Commercial rotary gear pump

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.151
Exhibit: Heating

Commercial, high capacity, two stage rotary, gear style pump, in cast steel body with extended shaft, a product of post W.W.II , compacted and functionally integrated engineering. [4th wave] it stands as a marker of the wide spread application of high pressure atomizing oil burner technology to commercial and institutional uses in Canada in the last half of the 20th century, Webster, Circa 1958.



Item: Commercial rotary gear pump
Manufacturer: Name plate missing
Make: Webster
Features: Original line fittings

Technical Significance:
From the vantage point of the early 21st century, the evolution of oil fired, automatic home heating equipment would be seen as generally advancing in four broad waves, each of which would take place over a considerable period of time, each producing many variations of the genre:

1. Vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology [see Group 11.01 artifacts, no. 11.01-1]

2. Elemental, motorized, platform mounted technology with peripheral piping and valving components [see Group 12.01, artifact no 12.01-1, and pump assembly 12.06-1]

3. Compacted motorized technology with inherent, peripheral component parts engineered into the pump assembly [see pump assembly Group 12.06, artifact, and 12.06-2]

4. Functionally integrated, motorized technology, beyond being compacted, a number of functions would be smoothly integrated into a single pump assembly, including piping and valving [see Group 12.01, artifact 12.01-2 and pump assembly 12.06-2]

This pump assembly stands as an example of a high capacity, advanced 4th wave fuel oil pump technology, compact and functionally integrated in heavy cast steel body, designed for commercial and institutional applications.


Commercial rotary gear pump ‘Detroit’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.153
Exhibit: Heating

Commercial, high capacity, two stage rotary, gear style pump, in cast steel body, with barrel and flange motor mount and brass drive coupling. A product of post W.W.II compacted and functionally integrated engineering. [4th wave], it stands as a marker of the wide spread application of high pressure atomizing oil burner technology to commercial and institutional uses in Canada in the last half of the 20th century, Detroit Lubricator, Circa 1958.



Item: Commercial rotary gear pump ‘Detroit’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator, Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: CR8-333
Features: Original line fittings and tubing illustrating the historic trade practices of the period

Technical Significance:
From the vantage point of the early 21st century, the evolution of oil fired, automatic home heating equipment would be seen as generally advancing in four broad waves, each of which would take place over a considerable period of time, each producing many variations of the genre:

1. Vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology [see Group 11.01 artifacts, no. 11.01-1]

2. Elemental, motorized, platform mounted technology with peripheral piping and valving components [see Group 12.01, artifact no 12.01-1, and pump assembly 12.06-1]

3. Compacted motorized technology with inherent, peripheral component parts engineered into the pump assembly [see pump assembly Group 12.06, artifact, and 12.06-2]

4. Functionally integrated, motorized technology, beyond being compacted, a number of functions would be smoothly integrated into a single pump assembly, including piping and valving [see Group 12.01, artifact 12.01-2 and pump assembly 12.06-2]

This pump assembly stands as an example of a high capacity, advanced 4th wave fuel oil pump technology, compact and functionally integrated in heavy cast steel body, designed for commercial and institutional applications.

Industrial Significance:
Detroit Lubricator would be one of a relatively few engineering manufactures that would produce for both the oil heating and refrigeration sectors of the HVACR industry. Their reputation in regulating valves and electric controls for refrigeration systems was well established – see group classification 7.02 and 3.02.


8K volt ignition transformer

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Ignition Transformers

Accession # HHCC.2006.131
Exhibit: Heating

An 8,000 volt, electric spark, ignition transformers, in gloss black steel case with brass nameplate. Such devices in the home and the sparks they generated would be a source of great public mystery and often apprehension in the early years of the 20th century. Yet, they would be the true heroes of early technology for the Canadian home; without them the mechanical wonders of the period would not have been possible, the internal combustion engine, the automobile, and automatic home heating. Webster, Circa 1936.



Item: 8K volt ignition transformer
Manufacturer: Webster Electric Co., Racine, Wis.
Make: Webster
Model: 20-D F
Features: Original wire connector illustrating electrical trade practices of the times

Chrome plated cameo styled, brass nameplate, highly decorate with logo.

Technical Significance:
In a period of increasingly sophisticated mechanical contrivances, the development of electrical apparatus – including reliable, efficient high voltage ignition transformers and electric motors tended, for the most part, to lag well behind the mechanical mechanisms which they supported.

The engineering and manufacturing challenge was to build an electrical transformer, to operate on 110 volts alternating current [the then accepted standard for hydro electrification in Canada], one that would create a sufficiently hot spark, about 8,000 to 10,000 volts, needed to reliably ignite an atomised oil vapor and air mixture.

Little of a theoretical practical nature was known in the early years of the 20th century about the design of electrical equipment, certainly not high voltage transformers. The principles of alternating electrical circuits, as well as those of magnetic circuits were little understood, by those who must apply them.

Farada’s experiments of the 1840’s and 50 had only been translated into the mathematical formula needed for precise engineering design in the 1870’s. And Steinmetz would not set out the basic parameters for the design of electromagnetic circuits until the early years of the 20th century. But the market place could not wait, engineering design proceeded empirically, with the knowledge available – with much trial and error.

The toe crushing weight and size of these early specimens [15 to 20 lbs] is a reminder of the crude design criteria employed and the materials available, especially the crude dielectric materials for the insulation of wire and coil bundles operating at high potential levels. As a result electrical failure was common, with all the accompanying dangers of un-ignited explosive mixtures being pumped into the furnace fire box.

Of special significance is this, long obsolete, 25 cycle, AC specimen. Once the standard in Ontario, 25 cycle equipment was heavier and bulkier than its 60 cycle counter part.

Industrial Significance:
By the mid 1930’s the future of the Canadian oil heat industry was assured of a long period of solid growth. With hydro electrification now well advanced in many urban areas in Canada, the desire for automatic, home heating was almost universal, and with it the pressure to engineer high voltage ignition devices in Canada, at reduced cost and improved reliability and performance – See ID# 256 and 257.


10K volt ignition transformer

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Ignition Transformers

Accession # HHCC.2006.132
Exhibit: Heating

A 10,000 volt, electric spark, ignition transformers, in non-ferro-magnetic, brass case in gloss black enamel, manufactured and stencilled for Fess Oil Burners of Canada, an acknowledged early pioneer and Canadian market leader. Such high voltage devices in the home would be a source of great public mystery and often apprehension in the early years of the 20th century. But without the electric spark the mechanical wonders of the age would not have been possible, the internal combustion engine, the automobile, and automatic home heating. Webster, Circa 1938.



Item: 10K volt ignition transformer
Manufacturer: Webster Electric Co., Racine, Wis.
Make: Webster
Model: 27D13
Features: Original wire connector and cable stub, illustrating electrical trade practices of the times; Chrome plated, classical oval, brass nameplate, highly decorate with Fess logo, torch held high.

Technical Significance:
In a period of increasingly sophisticated mechanical contrivances, the development of electrical apparatus – including reliable, efficient high voltage ignition devices [transformers] and electric motors tended, for the most part, to lag well behind the mechanical mechanisms which they supported.

The engineering and manufacturing challenge was to build an electrical transformer, to operate on 110 volts alternating current [the then accepted standard for hydro electrification in Canada], one that would create a sufficiently hot spark, about 8,000 to 10,000 volts, needed to reliably ignite an atomised oil vapour and air mixture.

Little of a theoretical nature was known in the early years of the 20th century about the design of electrical equipment, certainly not high voltage transformers. The principles of alternating electrical circuits, as well as those of magnetic circuits were little understood, by those who must apply them.

Farada’s experiments of the 1840’s and 50 had only been translated into the mathematical formula needed for precise engineering design in the 1870’s. And Steinmetz would not set out the basic parameters for the design of electromagnetic circuits until the early years of the 20th century. But the market place could not wait, engineering design proceeded empirically, with the knowledge available – with much trial and error. The cost would be in reliability and performance standards

The toe crushing weight and size of these early specimens [25 lbs] is a reminder of the crude design criteria employed, and the materials available, especially the crude dielectric materials for the insulation of wire and coil bundles operating at these high potential levels. As a result electrical failure was common, with all the accompanying dangers posed by un-ignited explosive mixtures being pumped into the furnace fire box.

Of special significance is this 25 cycle specimen. Once the standard in Ontario, 25 cycle equipment was heavier and bulkier than its 60 cycle counter part. Frequency standardization in Ontario, a project of monolithic proportion, now long forgotten was a technological marvel in its own right. It occurred, largely, in the latter half of the 1940’s

Industrial Significance:
A rare marker of the early years in the Canadian, automatic oil heating industry, this ignition transformer by the acknowledged, early US leader in transformer engineering, design and manufacturer, Webster Electric, was stencilled for Fess Oil Burners of Canada, then an acknowledged early pioneer and market leader in the engineering, design and manufacture of oil burners in Canada. The suggestion here is that there were no Canadian ignition transformer manufactures in the period.

By the mid 1930’s the future of the Canadian oil heat industry was assured of a long period of solid growth. With hydro electrification now well advanced in many urban areas in Canada, the desire for automatic, home heating was almost universal, and with it the pressure to engineer high voltage ignition in Canada, at reduced cost and improved reliability and performance – See ID# 256 and 257.


10Kv 60 cycle ignition transformer

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Ignition Transformers

Accession # HHCC.2006.133
Exhibit: Heating

A 10,000 volt, 60 cycle spark, ignition transformer, in ferro-magnetic, steel case in gloss black enamel, with long radius corners, reminiscent of the Art Deco style. Equipped with built in junction box, adjustable base and brown porcelain high tension insulators with screw terminals, it stands as an historic example of the work of early, Canadian, ignition transformer, speciality manufactures, tooling up for the now rapidly expanding, home heating market in Canada, Amalgamated Electric, 1960.



Item: 10Kv 60 cycle ignition transformer
Manufacturer: Jefferson Electric, Amalgamated Electric Corporati
Make: Jefferson
Model: Cat No. 638-241
Features: Original wire connector and cable stub, illustrating electrical trade practices of the times

Art Deco inspired, long radius. rounded corners

Technical Significance:
Early high voltage ignition transformers were built in non-ferro magnetic, brass enclosures [See ID# 255 and 256], considered necessary to isolate the enclosure from the electro magnetic circuit. Subsequent engineering studies confirmed the use of magnetic steel shells, as seen here – a cost saving feature for the manufacturer.

By the 1960’s the toe crushing weight of early ignition transformers [See ID# 255 and 256] had been reduced by 50%, due to advances in engineering design, the use of new inorganic dielectric, insulating materials able to with stand high voltages and surges, as well as as a consequence of frequency standardization [25 to 60 cycle]

Industrial Significance:
The smoothly rounded, long radius corners, giving this device a distinctly modern Art Deco look, is also a marker of the advanced, production manufacturing methods of the 1960’s

The early patent numbers are somewhat surprising [1930 to 1932], suggest that there was little new in the technology, which could be patented, through the ensuing years to the 1960’s, the major advances being made in materials and manufacturing methods.

By the 1960’s the Canadian automatic oil heating industry was into supplying a major after-market, for parts and upgraded equipment. This ignition transformer is a marker of those times, built with adaptable, slotted base-plate, making it readily adaptable to a number of different oil burner manufacturer’s applications.

The increasingly wide range of different physical configurations, as well as different technologies appearing on the Canadian oil heating market by the 1960’s, demonstrated the immense inventiveness characterizing the Canadian automatic oil heating industry of the times. As a result, Canadian ignition transformer manufactures were called upon to adapt their deigns to many different configurations, in order to meet the needs of original equipment manufacturers, as well as the diversity of forms required to economically service the after market [See also ID# 258].

Much of the credibility of the Canadian oil heat industry would rest on its ability to service the after-market promptly, efficiently and at a cost homeowners could afford. Motors, high voltage ignition transformer and electrodes, as well as high pressure oil atomizing nozzles and oil pumps were all casualties of normal ware and tear, often breaking down as a result of prolonged periods of cold Canadian winter weather. A substantial service industry in towns and cities across the country would develop by the 1960’s, with the challenge of maintaining a stock of replacement parts in the many configurations required for emergency, “no-heat” service.


