original stock tag in Howard Oliver’s hand writing tells much of the life and times in matters of trade practice. In the mid 1930’s parts where not expendable commodities except in rare circumstances. It was a period much more disposed to a “repair and recycle” philosophy, an essential part of the post depression period of “waste not want not”. New parts were not considered an option, if they could be replaced on an exchange basis, so as to ensure continued operation, at the lesser of costs. This meant that a repaired part was also available for a future, potential user.

The frequency of the service and repair rate of the period also reflected the much less sophisticated engineering design, materials and manufacturing methods of the times.

It was a period, too, in which inventorying methods and transportation made new parts much less readily available, which again gave preference to more expedient solutions, when breakdown occurred and perishable foods were likely to be lost.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘small-body’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.080

An early, small body, adjustable thermostatic expansion fitted with 4-foot remote bulb power element, with brown Bakelite shell and brass body, with stylish, partially obliterated, decal in red and gold, manufacturer yet to be determined based on existing body markings, circa 1936.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘small-body’
Make: Unknown
Model: A37

Technical Significance:
The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
This valve was more than likely the work of another relative new comer in the refrigeration field in the mid 1930’s. Similar in configuration to the Fedder’s valves of the period, it genealogy remains to be determined from partially obliterated body markings.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.081

An early version of the 20th century, classic 673, Detroit Lubricator thermostatic expansion, made in a wide range of capacities for sulphur dioxide, methyl chloride, Freon 12 and 22; the work horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry through much of the m, latter part of the 1900’s; with classic brass body and brown Bakalite shell, power element, 5 ft. capillary tube, and adjustable superheat, widely used by original refrigeration equipment manufacturer and for replacement work, Model 673 – Series 5A 34, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1935. [See also ID# 187, 188]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: Model 673 – Ser

Technical Significance:
This artifact of history, a workhorse of its times in the thermostatic expansion valve field, tells the many stories of the explosion of commercial refrigeration applications and their wide adoption in Canada throughout the middle and latter years of the 20th century.

Much of the success of this technology was due to the wide range of capacities and applications built into the design by Detroit Lubricator

Aware of the exploding market in commercial refrigeration applications, as well as the increasing diversity in system and engineering design requirements, the manufacturer built the valve around a basic platform that could be readily adapted with changes in orifice size and inlet and outlet connections to suit a wide range of refrigerants [methyl chloride, Freon 12, and Freon 22], temperature applications [low and commercial range] and refrigerating tonnage capacity ratings [1.2 to 4 tons]. It was a success story that led the industry.

Industrial Significance:
The valve would be the darling of refrigeration wholesalers and original equipment manufacturers, because of the range of applications accommodated [see wholesalers catalogue]


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TEV’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.082

An early mid 20th century, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve, housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with galvinized overcoat and classic brown Bakelite casing; thermal power element and 4 ft. capillary tube; the TEF series, engineered for the new Freon 12 as well as SO2 applications, superseded the TS series, being more compact and better sealed against moisture; recommended for multiplexed applications popular in the period; Model TEV, Frigidaire, circa 1936. [1 of a set of 2, see ID# 207]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TEV’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division General Motors Corporation, Da
Make: Frigidaire
Model: TEV, Series 18

Technical Significance:
Adapted for the new generation of non-noxious, hydrocarbon refrigerants, this early mid 20th century TX valve by Frigidaire was more compact and better protected from moisture than its earlier TS series [see ID# 185 & 186]. It was promoted by Frigdaire for multiplexed systems and would find wide spread application in a new generation of small , commercial refrigeration to be found in a new generation of food stores and confectioneries.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of technological diffusion and wide spread adoption of TX refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
Of special significance is the appearance of General Motors name on the valve, marking the period in which large manufactures, having built significant engineering and manufacturing know-how, as well as cash reserves would move into new fields. Horizontal integration would soon become a bus word in the industrial world.