10Kv 60 cycle ignition transformer

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Ignition Transformers

Accession # HHCC.2006.134
Exhibit: Heating

A 10,000 volt, 60 cycle spark, ignition transformer, in ferro-magnetic, steel case in gloss black enamel, with long radius corners, reminiscent of the Art Deco style. Equipped with hinged base-plate and enclosed high tension insulators with adjustable brass pressure contacts and built in junction box, it stands as an historic example of the immense diversity and inventiveness of the Canadian oil heat industry during its years of post W.W.II rapid growth, Allison 1964.



Item: 10Kv 60 cycle ignition transformer
Manufacturer: Allanson Armature Mfg Co. Ltd, Toronto
Make: Allanson
Model: Cat No. 521, ty
Features: Original wire connector and cable stubs, illustrating electrical trade practices of the times

Art Deco inspired, long radius. rounded corners

Technical Significance:
Early high voltage ignition transformers were built in non-ferro magnetic, brass enclosures [See ID# 255 and 256], considered necessary to isolate the enclosure from the electro magnetic circuit. Subsequent engineering studies confirmed the appropriate use of magnetic steel shells, as seen here – a cost saving feature for the manufacturer.

By the 1960’s the toe crushing weight of early ignition transformers [See ID# 255 and 256] had been reduced by 50%, due to advances in engineering design, the use of new inorganic dielectric, insulating materials able to with stand high voltages and surges, as well as as a consequence of frequency standardization [25 to 60 cycle]

Industrial Significance:
The Canadian automatic oil heating industry was expanding rapidly in the 1960’s. The Allanson, Armature Mfg. Co., having made its name in the manufacture electric armatures for the automotive industry, for use in generators and starters would see in the heating industry opportunities for horizontal expansion, making use of its core skills – electrical coil winding.

By the 1960’s the Canadian automatic oil heating industry was into supplying a major after-market, for parts and upgraded equipment. This ignition transformer designed with a hinged base and enclosed high tension connections stands as an example of the range of configurations needed in transformers to meet the diverse engineering and design requirements of the period

The increasingly wide range of different physical configurations, as well as different technologies appearing on the Canadian oil heating market by the 1960’s, demonstrated the immense inventiveness characterizing the Canadian automatic oil heating industry of the times. As a result, Canadian ignition transformer manufactures were called upon to adapt their designs to many different configurations, in order to meet the needs of original equipment manufacturers, as well as the diversity of forms required to economically service the after-market [See also ID# 258].

Much of the credibility of the Canadian oil heat industry would rest on its ability to service the after-market promptly, efficiently, and at a cost homeowners could afford. Motors, high voltage ignition transformer and electrodes, as well as high pressure oil atomizing nozzles and oil pumps were all casualties of normal ware and tear, often short lived, often breaking down as a result of prolonged periods of cold Canadian winter weather. A substantial service industry in towns and cities across the country would develop by the 1960’s, with the challenge of maintaining a stock of replacement parts in the many configurations required for emergency, “no-heat” service.

The smoothly rounded, long radius corners, giving this device a distinctly modern Art Deco look, is a marker of the advanced, production manufacturing methods of the 1960’s


Hard fire brick

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.119
Exhibit: Heating

In the embryonic and early development years of automatic, oil heating systems in Canada, high temperature fire brick were the building blocks of the “fire box” [combustion chamber]. The firebox, holding a 2.600 degree F. flame in check, was a critical component, determining both system safety and performance. It would be skilfully crafted on-the-job, according to the size of the fire chamber, the combustion rate and the unique flame configuration of the oil burner, hard fire brick, A P Green, Circa 1938.



Item: Hard fire brick
Manufacturer: A P Green, Toronto
Make: A P Green
Model: A – Empire DP

Technical Significance:
In the embryonic and early development years of automatic, oil heating systems in Canada, high temperature “Hard” fire brick were the building blocks of the “fire box” [combustion chamber]. Shaped much like regular bricks, but made from clays withstanding high temperature.

The firebox, holding a 2.600 degree F. flame in check, was a critical component, determining both system safety and performance, a matter of concern for the installer and technician.

It would be skilfully crafted on-the-job, according to the combustion rate and the unique flame configuration of the oil burner the size of the fire chamber and the gut feel of the installer.

Industrial Significance:
The construction of fireboxes was an art form of the day, with all to often little for the installer to guide him in a wide range of decisions to be made, effecting the performance of the oil burner and the safety of the system see references.

Most heating automatic oil heating systems of the 1920’s on into the 40’s in Canada were of the “conversion” type, typically coal and wood fired furnaces and boilers in which oil burners were installed. Wood and coal grates were removed and firebrick used to build a box like configuration, typically, but not always, with a hole at one end to receive the blast tube of the oil burner.

With the evolution of the industry came softer lighter fire brick, see ID#244, as well as pre-cast moulded refractory materials, in a range of sizes, pre-shaped for certain firing rates and fire chambers, see ID#245.

The significant developments in ceramics engineering, reflected in the refractory materials of the period, should not be understated, for they made possible the evolution of automatic home heating and its seminal contribution to life in Canada. An unobtrusive technology in the public eye, the accomplishments in ceramics engineering tend to get lost in the midst of the Gee-Whiz technological achievements in combustion and electric control engineering of the 1920’s and 30’s.

By the 1960’s much ceramic-based combustion chamber engineering would give way to light weight stainless steel configurations, considered preferable for the new world of unitary equipment, pre-tested and shipped to the job site ready for installation.


‘Soft’ fire brick

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.120
Exhibit: Heating

In the embryonic and early development years of automatic, oil heating systems in Canada, high temperature fire brick were the building blocks of the “fire box” [combustion chamber]. The firebox, holding a 2.600 degree F. flame in check, was a critical component, determining both system safety and performance. It would be skilfully crafted on-the-job, according to the size of the fire chamber, the combustion rate and the unique flame configuration of the oil burner, “soft” fire brick, A P Green, Circa 1940.



Item: ‘Soft’ fire brick
Manufacturer: A P Green, Toronto
Make: A P Green

Technical Significance:
With the evolution of the industry came soft light weight fire brick, as well as pre-cast moulded refractory materials, in a range of sizes, pre-shaped for certain firing rates and fire chambers, see ID#245

In the embryonic and early development years of automatic, oil heating systems in Canada, high temperature fire brick were the building blocks of the “fire box” [combustion chamber]. Shaped much like regular bricks, but made from clays withstanding high temperature

The firebox, holding a 2.600 degree F. flame in check, was a critical component, determining both system safety and performance, a matter of concern for the installer and technician.

It would be skilfully crafted on-the-job, according to the combustion rate and the unique flame configuration of the oil burner the size of the fire chamber and the gut feel of the installer.

Industrial Significance:
The construction of fireboxes was an art form of the day, with all to often little for the installer to guide him in a wide range of decisions to be made, effecting the performance of the oil burner and the safety of the system see references

Most heating automatic oil heating systems of the 1920’s on into the 40’s in Canada were of the “conversion” type, typically coal and wood fired furnaces and boilers in which oil burners were installed. Wood and coal grates were removed and firebrick used to build a box like configuration, typically, but not always, with a hole at one end to receive the blast tube of the oil burner.

The significant developments in ceramics engineering, reflected in the refractory materials of the period, should not be understated, for they made possible the evolution of automatic home heating and its seminal contribution to life in Canada. An unobtrusive technology in the public eye, the accomplishments in ceramics engineering tend to get lost in the midst of the Gee-Whiz technological achievements in combustion and electric control engineering of the 1920’s and 30’s.

By the 1960’s much ceramic-based combustion chamber engineering would give way to light weight stainless steel configurations, considered preferable for the new world of unitary equipment, pre-tested and shipped to the job site ready for installation.


Fire box sections

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.121
Exhibit: Heating

Pre-cast, sectional, circular, high temperature refractory sections, made in a range of sizes and compositions, became widely used starting in the 1940’s for the construction of “fire boxes” [combustion chambers]. The firebox, holding a 2.600 degree F. flame in check, was a critical component, determining both system safety and performance, 2 sections, model 424, A P Green, Circa 1945.



Item: Fire box sections
Manufacturer: A P Green, Toronto
Make: A P Green
Model: 424

Technical Significance:
With the evolution of the industry came pre-formed, sectional, circular refractory sections in a range of sizes, pre-shaped for certain firing rates and fire chambers

The evolution of pre-formed, sectional, circular refractory was hastened by the development of unitary, factory made and assembled warm air furnaces, winter air conditioners and hot water home heating boilers. Shipped to the job site this equipment came complete with oil burner, refractory and control system reedy for installation.

Industrial Significance:
With the evolution of unitary equipment for residential heating in Canada came generally higher levels of system performance, reliability and safety, with much of the guess work required with the conversion of hand fired wood and coal fired systems gone.

The significant developments in ceramics engineering, reflected in the refractory materials of the period, should not be understated, for they made possible the evolution of automatic home heating and its seminal contribution to life in Canada. An unobtrusive technology in the public eye, the accomplishments in ceramics engineering tend to get lost in the midst of the Gee-Whiz technological achievements in combustion and electric control engineering of the 1920’s and 30’s.

By the 1960’s much ceramic-based combustion chamber engineering would give way to light weight stainless steel configurations, considered preferable for the new world of unitary equipment, pre-tested and shipped to the job site ready for installation.


Panel wall fan

Ventilation Equipment and Systems – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.085
Exhibit: Ventilation

The second half of the 20th century brought with it new realisations of the importance of air quality and the need for proper ventilation of working spaces. This elemental, 16″, 3 blade, panel wall fan, in knock-down form, for assembly on-the-job, equipped with automatic wall damper was a response to the growing market of the late 1950’s, Waugh and McKewen, London Ont., Supplier to the trade, 1957.



Item: Panel wall fan
Manufacturer: Unknown
Make: Unknown

Ducted fan assembly

Ventilation Equipment and Systems – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.086
Exhibit: Ventilation

A special application ducted fan assembly, with rubber mounted, centrifugal, high static pressure fan, hub mounted, shaded pole electric motor and high temperature, thermal disk limit control, in custom formed housing with baked, brown wrinkled enamel, complete with 110 volt line cord and plug, illustrating the sophistication of the small application, air handling equipment available by the mid 1950’s, with a well developed network of OEM parts suppliers feeding the industry. 1957.



Item: Ducted fan assembly
Manufacturer: unknown
Make: Unknown

Repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.170
Exhibit: Ventilation

Classic mid 20th century, heavy duty, repulsion induction, brush lifting motor, dual voltage and mechanically reversible. Canadian made, it would characterize much of the Canadian experience through middle and latter years of the century, a period which saw massive growth in the demand for such high torque motors following W.W.II and frequency standardization. Yet, paradoxically, the period also witnessed the progressive demise of the technology, Leland [new and unused], Circa 1960. [See also ID# 308]



Item: Repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric Canada Limited, Guelph Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: Form AKWJH, Type R
Features:
– Built-in well for the possible installation of “Klixon” motor overload protector with automatic reset.
– Shop tag in Howard Oliver’s hand writing, “checks OK, Jan 1975”

Technical Significance:
– With a built-in “well” making provision for “Klixon” inherent motor overload protector technology, this artifact is a marker of the advances made by mid century in personal and property protection for the FHP motor owners. By then, the inherent, automatic overload projector with automatic reset had become a mainstream technology, for which provisions were being built into the motor body, whether the particular application required it or not. Inherent, automatic overload motor protection was a universal truth for FHP motor design by the middle of the 20th century. It was yet another indicator of the new world of advances made through automation – as it existed in the mid 20th century.
– Canadian made, this motor would characterize much of the Canadian experience through middle and later years of the century, in high torque, FHP motor development. A period which saw massive growth in the demand for such high starting torque motors, typically for use on refrigeration equipment, which flooded the market in those years, following W.W.II and frequency standardization.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology,throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– For the Canadian household and commercial refrigeration industry, pioneered by Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it would be a “just-in-time” technology, as well as an immensely enabling one – and what it enabled was considerable. Sir William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, had just set out the theoretical principles of the compression refrigeration, Carnot cycle [see Note #1]. But there existed no electro-motive devices with sufficient starting torque able to drive the compressor, making mechanical cooling practical for household and commercial uses – even for those who were otherwise able to enjoy the benefits of electrification. The push was on to develop such a device, the repulsion induction, single-phase motor would quickly follow.
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Well recognized for their performance, reliability and maitainability, the repulsion induction engineering designs employed by Leland Electric, Guelph Ontario, along with Wagner Electric Leaside would in many ways serve to characterizing best Canadian practice through middle and later years of the century.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


Variable speed repulsion motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.171
Exhibit: Ventilation

A rarity, a variable speed repulsion motor, with mechanical speed, forward and reverse control lever. A classic, mid 20th century piece of speciality, repulsion induction technology, marking the apogee of the genre – in a period when the genre was still the wonder-boy of single phase, electric motor engineering. Canadian made, it would stand as a special time piece, marking the achievements and sophistication of the Canadian electric motor engineering and manufacturing, part of the “golden years” of the industry in Canada, Leland, 1948.



Item: Variable speed repulsion motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric Canada Limited, Guelph Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: Form BOWJH, Type RV
Features:
– 6 inch pressed steel V pulley for B and C-section belts. The pulley, now badly out of alignment, and showing the signs of rusting, as a result of normal ware and tar, marks these pulleys, fabricated in pressed steel, as best for light duty applications

Technical Significance:
– Variable speed repulsion motor with mechanical speed, forward and reverse control lever.
– A classic, mid 20th century piece of speciality, repulsion induction technology, marking the apogee of the genre – in a period when the genre was still the wonder-boy of single phase, electric motor engineering. For it would be another half century before capacitor start, electronic, digital speed control would be popularly available.
– Canadian made, it would stand as a special time piece, marking the achievements and sophistication of the Canadian electric motor engineering and manufacturing, part of the “golden years” of the industry in Canada,
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Well recognized for their performance, reliability and maitainability, the repulsion induction engineering designs employed by Leland Electric, Guelph Ontario, along with Wagner Electric Leaside would in many ways serve to characterizing best Canadian practice through middle and later years of the century.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.172
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, repulsion induction, brush lifting, 25 cycle motor, manufactured in Canada for Kelvinator’s pioneering generation of cabinet refrigerators for the home. With bronze bearings and short, snap cap oilers, open ventilated, cast iron frame, and slotted 4 bolt, rigid steel base, it stands as a rare time piece in the evolution of the Canadian FHP motor and refrigeration industries, Wagner, 1928.



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: Type 66XL7 RA
Features:
– 3 original manufacturers shipping tags

Technical Significance:
– A rare glimpse of the earliest years of Canadian commercial production of repulsion induction, FHP, single phase, motor technology. In spite of the engineering and manufacturing challenges faced, the development was spurred on by the promise of ever increasing market demand for high starting torque motors for home and commercial applications.
– The technology, complete with centrifugally operated brush lifters [to reduce wear and noise], and armature short circuiting mechanism [to convert from repulsion start to induction run operation] represented a truly astonishing level of research and development, and manufacturing know how, all in an era with little theory and practical experience to draw on.
– The bearing oiling system, engineered without extended oiler tubes, stands as an example of early consumer product development, with little regard for public safety. Many fingers would get caught in pulleys and fan blades before extension safety oiler tubes would become common place [see for example ID# 301 to 307]. With the ever-increasing range and sophistication of electro-motive devices for home use would come increasingly stringent safety requirements with the regulatory agencies needed to enforce them. By the end of the century substantial space in customer owning and operating manuals would be given over to safety precautions.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– For the Canadian household and commercial refrigeration industry, pioneered by Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it would be a “just-in-time” technology, as well as an immensely enabling one – and what it enabled was considerable. Sir William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, had just set out the theoretical principles of the compression refrigeration, Carnot cycle [see Note #1]. But there existed no electro-motive devices with sufficient starting torque able to drive the compressor, making mechanical cooling practical for household and commercial uses – even for those who were otherwise able to enjoy the benefits of electrification. The push was on to develop such a device, the repulsion induction, single-phase motor would quickly follow.
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Canadian made, this motor would stand as a marker of the earliest years of FHP, single phase, electric motor manufacturing in the country. It would be spurred on by the promise of new market opportunities for electro-mechanical home appliances,
– The oil soaked service tags, still attached to the motor after close to 80 years, tell a number of stories of their life and times:
1. Of constant oil spillage, typically running over the floor of a Canadian kitchen somewhere, the result of over oiling of motor bearings and leaking refrigeration compressor seals. The sealed motor compressor unit could not come too soon for many home owners.
2. Of the 20 some odd service centres across Canada, established to support the service of Wagner motors and Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, as early as 1928
3. Of the four-year replacement program, which Kelvinator maintained to promote the quality and reliability of the cabinet refrigerators they marketed to wary homeowners, as early as the 1920’s.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.173
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with historic innovative, first generation, vibration isolating motor mounts, a significant step in helping to reduce the noise level in the canadian kitchen, resulting from the introduction of motorized machinery, built in Canada for Kelvinator’s cabinet refrigerators introduced in the early 1930’s, Wagner, Circa 1932.



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL22B110K128, Type SAR
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– With original shop tag, T.H. Oliver, Refrigeration and Electric Service, marked “salvage …..”

Technical Significance:
– An artifact of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology for the Canadian home:
1. An early Canadian made FHP motor for an early Canadian refrigerator manufacturer, marking the optimism of the times, the capital investment made, in spite of a period of marked economic depression
2. A pioneering step in quieting the Canadian kitchen. The 4 point, rubber vibration insulating base would be an historic step of significant proportion in reducing noise in the kitchen, which followed the introduction of electro-motive powered machinery into the home. It would be the first step in an evolutionary sequence which would result, in the complete disappearance of the noisy, hazards, FHP motor, embedding it within the refrigeration system itself, the hermetic refrigeration motor compressor. [see examples classification code 4.01] [see also Note 1]
3. Part of the historic movement to unitize and package the mechanical refrigeration systems, to be marketed to the Canadian home owner – with all its piping, motor, compressor, valving and so forth. Manufactures understood that the popular acceptance of the technology by homeowners, would increasingly depend on making this mechanical wonder not only quieter, but more reliable and repairable, independent of local highly skilled tradesman. The packaged, factory ready refrigeration replacement system was seen as the answer, although not altogether successful in the earliest attempts of which this motor was part – See Reference 12.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.174
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with historic, innovative, first generation, vibration isolating, rubber motor mounts, a significant step in helping to reduce the noise level in the kitchen, resulting from the introduction of motorized machinery, Delco, Circa 1932. [see also ID# 299, 301, 302]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 5094
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts

Technical Significance:
– Stands as an exemplar of the dissemination of 4 point rubber insulating motor mounting technology in the early 1930’s adopted here by Delco, a division of Frigidaire – see also ID# 297
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.175
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with historic, innovative, two point cradle style, vibration isolating, rubber motor mounting, a significant step in helping to reduce the noise level in the kitchen, resulting from the introduction of motorized machinery, Delco, Circa 1932. [see also ID# 298, 301, 302]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 2144
Features:
– T. H. Oliver service tag in Mr. Oliver’s hand writing, “Mr Dryden, Danels and Dryden”, “25 cycle motor, defective winding”

Technical Significance:
– An example of the innovative engineering of the period working to quiet the cabinet refrigerator in the early 1930’s, adopted here by Frigidaire/Delco, – see also ID# 298
– The cradle mount provided Frigidaire with a dual function of motor quieting, as well as automatic belt tightening, afforded by a spring tension devices operating on the cradle to hold the belt in a taught position – see Reference 12
– The cradle motor mount by Frigidaire/Delco would be one more significant step in an evolutionary sequence which would result, in the complete disappearance of the noisy, hazards, FHP motor, embedding it within the refrigeration system itself, the hermetic refrigeration motor compressor. [see examples classification code 4.01]
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor, 1/4HP ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.176
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, 1/4 HP repulsion induction motor, equipped with rigid base for use on small commercial refrigeration applications, commonly found in Canada on Frigidaire condensing units in small food store and confectionery applications, throughout the pre W.W.II years and beyond to frequency standardization and the birth of the hermetic motor compressor, Delco, Circa 1936.



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor, 1/4HP ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 4394

Technical Significance:
– The physical size and crushing weight of this 1/4 HP motor of the period is a matter of note. The magnetic circuits required for 25 cycle applications, along with the all ferro-magnetic bodies, coupled with the relatively crude engineering designs of the period would lead to massive equipment by future standards. For examples of applications by Frigidaire see Reference No 12
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.177
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor for household cabinet refrigerator with vibration isolating motor mounts, and fusetron holder, two significant innovations, helping to reduce noise in the kitchen, and the risk of property and personal injury due to motor overheating, Delco, Circa 1934. [see also ID# 298, 302]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 4089
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– Fusetron holder now blanked off, early technology for motor overload protection

Technical Significance:
– Represented here are two major innovations in FHP motor technology for the Canadian home, associated with the early 1930’s. One for the reduction of noise [the four-point vibration, rubber mount], the second for reduction of risk of property and personal damage, due to an overheated motor [the fusetron]. Both were crude beginnings, soon to be replaced by more advanced forms of the technology.
– The fusetron [See item code 16.06-5], now removed and opening blanked off, tells important stories of technological evolution and advancement in personal and property protection. The fusetron was a slow blow fuse engineered to take the high starting current associated with inductive loads, but to open circuit in response to prolonged over load conditions. Lacking a recycling capability, it left the homeowner vulnerable. As a consequence many homeowners would find their refrigerator off, with resultant food spoilage. The inherent motor overload protector with an automatic recycling capability would still be another decade in the making. In the meantime many fusetrons were disabled by local refrigeration service technician, on the request of angry homeowners. [see ID#294 for example of “Klixon” inherent, automatic overload protection]
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.178
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor for household cabinet refrigerator with vibration isolating motor mounts, and fusetron holder, two significant innovations, helping to reduce noise in the kitchen, and the risk of property and personal injury due to motor overheating, Delco, Circa 1934. [see also ID# 298, 301]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 4093
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– Fusetron holder now blanked off, early technology for motor overload protection

Technical Significance:
– Represented here are two major innovations in FHP motor technology for the Canadian home, associated with the early 1930’s. One for the reduction of noise [the four-point vibration, rubber mount], the second for reduction of risk of property and personal damage, due to an overheated motor [the fusetron]. Both were crude beginnings, soon to be replaced by more advanced forms of the technology.
– The fusetron [See item code 16.06-5], now removed and opening blanked off, tells important stories of technological evolution and advancement in personal and property protection. The fusetron was a slow blow fuse engineered to take the high starting current associated with inductive loads, but to open circuit in response to prolonged over load conditions. Lacking a recycling capability, it left the homeowner vulnerable. As a consequence many homeowners would find their refrigerator off, with resultant food spoilage. The inherent motor overload protector with an automatic recycling capability would still be another decade in the making. In the meantime many fusetrons were disabled by local refrigeration service technician, on the request of angry homeowners. [see ID#294 for example of “Klixon” inherent, automatic overload protection, and ID# 303 for example of early protector by Wagner]
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.179
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with two historic innovations, a first generation, vibration isolating motor mount, and an inherent overload protector with automatic reset, helping to reduce both noise and the risk of personal and property injury in the Canadian kitchen, built in Canada for Kelvinator of Canada’s cabinet refrigerators introduced in the early 1930’s, Wagner, Circa 1936. [see also ID# 297]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL22B55, Type SAR
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset

Technical Significance:
– An artifact of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology for the Canadian home:
1. An early Canadian made FHP motor for an early Canadian refrigerator manufacturer, marking the optimism of the times, the capital investment made, in spite of a period of marked economic depression
2. A pioneering step in quieting the Canadian kitchen. The 4 point, rubber vibration insulating base would be an historic step of significant proportion in reducing noise in the kitchen, which followed the introduction of electro-motive powered machinery into the home. It would be the first step in an evolutionary sequence which would result, in the complete disappearance of the noisy, hazards, FHP motor, embedding it within the refrigeration system itself, the hermetic refrigeration motor compressor. [see examples classification code 4.01] [see also Note 1]
3. An early historic technology for reducing the risk of personal and property damage due to motor overload, the inherent automatic overload protector – See Note No. 1.
4. A combination compressor drive pulley with condenser fan, a technology widely used in the 1920’s and 30’s, here employed by Kelvinator on a Model J15 condensing unit for a home cabinet refrigerator. The pulley hub performs a dual function, acting also as the drive hub of a four blade, 9 inch propeller style condenser fan blade. Driven at 1440 RPM, the un-guarded blade would represent a significant hazard to the un-wary homeowner [see Reference No. 13, P. 66].
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Commutating, single phase, 25 cycle motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.180
Exhibit: Ventilation

A rare, early 20th century, commutating, single phase, 25 cycle, alternating current motor, likely of the repulsion induction type, but requires further study. An early marker of vastly changing times to come, following the first wave of home electrification. It would herald the coming invasion of the Canadian home by electro-motive technology, General Electric, date unknown. [see also ID# 293]



Item: Commutating, single phase, 25 cycle motor
Manufacturer: General Electric Co. Schenectady, NY.
Make: General Electric
Model: Type RSA

Technical Significance:
– A rare example of an early communtating, alternating current motor
– Requires further research to document technical significance.
– An early marker of vastly changing times to come, following the first wave of home electrification technology. A cultural icon, it would herald the coming invasion of the Canadian home by electro-motive technology, starting in central Canada in the 1920’s.