These valve would see service well into the 1950’s attesting to their robust construction and field serviceability, with an operating life of 20 to 30 years and more.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TEV’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.083

An early mid 20th century, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve, housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with galvinized overcoat and classic brown Bakelite casing; thermal power element and 4 ft. capillary tube; the TEF series, engineered for the new Freon 12 as well as SO2 applications, superseded the TS series, being more compact and better sealed against moisture; recommended for multiplexed applications popular in the period; Model TEV, Frigidaire, circa 1936. [Similar to ID# 206, but with higher range and mounting bracket]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TEV’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division General Motors Corporation, Da
Make: Frigidaire
Model: TEV, Series 21
Features:
Heavy steel mounting bracket with galvinized overcoat

Technical Significance:
Adapted for the new generation of non-noxious, hydrocarbon refrigerants, this early mid 20th century TX valve by Frigidaire was more compact and better protected from moisture than its earlier TS series [see ID# 185 & 186]. It was promoted by Frigdaire for multiplexed systems and would find wide spread application in a new generation of small, commercial refrigeration to be found in a new generation of food stores and confectioneries.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of technological diffusion and wide spread adoption of TX refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
Of special significance is the appearance of General Motors name on the valve, marking the period in which large manufactures, having built significant engineering and manufacturing know-how, as well as cash reserves would move into new fields. Horizontal integration would soon become a bus word in the industrial world.

Made in a wide range of capacities the TEV would mark a major, costly engineering commitment by Frigidaire to TX valve technology in the period, confident of its market potential.

These valve would see service well into the 1950’s attesting to their robust construction and field serviceability, with an operating life of 20 to 30 years and more.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘893’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.084

By the middle of the 20th century, the pressure was on for a new generation of compact thermostatic expansion valves to meet the growing market for small commercial refrigeration appliances. The 893, designed for this market, would raise eyebrows, with high style nameplate in bright chrome with blue highlighting. A sign of the times, Detroit would soon replace it with the even more compact design, the 777, Model 893, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1952.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘893’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 893
Features:
High style chrome name plate and logo, a new slick look for the expansion valve

Technical Significance:
The 893 compact thermostatic expansion valve, although short lived, was a significant marker of the times, as the industry, responding and at the same time shaping the market place, moved to ever more compact, more sophisticated engineering designs based on cumulative know how. A sign of the now rapidly changing times, Detroit would soon replace the 893 with the even more compact design, the 777.

Industrial Significance:
High style chrome name plate and logo, a new slick look for expansion valves in the early post W.W.II years, reflecting the new interest of manufacturers in the emerging field of industrial design

The now rapidly changing market place would trigger substantial investments in R and D by companies like Detroit. The life of this product would be a short one, soon to be replaced with an even more compact design, the 777. A sign of things to come.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207C’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.085

Representing AP’s new generation of further compacted thermostatic expansion valves designed to meet the needs of a new generation of small commercial refrigerated appliances, for methyl chloride and Freon 12 refrigerants, Model 207C, Automatic Products Co., Mil., Circa 1950 [see also ID#189,190 and 208]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207C’
Manufacturer: Automatic Products Co., Mil.
Make: Automatic Products [AP]
Model: AP207C

Technical Significance:
In response to the buoyant market for compact TX valve technology a number of manufacturers, including Detroit Lubricator, Mayson, Automatic Products, Sporlan and Danfoss, among others entered the field in the late 1930’s and 40’s. They produced a remarkable range of design configurations and capacities for different refrigerants and cooling applications – in low temperature, commercial and air conditioning ranges.

The AP207C was AP’s contribution of the times to super compact, 1/2 ton valves.

Industrial Significance:
The AP207CWith 60″ capillary line and 3/8″ bulb, adjustable superheat feature and built in liquid line screen would help to make possible an explosion of refrigeration and air conditioning applications in the latter part of the 20th century.


Commercial refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.040

An early, commercial application, air-cooled, refrigeration machine [condensing unit] by Kelvinator of Canada designed for use with anhydrous, sulphur dioxide. an early refrigerant that made possible, for the first time, small commercial refrigeration applications in food stores etc. The use of low pressure refrigerants, rather than high pressure anhydrous ammonia, opened up a vast commercial market for refrigeration equipment and, in turn, set new expectations by Canadian consumers of what was available at their local grocer and butcher shop, Kelvinator, circa 1932.



Item: Commercial refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Unknown, Compre

Pop cooler refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.041

In characteristic red, an early, commercial application, air-cooled, refrigeration machine [condensing unit] designed and built by Kelvinator of Canada for Coca Cola pop coolers. The marketing of fresh new taste sensations was central to the creation of new consumer demands by the food and entertainment industries in the 1930’s, as well as by Canadian refrigeration equipment manufacturers, Kelvinator, circa 1938.