1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.181
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, classic 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor with inherent overload protection and automatic reset, part of a rare set of three 25 cycle motors escaping frequency standardization in 1948. They define new standards of practice, telling many stories of the explosion of small commercial refrigeration applications, which were enabled in the 1940’s through 50’s, changing the lives of Canadians forever, Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1947. [see also ID# 306, 307]



Item: 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL26BF1924N, Type RA
Features:
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset
– State of the art, light weight, non-ferro magnetic, alloy end bells

Technical Significance:
– An artifact [artifacts] of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive technology::
1. Marking the immense engineering achievement in the development and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology well before the mid 20th century, paradoxically on the eve of its gradual demise and replacement by capacitor start FHP technology [see code 16.02],
2. Representing a technological achievement that would define the standard of practice for small commercial refrigeration motor applications in the 1940’s through 50’s, prior to the popularization of capacitor start motor technology and the widespread adoption of embedded motor and compressor equipment for commercial applications, the hermetic refrigeration condensing unit,
3. The popularization of small commercial refrigeration applications, enabled by the Wagner Type KA, a growth market in Canada in the post W.W.II years through the 1960’s, including ice cream and frozen food cabinets and merchandizers, reach-in, unitary refrigerators, display cases and merchandizers for small food stores and confectioneries – enabling a veritable explosion of new food products and tastes for Canadians.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.182
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, classic 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor with inherent overload protection and automatic reset, part of a rare set of three 25 cycle motors escaping frequency standardization in 1948. They define new standards of practice, telling many stories of the explosion of small commercial refrigeration applications, which were enabled in the 1940’s through 50’s, changing the lives of Canadians forever, Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1947. [see also ID# 305, 307]



Item: 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL26BF1924N, Type RA
Features:
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset
– State of the art, light weight, non-ferro magnetic, alloy end bells

Technical Significance:
– An artifact [artifacts] of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive technology::
1. Marking the immense engineering achievement in the development and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology well before the mid 20th century, paradoxically on the eve of its gradual demise and replacement by capacitor start FHP technology [see code 16.02],
2. Representing a technological achievement that would define the standard of practice for small commercial refrigeration motor applications in the 1940’s through 50’s, prior to the popularization of capacitor start motor technology and the widespread adoption of embedded motor and compressor equipment for commercial applications, the hermetic refrigeration condensing unit,
3. The popularization of small commercial refrigeration applications, enabled by the Wagner Type KA, a growth market in Canada in the post W.W.II years through the 1960’s, including ice cream and frozen food cabinets and merchandizers, reach-in, unitary refrigerators, display cases and merchandizers for small food stores and confectioneries – enabling a veritable explosion of new food products and tastes for Canadians.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.183
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, classic 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor with inherent overload protection and automatic reset, part of a rare set of three 25 cycle motors escaping frequency standardization in 1948. They define new standards of practice, telling many stories of the explosion of small commercial refrigeration applications, which were enabled in the 1940’s through 50’s, changing the lives of Canadians forever, Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1947 [see also ID# 305, 306]



Item: 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL26BF1924N, Type RA
Features:
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset
– State of the art, light weight, non-ferro magnetic, alloy end bells

Technical Significance:
– An artifact [artifacts] of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive technology::
1. Marking the immense engineering achievement in the development and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology well before the mid 20th century, paradoxically on the eve of its gradual demise and replacement by capacitor start FHP technology [see code 16.02],
2. Representing a technological achievement that would define the standard of practice for small commercial refrigeration motor applications in the 1940’s through 50’s, prior to the popularization of capacitor start motor technology and the widespread adoption of embedded motor and compressor equipment for commercial applications, the hermetic refrigeration condensing unit,
3. The popularization of small commercial refrigeration applications, enabled by the Wagner Type KA, a growth market in Canada in the post W.W.II years through the 1960’s, including ice cream and frozen food cabinets and merchandizers, reach-in, unitary refrigerators, display cases and merchandizers for small food stores and confectioneries – enabling a veritable explosion of new food products and tastes for Canadians.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1/6 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.184
Exhibit: Ventilation

Classic mid 20th century, repulsion induction high starting torque, 1/6th HP, motor, with inherent automatic overload protection and vibration insulating torsion base, engineered for household cabinet refrigerators. Canadian made by an acknowledged market leader, it would be characteristic of the period of massive growth in the demand for such motors on following frequency standardization, Leland , Circa 1958. [See also ID# 294]



Item: 1/6 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric Canada Limited, Guelph Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: Form AKWIH, Type R

Technical Significance:
– Canadian made, this motor would characterize much of the Canadian experience through middle and later years of the century, in high torque, FHP motor development. It was a period which saw massive growth in the demand for such high starting torque motors, typically for use on refrigeration equipment, following W.W.II and frequency standardization, prior to the domination of the market by embedded motor compressor technology, the hermetic motor compressor.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– For the Canadian household and commercial refrigeration industry, pioneered by Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it would be a “just-in-time” technology, as well as an immensely enabling one – and what it enabled was considerable. Sir William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, had just set out the theoretical principles of the compression refrigeration, Carnot cycle [see Note #1]. But there existed no electro-motive devices with sufficient starting torque able to drive the compressor, making mechanical cooling practical for household and commercial uses – even for those who were otherwise able to enjoy the benefits of electrification. The push was on to develop such a device, the repulsion induction, single-phase motor would quickly follow.
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Well recognized for their performance, reliability and maitainability, the repulsion induction engineering designs employed by Leland Electric, Guelph Ontario, along with Wagner Electric Leaside would in many ways serve to characterizing best Canadian practice through middle and later years of the century.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


1 1/2 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.185
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early mid 20th century, classic 1 1/2 HP, 25 cycle, repulsion induction, single phase motor, employing FHP technology extended to cover motors in the integral HP range, making possible larger capacity refrigeration and air conditioning applications in areas not served by industrial three-phase power, Wagner, Circa 1942.



Item: 1 1/2 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: Name plate not included

Technical Significance:
– An artifact of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive and refrigeration technology, including:
1. Witnessing the engineering achievement and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology by the mid 20th century.
2. The successful adaptation of FHP, single phase, repulsion induction motor technology to integral HP applications, typically 1, 1 1/2, 2, 3, and 5 HP.
3. The installation of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment in areas not served by three-phase power. As a result low pressure refrigeration system applications grew rapidly in the pre W.W.II years and beyond, including small cold storage plants, large food stores, food processing applications and ice cream making, etc – See Reference 7, P. 7
4. The development of large diary farms, such as the one at Eaton Hall, made possible by mechanical refrigeration equipment for rapid milk cooling and storage, prior to shipment to the dairy for processing.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1 1/2 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.186
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early mid 20th century, classic 1 1/2 HP, 25 cycle, repulsion induction, single phase motor, escaping frequency standardization in 1948, employing FHP technology extended to cover motors in the integral HP range, making possible larger capacity refrigeration and air conditioning applications in areas not served by industrial three-phase power, Wagner, new and un-used, Circa 1947.



Item: 1 1/2 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: ZL44BF2346, Type RA
Features:
– Original manufacturers warranty card and instructions

Technical Significance:
– An artifact of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive and refrigeration technology, including:
1. Witnessing the engineering achievement and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology by the mid 20th century.
2. The successful adaptation of FHP, single phase, repulsion induction motor technology to integral HP applications, typically 1, 1 1/2, 2, 3, and 5 HP.
3. The installation of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment in areas not served by three-phase power. As a result low pressure refrigeration system applications grew rapidly in the pre W.W.II years and beyond, including small cold storage plants, large food stores, food processing applications and ice cream making, etc.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.156
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, an early design engineered for a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with fuse-style, overload protection, and designed for “V” belt drive applications, with pivoted motor mounting and automatic belt tension device, Delco, Circa 1945.



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: McKinnon Industries, St. Catherines Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M1035
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

With a toe crushing weight this 1/6th HP motor weighs in at 35 lbs., illustrating the greater weight of 25 cycle rotating equipment, over 60 cycle a factor in moving to a higher cycle, in order to help reduce equipment costs.

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, a rare example, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

1940’s style, high tech, capacitor-start motor, designed for top mounted electrolytic capacitor [not included]

Representative of a class of innovations introduced by Frigidaire, to provide automatic control of belt tension, using a simple, extension coil spring, with motor pivotally mounted on base plate. Maintaining proper belt tension, on refrigeration compressor drives was a perennial problem, due to close coupling of motor and compressor and large compressor fly wheel diameter.

Includes an early form of overload protector, the fusetron. Socket provided fusetron not included. Over load protection was an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate un-attended in the home – without the attention of skilled work force.

This type of overload operated much like a standard instant blow fuse, but calibrated to carry the high starting current characteristic of induction loads. Its disadvantage was that it was a non-recycling device, which means that the refrigeration system could be off without the homeowner knowing it. Later devices would be automatically recycling [see ID# 281].

Industrial Significance:
The production of FHP electric motors under the Delco name was a marker of the post W.W.II doom in Canada’s appliance industry. Delco was a brand name, held by General Motors, under which auto electric components were manufactured and marketed. McKinnon Industries was a feeder plant to GM, located in St Catherines

The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper and foil style capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.157
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, with light alloy end bells, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, Delco, Circa 1948. [see also 12.02-2B]



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: McKinnon Industries, St. Catherines, Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M1395
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

Oringinal T.H. Oliver shop tag, in Howard Oliver’s writing

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, this motor is a now rare example, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

A truly advanced piece of FHP induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with advanced engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Drive bearing extended, safety oilier; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; high tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset; light weight alloy end bells, taking advantage of new high tech metallurgy

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

This generation of FHP capacitor-start motor technology in many ways would stand as a consummate achievement, a kind of icon of “the art form”, made economically possible by the high market demand for FHP motors in the Post W.W.II period. It was a market, too, that was augmented by the prospects of frequency standardization, and the massive undertaking of replacing all 25 cycle motors with 60 cycle equipment.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount. Other mounting technologies were developed, but of less staying qualities, [See for example item 16.01-10 and 16.01-11].

The race was on, also, to produce an inherently safer motor, safe for the Canadian householder who was required to attend to routine maintenance tasks such as oiling. It was a period well in advance of sealed bearing technology with lifetime lubrication. Wick-oiled bronze bearings of the time required oiling quarterly. In belt driven refrigeration equipment this brought the householder in contact with a moving, compressor drive belt and whirring condenser fan blade. The design of the extended oilier tube would be a simple but significant safety feature, for householder and service man alike, allowing fingers to keep out of danger’s way.


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.158
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, with light weight alloy end bells, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, Delco, Circa 1948. [see also 12.02-2A]



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: McKinnon Industries, St. Catherines, Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M1395
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, this motor is a now rare example, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

A truly advanced piece of FHP induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with advanced engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Drive bearing extended, safety oilier; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; high tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset; Light weight alloy end bells, taking advantage of new hight tech metallurgy; The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely un-attended in the home.

This generation of FHP capacitor-start motor technology in many ways would stand as a consummate achievement, a kind of icon of “the art form”, made economically possible by the high market demand for FHP motors in the Post W.W.II period. It was a market, too, that was augmented by the prospects of frequency standardization, and the massive undertaking of replacing all 25 cycle motors with 60 cycle equipment.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It was the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technolgy that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount. Other mounting technologies were developed, but of less staying qualities, [See for example item 16.01-10 and 16.01-11].

The race was on, also, to produce an inherently safer motor, safe for the Canadian householder who was required to attend to routine maintenance tasks such as oiling. It was a period well in advance of sealed bearing technology with lifetime lubrication. Wick-oiled bronze bearings of the time required oiling quarterly. In belt driven refrigeration equipment this brought the householder in contact with a moving, compressor drive belt and whirring condenser fan blade. The design of the extended oilier tube would be a simple but significant safety feature, for householder and service man alike, allowing fingers to keep out of danger’s way.


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.159
Exhibit: Ventilation

A latter mid 20th century, high tech, 60cycle capacitor-start motor, a new lighter weight, compact generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by a market now standardized on 60cycle power; with electrolytic, chemical capacitor, inherent, heat overload protection, and automatic reset, light weight alloy end bells, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts, and adaptable base plate, Wagner, Circa 1955.



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Elecrtric, Div. of Sangamo Electric, Leasid
Make: Wagner
Model: UL14BF4723N; Ty

Technical Significance:
A truly advanced piece of FHP induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding , post W.W.II, 60 cycle, refrigeration equipment market, equipped with advanced engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Drive bearing extended, safety oilier; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; high tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset; Light weight alloy end bells, taking advantage of new high tech metallurgy

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely un-attended in the home.

This generation of FHP capacitor-start motor technology in many ways would stand as a consummate achievement, a kind of icon of “the art form”, made economically possible by the high market demand for FHP motors in the Post W.W.II period. It was now a North American market, largely standardization, on 60 cycle power.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It was the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The capacitor-start, refrigeration motor, and the advanced 20th century electrical technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would soon disappear withnthe advance of hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Industrial Significance:
With the early 1950’s came the opportunity for FHP electric motor manufactures to move too a new generation of designs and styling, as exemplified here. The FHP motor would be smaller and lighter weight technology, made possible by standardisation on 60 cycle power, the development of new more sophisticated engineering design methodologies, new materials and metallurgy, coupled with the economic incentive for development, fostered by a now larger electrically standardized, consumer market place, as well as by a rapidly expanding post W.W.II economy.

The expanding market opportunities of the early 1950’s would attract a new cohort of suppliers to the field. The number of manufactures, working with this basic technology shown here, would increase dramatically throughout the 1950’s, in addition to Delco and Wagner, among many others were: GE [see item 12.06-4], Tamper [see item 12.06-6], Century [see item 12.06-7] and Leland.

This motor stands as a marker of the rapidly expanding, mid 20th century market for FHP motor technology, serving to attract Canadian manufactures. Wagner, a well established US manufacture, like Delco, would find a Canadian manufacturing partner, here the Sangamo Company, Leaside Ontario

Part of the times was also the emergence of a new look and feel for the FHP motor, sleeker more eye appealing, as demonstrated here – less a piece of mere machinery than a mid 20th century, sophisticated piece of electrical apparatus. The new emphasis on styling and eye appeal, along with functionality and performance would reflect the influence of the industrial designer and a new body of industrial styling practice, a development, new, for the mid 20th century.

The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race was on, also, to produce an inherently safer motor, safe for the Canadian householder who was required to attend to routine maintenance tasks such as oiling. It was a period well in advance of sealed bearing technology with lifetime lubrication. Wick-oiled bronze bearings of the time required oiling quarterly. In belt driven refrigeration equipment this brought the householder in contact with a moving, compressor drive belt and whirring condenser fan blade. The design of the extended oilier tube would be a simple but significant safety feature, for householder and service man alike, allowing fingers to keep out of danger’s way.


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.160
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, all steel body, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, GE, Circa 1948. [see also 12.02-5, for similar 60 cycle design]



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: Canadian General Electric co., Toronto
Make: GE
Model: 11F111BX
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, this motor is a now rare example, representative of Canadian General Electric’s motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s. See ID #285, Item 16.02-5 for similar motor in 6o cycle. The latter with 1/4 HP rating, has a laminated stack length of 3inches and weights 30 lbs. compared with the former, with only a 1/6th HP rating, with a 4 inch laminated stack length and weighing 35 lbs.

Representative of FHP, capacitor start, induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; High tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset.

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount [see ID # 281]. GE followed Delco’s lead.

The configuration employed by GE lacks some of the advanced features used by Delco in the the same period, including light weight alloy end bells and extended drive end safety oiler [see ID # 281]


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.161
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, high tech, 60 cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, all steel body, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, GE, Circa 1955. [see also 12.02-4, for similar 25 cycle design]



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: Canadian General Electric co., Toronto
Make: GE
Model: 11F122B
Features:
Original cable connector illustrating trade practices of the time

Technical Significance:
Provides a graphic contrast between 25 and 60 cycle design practice by GE. See ID #284, Item 16.02-4 for similar motor in 25 cycle. The latter with 1/6th HP rating, has a laminated stack length of 4 inches and weights 35 lbs. compared with the former, with a 1/4 HP rating, with only a 3 inch laminated stack length and a weight of 30 lbs.

Representative of FHP, capacitor start, induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; High tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset.

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount [see ID # 281]. GE followed Delco’s lead.

The configuration employed by GE lacks some of the advanced features used by Delco in the the same period, including light weight alloy end bells and extended drive end safety oiler [see ID # 281]


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Tamper’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.162
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, high tech, 60 cycle capacitor-start motor, made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor and inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount, engineered by a small, start-up Canadian Company, it tells many stories of the exceptionalities of its life and times. Tamper, Circa 1955.



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Tamper’
Manufacturer: Tamper Electric, Montreal
Make: Tamper
Model: MPR-1451-15BK
Features:
Carries Ontario Hydro brass identification plate: HEPC Stock NO. P56-02-22-12-308-0002

Technical Significance:
An historical artifact of the post W.W.II years in the evolution of FHP motor technology in Canada, which although un-remarkable in matters of innovation and excellence, tells important stories of the exceptionalities of its times:

Of one of the largest and most sophisticated engineering mega-projects in Canadian history, frequency standardization in Ontario

The remarkable, although short lived period of expansion of the Canadian FHP motor manufacturing industry,

The manner in which the industry attracted new entrance, as small start-up companies, such as Tamper, as well as large manufactures with almost un-limited economic and engineering resources to draw on, such as GE [see ID#285 and 284]

Representative of FHP, capacitor start, induction motor technology, built for the post W.W.II rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; High tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset.

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

The motor exemplifies increasingly sophisticated developments in the field of electrolytic condensers, on which the capacitor start motor depended for its performance. Capacitors were getting smaller and more reliable, as well as appearing in more sophisticated, high tensile strength plastic enclosures sealed against moisture and with built-in, easy release, snap mounting brackets

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Century’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.163
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, high tech, 60 cycle capacitor-start motor, made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with ball bearings, totally enclosed, all steel body with slotted, rigid base for general utility applications in damp environments , Century, Circa 1958.



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Century’
Manufacturer: Century Electric St Louis Mo.
Make: Century
Model: CSH-65L-DHC3-3F
Features:
Original electrical connector illustrating trade practices of the period

Technical Significance:
The motor exemplifies increasingly sophisticated developments in the field of electrolytic condensers, on which the capacitor start motor depended for its performance. Capacitors were getting smaller and more reliable, through the 1950’s.

Exemplifies the design and engineering of general utility, totally enclosed, ball bearing applications engineered for damp locations.

Industrial Significance:
Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]


Single phase, AC induction motor ‘Apex’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.164
Exhibit: Ventilation

A very early 20th century, single phase, alternating current induction motor, to be found in commercial production, uses the resistance phase splitting principle to produce self-starting, equipped with bronze sleeve bearings with external oil reservoirs and spring loaded wick oilers with snap caps, drip proof steel housing and external electric wiring junction box, for use in Canadian homes of the period on cloths washing machines, Apex, date unknown.



Item: Single phase, AC induction motor ‘Apex’
Manufacturer: The Apex Electric Mfg Co., Cleveland and Toronto
Make: Apex
Model: Type WG
Features:
With original service tag in Howard Oliver’s hand writing “Troyers, Oakridges”, Troyers operated a farm on the Oak Ridges Moraine, an hour north of Toronto in the early years of the 20th century

Technical Significance:
An exemplar of a rare, early 25 cycle, split phase, induction motor production, for home applications, typically in an early electric washing machine

Industrial Significance:
An icon of the earliest years of commercial electric motor design and production for use in the homes, of those that could afford labour saving electric appliances, and living in homes that enjoyed the recognized benefits of home electrification


Split phase, induction motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.165
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early mid 20th century split phase, induction motor with sealed [now pierced] bearings, built for the then rapidly expanding home appliance industry in post WW2 Canada, used on an early cloths drier, it is equipped a twin belt, single piece pulley, part of a drive technology of the period developed by Kenmore and sold by the Robert Simpson Co. one of Canada’s historic department stores of note. GE, Circa 1955.



Item: Split phase, induction motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: Canadian General Electric Co. Toronto
Make: GE
Model: 11F281
Features:
Equipped with an early version of so called “sealed bearings”, which were promoted as life time bearing requiring no oiling

Equipped a twin belt, single piece pulley, part of a drive technology of the period developed by Kenmore

Technical Significance:
Defines the engineering design idiom for split-phase, motor technology employed throughout the middle years of the 20th century, moving through the mature years of this genre towards the end of the century, when a new genre would progressively emerge, smaller, lighter and more energy efficient.

Marked an early attempt by manufacturers to produce a motor with “lifetime” sealed bearings requiring no oiling in the normal course of a lifetime of use. In fact electro-motorized appliance were becoming increasingly compacted, enclosed in high style cabinets which made service all but impossible, except by the trained appliance repair worker. As a result the sealed cap on the bearing became as much a recognition of the fact that the motor would never get oiled, then a marker of any special provisions made for prolonged bearing life. Whether motors made for such applications were equipped with oil caps or not was irrelevant. It would be several decades before a truly lifetime sealed, sleeve bearing would appear on the consumer appliance market.

Representative of a period of increasing innovation in the development of electro- motor enabled, home appliance technology, it is equipped with a twin belt, single piece pulley, part of a cloths drier drive technology for the period developed by Kenmore and sold by the Robert Simpson Co., one of Canada’s historic department stores of note. GE, Circa 1955.

Industrial Significance:
A marker of split phase electric motor production in Canada and the US, in the latter years of the 20th century. Manufactured in the hundreds of thousands, by GE and other manufacturers, it stands as an icon of its times, marking the first great period mass production and marketing of electric, motorized household appliances, now made possible by wide spread home electrification.


Split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.166
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early mid 20th century split phase, induction motor with ball bearings, built for the then rapidly expanding home workshop equipment industry in post W.W.II Canada, equipped with hefty 1/2 horsepower rating and manual reset over load protection, it would be a marker of a significant cultural shift in male leisure time pursuits, Delco, Circa 1958.