Item: Pop cooler refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: 4975

Open system refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.042

Engineered by Kelvinator, an acknowledged leader of the field, for the new generation of chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, this new generation of quiet, belt driven, open system refrigeration machines for small commercial applications was equipped with medium speed, precision made, high efficiency, extended life compressors. In retrospect the series would be seen as part of the Kelvinator of Canada legacy of its mature corporate years in Canada, Kelvinator circa 1945.



Item: Open system refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: CB325

Open system refrigation machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.043

Like Item #042, this series refrigeration machines, designed for the new generation of chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, was developed by Kelvinator in the post WWII years, for small and medium sized commercial refrigeration applications. The Kelvinator SB medium speed, precision made, high efficiency, open system compressor would become a standard of engineering quality for the times . The machine, like #042, would in retrospect, be seen as part of the Kelvinator of Canada legacy of its mature corporate years in Canada, Kelvinator circa 1945.



Item: Open system refrigation machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Part No. 708907

Low-pressure refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.044

With the availability of chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, in the post WWII years, the demand quickly developed for larger and larger low-pressure refrigeration machines, as an alternative to ammonia systems, in this HP range. This 2 HP, water cooled, open-system machine by Kelvinator is a fine example of the genre. Like #042, and #043, it would come to be seen as part of the Kelvinator of Canada legacy of its mature corporate years in Canada, Kelvinator circa 1948.



Item: Low-pressure refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Part No. 07285
Features:
– Tube-in-tube water cooled condenser.- 1 1/2 HP 25 cycle Wagner electric single phase type RA motor with original motor warranty- Heavy rubber vibration insulators- Smoothly streamlined modern frame construction- Copland 2 cyl, V belt driven compressor

Industrial Significance:
Somewhat paradoxically, while the market for larger and larger low-pressure refrigeration machines grew, well beyond the expectations of many after WWII, the diversity of equipment feeding the market diminishedIt was a period of increasing competitive pressure for manufacturers, with more of them bargaining for a slice of the market. Equipment development costs were also increasing due, among other things, to increased performance expectations, reliability and the life expectancy of systems.
Manufacturers moved into areas of specialisation and new partnerships were established, as exemplified here by Kelvinator’s use of Copland compressors. Kelvinator had by now dropped out of the manufacture large compressors, although their efforts in earlier years were impressive ( see section 5.02)


Refrigeration machine ‘H’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.045

The Frigidaire’s “H” series condensing unit for small commercial applications was an essential part of the industry’s “golden years” of early innovative refrigeration engineering. With a new series of compact compressors; a high tech, fully integrated condenser receiver assembly; a floating motor mount and automatic belt tightener, it was a truly innovative contribution to a new generation of quiet, more maintenance free and more user friendly refrigeration machines for the mid 1930’s, letting loose a new wave of consumer expectations of what their local grocer or dairy bar might have in store for them, Frigidaire, Circa 1935.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘H’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: H203


Refrigeration machine ‘S’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.046

A refrigeration condensing unit, with rolled and formed steel frame, massive in appearance, given its modest capacity, the Frigdaire Model S served to perpetuate the “machinery look” of the 1920’s well in to the next decade. With oval coil, static air condenser it would be recognised as a kind of icon of the engineering culture of the times, with its ideas of what a proper refrigeration machine should look like. A real time piece of the era in which it was conceived, many would still be in service 30 years later, servicing Canada’s food and hospitality industries, Frigidaire, 1929.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘S’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Model S
Features:
– Original decorative Frigidaire sticker and logo- Original wiring harness in steel sheathed BX, 2/14 cable and Square D disconnect switch Cat No 98251, with original 15 amp. cartridge fuses

Refrigeration machine ‘S’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.047

A refrigeration condensing unit, with rolled and formed steel frame, massive in appearance, given its modest capacity, the Frigdaire Model S served to perpetuate the “machinery look” of the 1920’s well in to the next decade. Unlike similar Artifact #046, this machine is equipped with a 25 cycle, pre WWII, high torque, repulsion induction motor by Sangamo Electric Toronto Ont., allowing it to appear much the way it did in its early operating years, Frigidaire, 1929.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘S’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Model S