Item: Split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Mckinnon Industries St Catherines Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M253901
Features:
Shop service tag in Howard Olivers hand writing “Checks OK Jan, 75

Technical Significance:
Exemplifies the evolution of inherent, automatic overload protection devices with manual reset, a prerequisite requirement for home hobby shop equipment:

Such applications typically rewired low starting torque [as on circular saws, but moderate horse power, current ratings, which could readily lead to burn out under high load conditions

Motors were built for an affordable market and were built inexpensively, with little tolerance for prolonged loading [over loading],

While automatic overload protection was considered an essential safety precaution, both for personal and property reasons, automatic reset would constitute a safety hazard, allowing the equipment to come back on out of control of operator,

Defines the engineering design idiom for split-phase, low starting torque, motor technology employed throughout the middle years of the 20th century in home appliances and hobby shop equipment, moving through the mature years of this genre towards the end of the century, when a new genre would progressively emerge, smaller, lighter and more energy efficient.

Industrial Significance:
The motor stands as a relatively rare marker of a breed of home hobby shop motor which would soon disappear. The stand alone, home hobby shop motor as a product of the post W.W.II market place, would be a relatively short lived phenomena. Early power tools of the period were, designed for the home work shop were of the conventional belt drive type, through the 1950’s to 80’s, but the trend was increasingly to much more integrated designs in which the motor was built into the equipment, itself, as an inherent design component.

A marker of split phase electric motor production in Canada and the US, in the latter years of the 20th century. Manufactured in the hundreds of thousands, by Delco, GE and other manufacturers, it stands as an icon of its times, marking the first great period mass production and marketing of electric, motorized household appliances and hobby shop equipment, now made possible by wide spread home electrification.


Affordable split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.167
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early mid 20th century, split phase, affordable, induction motor, for general utility applications, built for an open, FHP electric motor market for use on light duty power equipment around the house, shop and farm. With hefty 1/3 horsepower rating, it serves as a marker of the vast in roads made by electro motive technology on every nook and cranny of popular Canadian life style by the 1950’s, Delco, Circa 1956.



Item: Affordable split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Mckinnon Industries St Catherines Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M2480A1
Features:
Shop service tag in Howard Olivers hand writing “Checks OK Jan, 75; Original wiring harness illustrating electrical wiring practices of the period

Technical Significance:
A remarkable, yet un- remarkable piece of electro motive technology of its time. It would be remarkable in the state of motive technology it represented, a level of remarkable achievement in engineering, mass production, and marketing as popular consumer product, all achieved in less then two decades [see ID#280]. Yet built for a low cost market, it would be quite un-remarkable in its lack of function and feature characterizing special purpose motors of the same period, including high starting torque, automatic over heat protection.

It defines the engineering design idiom for split-phase, low starting torque, motor technology employed throughout the middle years of the 20th century, in general utility applications for home, shop and farm, moving through the mature years of this genre towards the end of the century, when a new genre would progressively emerge, smaller, lighter and more energy efficient.


1/40 HP shaded pole induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.187
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early mid 20th century, 25 cycle, 1/40 th HP shaded pole, single phase induction motor, equipped with rigid base engineered for use on Kelvinator commercial refrigeration fan-coil cooling unit applications, commonly found in walk-in coolers in food stores and small cold storage plants throughout the pre W.W.II years and beyond to frequency standardization. It would help to change the expectations of Canadians about what was at the their local food store Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1948.



Item: 1/40 HP shaded pole induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Corporation, Saint Louis Mo.
Make: Wagner
Model: BY115A1992
Features:
– With original shop tag, T. H. Oliver Engineering Sales and Service, “New 25 cycle…..Kelv. coil……”

Technical Significance:
– Exemplifying the relative weight and bulk expected of 25 cycle motor technology of the times, compared with 60 cycle motors which followed frequency standardisation in Canada in the latter 1940’s – see for example ID#312
– A new and unused 25 cycle motor left behind at the time of frequency standardisation, it tells the story of one of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario – a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A one-of-a-kind, just-in-time technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


1/60 HP, 60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.188
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, 1/36 th HP, Canadian made, shaded pole, single phase induction motor, engineered for use on small commercial refrigeration fan-coil cooling unit applications, commonly found in walk-in coolers in food stores throughout the early post W.W.II years and beyond. It would help to change the expectations of Canadians about what was at the their local food store, Robins Myers, Circa 1952.



Item: 1/60 HP, 60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor
Manufacturer: Robins Myers of Canada Limited, Brantford
Make: Robins Myers
Model: Type T1-AEZ1, Frame C32

Technical Significance:
– Small, light weight and efficient, it is an example of the elegant and sophisticated, shaded pole motor technology that quickly emerged in Canada in the post W.W.II years, as a response to the market opportunities following frequency standardization and the rapid growth of the commercial refrigeration industry.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which encouraged US electric motor manufactures, like Robins Myers, to establish facilities in Canada, as well as Canadian manufactures to enter the field – see ID#313.
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics make the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A one-of-a-kind, just-in-time technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.189
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, Canadian made, shaded pole induction motor, engineered for use on small commercial refrigeration fan-coil cooling unit applications, commonly found on walk-in coolers in food stores throughout the early post W.W.II years and beyond. It would help to change the expectations of Canadians about what their local merchant had in store for them, Electrohome, Circa 1956.



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor
Manufacturer: Electrohome, Kitchener, Ont
Make: Electrohome
Model: 2828-53-12-03

Technical Significance:
– Small, light weight and efficient, it is an example of the elegant and sophisticated, shaded pole motor technology that quickly emerged in Canada in the post W.W.II years, as a response to the market opportunities following frequency standardization and the rapid growth of the commercial refrigeration industry.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which encouraged electric appliance and equipment manufacturers to enter the small motor’s – see also ID#312.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would rigger a movement in the commercial refrigeration industry solidly towards more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, in preference to natural or gravity systems [i.e., fan coil units replaced much static fin coils].


60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.190
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, Canadian made, shaded pole, induction motor, with custom fan hub, engineered for use on small commercial refrigeration fan-coil cooling unit applications, commonly found in food display cases throughout the 1950’s through 70’s, helping to change the face of Canadian food merchandising in Canada, with greater range of fresh vegetables and meat products, often held in refrigerated self-service display cases, Electrohome, Circa 1965. [see also ID#315 to 317]



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor
Manufacturer: Electrohome, Kitchener, Ont
Make: Electrohome
Model: 2828-53-12-03

Technical Significance:
– With custom fan hub, the motor would mark the increasing customization of shaded pole induction motor technology, matching it physically, as well as electrically and mechanically to the unique needs of equipment manufactures [See ID# 315 to 317]
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would trigger a movement in the commercial refrigeration industry solidly towards more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, in preference to natural or gravity systems [i.e., fan coil units replaced much static fin coils].
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which encouraged electric appliance and equipment manufacturers to enter the small motor’s – see also ID#312.
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics make it ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A one-of-a-kind, just-in-time technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.191
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, Canadian made, shaded pole, induction motor, with custom three point, vibration isolating, vertical mount, engineered for fan coil applications on refrigerated self-service display cases, used throughout the 1960’s and beyond, helping to change the face of Canadian food merchandising in Canada, with greater range of fresh vegetables and meat products as well as frozen foods, all now available self-service, Electrohome, Circa 1963. [one of a matched set of 3, new and unused, see also ID#316 and 317]



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor
Manufacturer: Electrohome, Kitchener, Ont
Make: Electrohome
Model: 18-53-05-07

Technical Significance:
– Representative of a new generation of sleek, compact, more electrically efficient and customized shaded pole motor technology for the 1960’s
– Designed for vertical mounting these motors, would typically be found in multiples of two, three, four or more arranged along the length of the refrigerated display case.
– New for the times, as a protection against personal and property damage due to over heating, these motors are equipped with “lock rotor protection”, ensuring that motor exciting current would not exceed safe levels even if the motor stalled.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would help move the Canadian commercial refrigeration industry solidly into a new generation of more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, making possible a wide range of new refrigeration appliances and fresh and frozen food merchandizers.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– One of a matched set of three motors, all of the same serial number, suggests that they came from the same production run in Electrohome’s Kitchener Ontario plant in 1963.
– The set of three identical motors represents the mode of application in which multiple motors where used together in a single refrigerated self service case
– All new, unused and pristine the set provides an authentic reflection of the engineering, production, materials and manufacturing processes of the period
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which among other things would encourage electric appliance and equipment manufacturers, like Electrohome, to enter the small motor’s [see also ID#312].
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.192
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, Canadian made, shaded pole, induction motor, with custom three point, vibration isolating, vertical mount, engineered for fan coil applications on refrigerated self-service display cases, used throughout the 1960’s and beyond, helping to change the face of Canadian food merchandising in Canada, with greater range of fresh vegetables and meat products as well as frozen foods, all now available self-service, Electrohome, Circa 1963. [two of a matched set of 3, all new and unused, see also ID#315 and 317]



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor
Manufacturer: Electrohome, Kitchener, Ont
Make: Electrohome
Model: 18-53-05-07

Technical Significance:
– Representative of a new generation of sleek, compact, more electrically efficient and customized shaded pole motor technology for the 1960’s
– Designed for vertical mounting these motors, would typically be found in multiples of two, three, four or more arranged along the length of the refrigerated display case.
– New for the times, as a protection against personal and property damage due to over heating, these motors are equipped with “lock rotor protection”, ensuring that motor exciting current would not exceed safe levels even if the motor stalled.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would help move the Canadian commercial refrigeration industry solidly into a new generation of more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, making possible a wide range of new refrigeration appliances and fresh and frozen food merchandizers.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– One of a matched set of three motors, all of the same serial number, suggests that they came from the same production run in Electrohome’s Kitchener Ontario plant in 1963.
– The set of three identical motors represents the mode of application in which multiple motors where used together in a single refrigerated self service case
– All new, unused and pristine the set provides an authentic reflection of the engineering, production, materials and manufacturing processes of the period
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which among other things would encourage electric appliance and equipment manufacturers, like Electrohome, to enter the small motor’s [see also ID#312].
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.193
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, Canadian made, shaded pole, induction motor, with custom three point, vibration isolating, vertical mount, engineered for fan coil applications on refrigerated self-service display cases, used throughout the 1960’s and beyond, helping to change the face of Canadian food merchandising in Canada, with greater range of fresh vegetables and meat products as well as frozen foods, all now available self-service, Electrohome, Circa 1963. [two of a matched set of 3, all new and unused, see also ID#315 and 316]



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor
Manufacturer: Electrohome, Kitchener, Ont
Make: Electrohome
Model: 18-53-05-07

Technical Significance:
– Representative of a new generation of sleek, compact, more electrically efficient and customized shaded pole motor technology for the 1960’s
– Designed for vertical mounting these motors, would typically be found in multiples of two, three, four or more arranged along the length of the refrigerated display case.
– New for the times, as a protection against personal and property damage due to over heating, these motors are equipped with “lock rotor protection”, ensuring that motor exciting current would not exceed safe levels even if the motor stalled.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would help move the Canadian commercial refrigeration industry solidly into a new generation of more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, making possible a wide range of new refrigeration appliances and fresh and frozen food merchandizers.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– One of a matched set of three motors, all of the same serial number, suggests that they came from the same production run in Electrohome’s Kitchener Ontario plant in 1963.
– The set of three identical motors represents the mode of application in which multiple motors where used together in a single refrigerated self service case
– All new, unused and pristine the set provides an authentic reflection of the engineering, production, materials and manufacturing processes of the period
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which among other things would encourage electric appliance and equipment manufacturers, like Electrohome, to enter the small motor’s [see also ID#312].
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.194
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor, suspended on three point rubber vibration isolating mount, from two legged pedestal, with 10 inch 4 blade fan, engineered for condenser fan coil applications on hermetic refrigeration units. Used throughout the 1960’s and beyond, it helped to make possible a new generation of quieter more efficient commercial refrigeration equipment and appliances, Delco Circa 1964.