Refrigeration machine ‘G’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.048

The oval, copper tube, static air condenser, along with the hefty, solid look of a no-nonsense refrigeration machine seemed to be a winning formula for Frigidaire in the late 1930’s, one that would be reflected and perpetuated through several years of design and production. The higher capacity Model G, with an added oval tube condenser stack, was similarly endowed to the Model S [See #046 and #047]. Also using sulphur dioxide refrigerant, the Model G would be seen in Canadian estate homes, institutions, food stores, diary bars and hospitality applications well into the 1950’s, when the clear preference of the industry and its publics swung heavily to the use of non-noxious refrigerants, leaving this recognised time piece well behind, Frigidaire, 1929.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘G’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Model G

Technical Significance:
Frigidaire’s commitment to the oval tube, stacked condensing medium in the period was substantial [See Frigidaire manual for the nature and scope of its application]. A simple engineering response, using the materials and know-how of the times, it seemed to perform passably well. The idea of adding additional stacks was a reasonable one, in order to add machine capacity. For a number of reasons the technology would prove to be limited to small capacity, fractional horsepower machines and Frigidaire would need to rethink the form and structure of their condensers, as the inevitable demand for larger and larger machines continued.For Frigidaire an important point of inflection in their design and development curve was at hand. There would be a transition to the more efficient, higher performance, forced air, fin and tube condenser, already in popular use by other manufactures, The oval stacked condenser, a hall mark of Frigidaire’s refrigeration machines was about to disappear, see item #049 and #045.
With the recognised need to move with the times came the commitment to upgrading and the retrofit of existing machines, as a hedge against their obsolescence – in may ways an uncharacteristic market response. Retrofit kits were engineered, packaged and marketed by Frigidaire for a wide range of earlier static air condenser equipped condensing units – see items Group 6.00, 6.02-5 and 6.02-6. These kits were an early example of technological up-grading and retrofitting by a manufacturer moving with the market opportunities of the times.


Refrigeration machine ‘AW’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.049

Frigidaire’s model AW refrigeration machine exemplifies their engineering approach to what was referred to as “radiator type” condensing, as it was employed by the company on larger capacity condensing units [See also Model S and G, #046 – #048]. Using sulphur dioxide refrigerant, the Model AW would be seen in Canadian estate homes, institutions, food stores, diary bars and hospitality applications in higher capacity, fractional horsepower applications, well into the 1950’s. Then the clear preference of the industry and its publics swung heavily to the use of non-noxious refrigerants, Frigidaire, 1932.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘AW’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton, Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: AW
Features:
The machine is equipped with Frigidaire’s floating motor mounting system, a distinctive contribution to the engineering of the period, now by-passed with a rigid mount. The modification stands as historic marker of frequency standardisation in Ontario, circa 1948, when all 25 cycle motors were removed to be replaced by 60 cycle.

Refrigeration machine ‘F12’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.050

An early refrigeration machine, by Frigidaire designed and built for the new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerant of the times, “F12”. A significant, transitional and transformational piece technology, moving from the use of noxious to non-noxious refrigerants, it would serve to vastly increase the market for refrigeration machines and, in turn, their impact on Canadian society and culture. It also serves as a vehicle for telling the stories of the unintended environmental consequences of the move, Frigidaire, circa 1937.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘F12’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire
Model: Frigidaire Corp

Refrigeration machine ‘GM’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.051

An innovative adaptation of an air-cooled refrigeration machine of the mid 1930’s, attempting to make it more user friendly, less machine like, by fully enclosing it in its own ventilated cabinet. The identification plate carries the name “Frigidaire Electric Refrigerator, Product of General Motors”, marking a significant, somewhat ominous step, in the maturation and pre WWII restructuring of the North American refrigeration industry. The plate also carries the corporate address of Toronto, clearly establishing the company’s residency in Canada, Frigidaire, 1937.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘GM’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Electric Refrigeration Products, Genera
Make: Frigidaire
Model: K

Industrial Significance:
The restructuring of the North American refrigeration industry prior to WWII, was a sign of the times, as markets mushroomed, market competition ballooned and the costs of engineering, development, production and marketing increased many fold. The result was the need for increased capital and stable operating funding for research and development, which were seen as available from big business. Big business was also getting bigger and where anxious to move into developing markets and defining new profit centres for themselves.