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products, General Motors Corp, Dayton
Make: Delco
Model: A7839, Type SST, Universal No. 506035

Technical Significance:
– Representative of a new generation of sleek, compact, more electrically efficient, and customized shaded pole motor technology, for the mid 1960’s.
– With a totally sealed body and bearings, it was a marker of the now rapidly emerging body of engineering and manufacturing practice, moving to a “parts replacement” culture, from the traditional “parts repair” mode of operation.
– The small shaded pole condenser fan motor was a key development in the evolution of the hermetically sealed, commercial refrigeration condensing unit. The refrigeration compressor and drive motor had all of a sudden disappeared, what emerged in its place was a new configuration, with no drive belts, pulleys or drive motor to be seen. The new “hermetically sealed” configuration would be more efficient, quieter, reliable and maintainable. The drive motor was now “unobtrusive” [the motor had disappeared], and “inherent” [part of the compressor], as well as having become “embedded” [in a single envelope} in matters of engineering concept and design. But this new, innovative design concept left behind no compressor motor drive hub on which to mount a fan blade for condenser cooling. Shaded pole motor technology would arrive
– “just-in-time” to take its place and enable a new future for commercial refrigerated appliances and equipment.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would help move the Canadian commercial refrigeration industry solidly into a new generation of more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, making possible a wide range of new refrigeration appliances and fresh and frozen food merchandizers.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.
– A highly innovative shaded pole motor application by Delco, this configuration would become a classic of the commercial refrigeration industry, found on many refrigeration manufacture’s condensing units, here marked specifically for Universal Cooler Co.


60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.195
Exhibit: Ventilation

A heavy duty, mid 20th century, 60 cycle, 1/20 HP, shaded pole, induction fan motor, custom designed for GE window air conditioner, evaporator and condenser application. Equipped with rubber, torsion 2 point mounting and inherent, automatic overload protection, it helped to make possible a new generation of affordable, larger capacity, quieter more efficient “through-the-wall” [window] air conditioners which changed for ever the expectations of Canadians about what to do about the summer’s heat, GE, Circa 1964. [1 of a set of 3, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, see also ID#320 and 321]



Item: 60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: General Electric, Fort Wayne Ind.
Make: GE
Model: 5KSP21DG1834AS

Technical Significance:
– 1 of a set of 3, shaded pole, custom designed motors, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, in order to fit the specialized requirements of different air conditioner manufacturers, models, and model years, for example in matters of horsepower, starting torque, rotation, inherent automatic thermal protection, etc [see also ID#320 and 321].
– Equipped with torsion, rubber vibration mountings, and automatic, recycling, inherent overload protection, It would be representative of an 1960’s, generation of heavy, fan-duty, customized shaded pole motor technology, for the now rapidly maturing through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market.
– With a totally sealed body and bearings, it was a marker of the now rapidly emerging body of engineering and manufacturing practice, moving to a “parts replacement” culture, from the traditional “parts repair” mode of operation.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation, air conditioning and ventilation where imperatives.
– By the mid 1960’s the through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market was rapidly maturing, providing the Canadian public an affordable solution to spikes in summer heat that her-to-for could not have been imagined. The innovative, unitary engineering concept with cooling and heat rejection equipment all in the same cabinet made it readily installed by the do-it-yourself’s, without special tools and equipment. Air conditioners had become the newest home appliance.


60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.196
Exhibit: Ventilation

A heavy duty, mid 20th century, 60 cycle, 1/20 HP, shaded pole, induction fan motor, custom designed for GE window air conditioner, evaporator and condenser application. Equipped with rubber, torsion 2 point vibration isolating mounting, it helped to make possible a new generation of affordable, larger capacity, quieter more efficient “through-the-wall” [window] air conditioners which changed for ever the expectations of Canadians about what to do about the summer’s heat, GE, Circa 1964. [2 of a set of 3, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, see also ID#319 and 321]



Item: 60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: General Electric, Fort Wayne Ind.
Make: GE
Model: 5KSP21DG941B

Technical Significance:
– 1 of a set of 3, shaded pole, custom designed motors, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, in order to fit the specialized requirements of different air conditioner manufacturers, models, and model years, for example in matters of horsepower, starting torque, rotation, inherent automatic thermal protection, etc [see also ID#319 and 321].
– Equipped with torsion, rubber vibration mountings, and automatic, recycling, inherent overload protection, It would be representative of an 1960’s, generation of heavy, fan-duty, customized shaded pole motor technology, for the now rapidly maturing through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market.
– With a totally sealed body and bearings, it was a marker of the now rapidly emerging body of engineering and manufacturing practice, moving to a “parts replacement” culture, from the traditional “parts repair” mode of operation.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation, air conditioning and ventilation where imperatives.
– By the mid 1960’s the through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market was rapidly maturing, providing the Canadian public an affordable solution to spikes in summer heat that her-to-for could not have been imagined. The innovative, unitary engineering concept with cooling and heat rejection equipment all in the same cabinet made it readily installed by the do-it-yourself’s, without special tools and equipment. Air conditioners had become the newest home appliance.


“embedded” shaded pole induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.198
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early “embedded” application of shaded pole induction motor technology, as an “inherent” component of a small, direct drive, water circulating pump assembly. With plastic pump housing and impeller blade, and its own 8 blade cooling fan, it would be a marker of a new, trend setting, much more integrated approach to the engineering of electro-motive devices for the 1950 and beyond, in which the motor itself has become “unobtrusive” part of a larger whole, Gorman-Rupp, circa 1955.



Item: “embedded” shaded pole induction motor
Manufacturer: Gorman-Rupp Industries, Bellville, Ohio
Make: Gorman-Rupp

Technical Significance:
– An example of an early, trend setting, “embedded” application of shaded pole induction motor technology, as an “inherent” component of a small, direct drive, water circulating pump assembly, marking the movement to more integrated and holistic approach to the engineering of electro-motive devices for the 1950 and beyond, in which the motor itself has become “unobtrusive” part of a larger whole.
– A rare view of an early embedded shaded pole motor application, engineered as an inherent component of a small direct drive, water circulating pump assembly. Seen as cost saving measure, such assemblies, also made more economical on 60 cycle, would become increasingly popular, following frequency standardization in the late 1940’s in Canada on household appliances – for example on automatic dish washers and laundry equipment.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan and pump applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air and water circulation, air conditioning and ventilation where imperatives.


Electric motor sleeve bearings

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.202
Exhibit: Ventilation

Early mid 20th century, bronze alloy, FHP electric motor sleeve bearings, split bearing design, with spiral oil grooves, adapted for automatic wick oiling. A “state-of-the-art”, self oiling bearing developed for electric motors for use in Canadian homes, where long life and reliable performance would be expected, without the constant attention of an “operating engineer” with oil can in hand [set of two], manufacturer unknown, Circa 1948.


Short circuiting ring

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.203
Exhibit: Ventilation

A rare view of an early 1930’s, short circuiting ring [necklace], constructed of copper, stamped and formed, segments, hand strung on fine wire, approximately 40 to the inch, part of the centrifugally operated, automatic short circuiting mechanism, used to convert a high torque, repulsion start, induction run, single phase motors from repulsion start to induction run operation, representative of the complex, innovative engineering, manufacturing and craftsmanship represented in this early technology, [See ID# 296, item 16.01-5], Wagner, Circa 1932].


Electric brush lifter carton

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.204
Exhibit: Ventilation

A Canadian made, mid 20th century, classic Leland Electric brush lifter, carton only, for repulsion induction, single phase motor. A stencilled carton with graphics in blue and yellow, it would be representative of the newly emerging field of industrial graphic design of the times. As well as it would be a marker of the ever increasing importance of the “technology after-market”, supplying Canadian consumers of the new popular technologies invading their homes [post WWII electric and electronic appliances] with the replacement parts needed to help ensure satisfaction, Leland, Circa 1948. [See ID# 308, item 16.01-14]


Rubber equipment mountings

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.205
Exhibit: Ventilation

A collection of rubber mountings for vibration isolating, and quieting of electro-motive equipment. The 13 varieties included are representative of the proliferation and diversity of innovative solutions devised by the middle of the 20th century. Vibration and sound control quickly emerged as a critical engineering requirement for the wide spread acceptance of electro-motive technology by Canadian homes and places of business, manufacturers unknown, Circa 1948.


‘Slow blow’ fuse

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.206
Exhibit: Ventilation

The “fusetat’ [later fusetron] was an early step in the evolution of personal and property damage protection resulting from electric motor overload , on the way to fully automatic, inherent, overload protection for FHP motors used in Canadian homes and commercial establishments. Conceived as a special kind of “slow-blow”, throw-away fuse, it lacked the ability to re-close. As a consequence many owners would find their refrigerator off, with resultant food spoilage. The fully automatic, re-closing overload protector [See ID#331] would still be close to a decade away, before it saw wide spread application, Buss Fusetat, 1934.


Overload protector

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.207
Exhibit: Ventilation

Thermal disk, snap action, automatic re-closing, overload protector mounted on original motor manufacturer’s mounting plate, A key step in the evolution of personal and property damage protection resulting from FHP electric motor overload [over heating]. Overload, safety devices that re-closed automatically after cooling, built into the compressor motor itself, would be the final step in the development of refrigeration equipment that would operate un-attended, fully protected, while cycling automatically to maintain a set refrigerated temperature.


Miniature motor armature

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.208
Exhibit: Ventilation

Miniature armature for universal, AC – DC electric motor, equipped with wound rotor, commutator, inherent cooling fan and splined shaft, engineered for custom application, possibly and electric fan, electric drill, vacuum cleaner, or food processor. An engineering and manufacturing wonder of the early to mid 20th century, such technology would help to trigger a “sea change” in Canadian consumer expectations of the good things that the electric appliance industry had in store, manufacturer unknown, circa 1948.


Electric motor test block

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.209
Exhibit: Ventilation

An improvised, FHP, electric motor test block, locally made using standard home electrification hardware components found in the Canadian home of the 1920s to 40’s. Reflecting the ingenuity of HVACR mechanics of the times, the device when connected in series with a potentially faulty motor, limited the current flow, thus protecting the motor and the operator, locally made, circa 1946.


Refrigerator test analyser

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.210
Exhibit: Ventilation

A portable, household refrigerator, electrical test analyser in handsome wooden carrying case, locally made using an assembly of old electrical and radio test gear. Reflecting the ingenuity of an early HVACR mechanic, the device provided for fused fault protection, current limiting load protection and continuity testing, as well as providing for the measurement of applied voltage and load current, locally made, circa 1946.


Run time recorder

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.211
Exhibit: Ventilation

An improvised, cumulative running time operations recorder, making use of an electric, bedroom alarm clock, wiring harness, spring clips and rubber insulating sleeves. Reflecting the ingenuity of HVACR mechanics of the times the device, when connected in parallel with an automatic heating or refrigeration system, effectively measured the total time of operation within a 24 hour period, locally made, circa 1946.


Analogue ammeter

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.212
Exhibit: Ventilation

A portable, induction type, clamp-on, analogue ammeter and voltmeter in hansom, now well used, black leather case with spring clip. Reflecting a new generation of HVACR test equipment emerging in the 1950’s, it measured current on 6 scales from 6 to 300 amps, and voltage on three scales from 150 to 600 volts, Amprobe, circa 1955.


Rotary tachometer

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.213
Exhibit: Ventilation

A portable, hand-held, rotary, tachometer, calibrated from 400 to 4,000 RPM, equipped with rubber friction drive. Among other things the device would be a marker of the increasingly sophisticated test and measurement equipment used by HVACR technicians involved in system applications and equipment re-engineering, as the mid 20th century emerged, Corbin Screw Corp. New Britain, Conn.. Circa 1945.


Set of inside diameter gauges

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.214
Exhibit: Ventilation

Set of 4 telescoping inside gauges, range ? inch to 2 1/8 inches, varying in thousands of an inch. Each is beautifully crafted in machine steel with spring loaded plunger, knurled handle and knurled locking screw embedded in the handle, an example of the precision tools available to Canadian machinists and HVACR mechanics by the 1940’s – on which they would depend. Used, among other things, to measure the inside diameter of electric motor bearings, compressor cylinder displacement etc. In hansom, slide-top, wooden box, Model 229, Starrett, Circa 1942.


Two inch Micrometer calliper

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.215
Exhibit: Ventilation

Two inch Micrometer calliper for measuring by thousandths from one inch to two inches, with ratchet stop, knurled handle, and fraction/decimal equivalent chart engraved on yoke in 32nds and 64ths. An example of the precision tools available to Canadian machinists and HVACR mechanics by the 1940’s – on which they would be dependent. Used, among other things, to measure the diameter of electric motor bearings, compressor pistons, etc. Beranta, Circa 1942.


Bearing scraper

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.216
Exhibit: Ventilation

An 11 inch, narrow, bearing scraper, with 3 inch blade, designed for “modern bearings”, with black, turned, wooden handle and steel furl, an early 20th century tool for hand fitting journal bearings, “VLC4BK” CLEV’D.O., Circa 1930.


4 blade small bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.217
Exhibit: Ventilation

Set of 4 blade, small bearing reamers in sizes from ? to 7/16 inches, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of small, FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1940’s through 1960’s. Set of 7 enclosed in original blue, heavy card, custom case, with Beard logo and name plate stencilled in gold and blue, Circa 1945.


6 blade bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.218
Exhibit: Ventilation

Set of 6 blade, bearing reamers in sizes from 7/16 to 1 1/8 inches, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1930’s through 1960’s. Set of 9 enclosed in original heavy oak, clear varnished, custom case with manufacturer’s label, insignia and specifications in gold and black, Circa 1939.


Long 6 blade bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.219
Exhibit: Ventilation

Set of 6 blade, extra long, alignment bearing reamers, six in Snap-On, Blue Point case, sizes from ? to 1 1/16; with four supplementary reamers to extend range from 9/16 to 15/16, all with tapered self-alignment pilots, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1950’s through 1960’s, Variously made by Snap-On, Joborn and Webco, Circa 1958.


Room air conditioner ‘Frigidaire’

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Air Conditioners

Accession # HHCC.2003.006
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Household, Through-the-Window, Room Air Conditioner, Frigidaire, 1956.



Item: Room air conditioner ‘Frigidaire’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Products Canada Ltd, Scarborough, Ont
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Super 33

Features:
Automatic temperature control, Outside fresh air damper Air filter Complete, original installation kit

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen stands as a marker of the embryonic years of household air conditioning in Canada. While vastly under powered, by the standards that would follow, it was for most urban dwellers affordable and a significant market opener.

Industrial Significance:
The development of high heat transfer, capacity compressors, condensers, evaporators and flow control devices, at a price that home owners were likely to find affordable, would be a major challenge and success story for the refrigeration industry in the early years of home air conditioning. The industry would quickly adapting what had been learned in the design of reliable hermetic compressors and coiling for the food industry to high heat transfer systems required for household air conditioning applications.Suddenly the refrigeration and air conditioning industry expanded dramatically with a number of new non-traditional players designing, manufacturing and marketing equipment for household and commercial applications. In the face of increasing competition from manufactures with massive engineering and production facilities, many of the traditional suppliers to the refrigeration field would quickly fade from their earlier position of market leadership, including Kelvinator and Frigidaire.


Plate and tube evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.021
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Early plate and tube refrigerant evaporator, fabricated in 3/8″ copper tube, with 2″x 16″ rolled copper header with soldered end plates and refrigerant access port; 2 ” tinned copper, brake formed fins, soldered to 16x 24″, brake formed, tinned copper backing plate,1926.



Item: Plate and tube evaporator
Make: Hand made

Industrial Significance:
This historic relic is, in a sense, representative of the embryonic and earliest development years of any industri3es beginnings. It is here when those with skills, interests, tools and entrepreneurial energy find themselves captivated by the possibilities of the moment, striking out to see what successes are to be had. The birth and early years of the Canadian HVACR industry would be characterised by just such adventurers, whether in heating, ventilation, air conditioning or refrigeration.
As carriage makers found themselves imagining themselves in the early years of the automobile business, so metal shops and mechanics would see in the earliest rumblings of HVACR possibilities and opportunities for new human experience, personal growth and development, as well as economic return for their efforts.


3 tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.022
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Three tray, ice maker evaporator with low-side float, using an early form of modular design and construction, made in tinned copper tube and brake formed copper sheet. Cooling unit and icemaker for small commercial cabinet refrigerator, Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: 3 tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division, General Motors Corp.,Dayton O
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Marked 25 1/4 M
Features:
Of special interest is the “building block” construction design technique adopted here. An early example of modular construction concept, the design allows additional ice cube tray slide in boxes to be added for constructing larger capacity cooling units (See items 023,024, 025). By the use of modular construction it was possible to “grow an ice maker evaporator, and that is exactly what was done – as items 023, 024, and 025 demonstrate. Considerable economy in manufacture and assembly was possible, with predictable performance.Note the attention to the design of the lower tray box, constructed to be used as a deep drawer or for bulk frozen food, it would double as a 2 tray ice cube maker by sliding in a metal divider shelf

Technical Significance:
See background notes on technological significance of early mechanical cooling units (evaporator), THOC-HVACR inventory item 011.This specimen is representative of the proliferation of models and sizes of low-side float operated evaporators of the period, largely by Kelvinator and Figidaire, as they attempted to stretch this making technology to its limit. Dinosaur like, costly, complicated and trouble prone by comparison with the evaporator technologies that would shortly follow, this genre would largely disappear from manufacture’s catalogues by the early 1930’s, although would be operational in the field until after WWII.
To contrast the weight, size, seeming complexity, as well as materials and manufacturing costs with the technology reflected in inventory items 015 to 021 is instructive. The classic process of progressive simplification in technological innovation and change is well exemplified.

Industrial Significance:
With complex, demanding construction, the evaporator would make many demands on manufacturing and materials engineering in the early years of the 20th century.


3 tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.023
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Three tray, ice maker evaporator with low-side float, in tinned copper tube and brake formed copper sheet, cooling unit for small commercial cabinet refrigerator, similar to #022, Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: 3 tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division, General Motors Corp.,Dayton O
Make: Frigidaire

Technical Significance:
See background notes on technological significance of early mechanical cooling units (evaporator), THOC-HVACR inventory item 011.This specimen is representative of the proliferation of models and sizes of low-side float operated evaporators of the period, largely by Kelvinator and Figidaire, as they attempted to stretch this ice making technology to its limit. Dinosaur like, costly, complicated and trouble prone by comparison with the evaporator technologies that would shortly follow, this genre would largely disappear from manufacture’s catalogues by the early 1930’s, although would be operational in the field until after WWII – requiring repair shops to rebuild an calibrate floats and needle seats.
To contrast the weight, size, seeming complexity, as well as materials and manufacturing costs with the technology reflected in inventory items 015 to 021 is instructive. The classic process of progressive simplification in technological innovation and change is well exemplified.

Industrial Significance:
With complex, demanding construction, the evaporator would make many demands on manufacturing and materials engineering in the early years of the 20th century.


4 tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.024
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Four tray, ice maker evaporator with low-side float, using an early form of modular construction, in tinned copper tube and brake formed copper sheet. Cooling unit with gleaming porcelain tray pulls, for small commercial cabinet refrigerator, similar to #022, #023 Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: 4 tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division, General Motors Corp.,Dayton O
Make: Frigidaire
Features:
The early form of modular construction employed allowed the manufacturer to “grow” their evaporators using standard off the shelf components, with relatively predictable performance.

Technical Significance:
See background notes on technological significance of early mechanical cooling units (evaporator), THOC-HVACR inventory item 011.This specimen is representative of the proliferation of models and sizes of low-side float operated evaporators of the period, largely by Kelvinator and Figidaire, as they attempted to stretch this ice making technology to its limit. Dinosaur like, costly, complicated and trouble prone by comparison with the evaporator technologies that would shortly follow, this genre would largely disappear from manufacture’s catalogues by the early 1930’s, although would be operational in the field until after WWII – requiring repair shops to rebuild an calibrate floats and needle seats.
To contrast the weight, size, seeming complexity, as well as materials and manufacturing costs with the technology reflected in inventory items 015 to 021 is instructive. The classic process of progressive simplification in technological innovation and change is well exemplified.

Industrial Significance:
With complex, demanding construction, the evaporator would make many demands on manufacturing and materials engineering in the early years of the 20th century.


6 tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.025
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Six tray, ice maker evaporator with low-side float, using an early form of modular construction, in tinned copper tube and brake formed copper sheet. Cooling unit with shiny tinned copper ice cube trays with gleaming polished chrome tray pulls, for large, commercial, ice maker, cabinet refrigerator, similar to the smaller items #022, #023, #024, Of the genre of the first commercial, North American ice making machine, Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: 6 tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division, General Motors Corp.,Dayton O
Make: Frigidaire
Features:
The early form of modular construction employed allowed the manufacturer to “grow” their evaporators using standard off the shelf components, with relatively predictable performance. The ice cube trays are believed to have been re-tinned and the fronts re-chromed, as part of the refurbishing of the icemaker in T. H. Oliver’s repair shop in Aurora Ontario prior to re application in the 1950’s.

Technical Significance:
See background notes on technological significance of early mechanical cooling units (evaporator), THOC-HVACR inventory item 011.This specimen is representative of the proliferation of models and sizes of low-side float operated evaporators of the period, largely by Kelvinator and Figidaire, as they attempted to stretch this ice making technology to its limit. Dinosaur like, costly, complicated and trouble prone by comparison with the evaporator technologies that would shortly follow, this genre would largely disappear from manufacture’s catalogues by the early 1930’s, although would be operational in the field until after WWII – requiring repair shops to rebuild an calibrate floats and needle seats.
To contrast the weight, size, seeming complexity, as well as materials and manufacturing costs with the technology reflected in inventory items 015 to 021 is instructive. The classic process of progressive simplification in technological innovation and change is well exemplified.
None-the-less this large, modular designed icemaker, “grown” using the same flooded evaporator technology as shown in #024. for example, feed the seemingly endless and ever growing North American market for iced beverages, deserts and product cooling of all sorts . This value set, a distinguishing mark of the North American culture of the times was not to be found to the same extent in urban European setting of the same period.
The stage had been set and the market established for the design and development of the automatic ice cube-making machine, to appear on the market in Canada by the early 1950’s. Icemakers of the general design shown here would prevail up to that time and beyond..

Industrial Significance:
With complex, demanding construction, the evaporator would make many demands on manufacturing and materials engineering in the early years of the 20th century.


Copper tube evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.026
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Early copper tube and aluminium fin, static evaporator for small commercial refrigerated fixture, representative of a new, mid-century, high conductivity, high heat transfer cooling unit equipped for thermostatic expansion valve, Circa 1945.



Item: Copper tube evaporator
Manufacturer: Unknown
Make: Unknown

Technical Significance:
The 1950’s brought with them a flood of demands for new small refrigeration fixture applications, for example, for reach-in refrigerators to display cases of all types. The application of secondary, finned surface and the development of a small thermal expansion valve with adjustable superheat provided the market with the first big steps, through vastly improved thermal heat transfer efficiency, as well as the efficient use of refrigerant passages by improved refrigerant flow control.


Heavy copper tube evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.027
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Early, heavy copper tube and fin static evaporator with double dip galvanised coating for large “walk-in” refrigerated room, equipped with low-side float and suction line chamber, for low pressure SO2 refrigerant, Frigidaire, Circa 1926.



Item: Heavy copper tube evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Likely model 56
Features:
Matching set of two coils typically used in multiples

Technical Significance:
Refrigerated storage rooms for perishable foods were designed predominantly for high pressure refrigerant, commonly ammonia, in the early years of the 20th century. With the successful entry of lower pressure refrigerants, notably SO2, into the market place, the market was significantly expanded, opening it up to smaller commercial installations, which did not require operating engineers. Food stores, dairies and refrigerated warehouses would welcome the trend. So to the public who would see on the market a whole new range of foods for their health and enjoyment.


Heavy copper tube evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.028
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Early, heavy copper tube and fin static evaporator with double dip galvanised coating for large “walk-in” refrigerated room, equipped with low-side float and suction line chamber, for low pressure SO2 refrigerant, Frigidaire, Circa 1926.



Item: Heavy copper tube evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Likely model 56
Features:
Matching set of two coils typically used in tandem

Technical Significance:
Refrigerated storage rooms for perishable foods were designed predominantly for high pressure refrigerant, commonly ammonia, in the early years of the 20th century. With the successful entry of lower pressure refrigerants, notably SO2, into the market place, the market was significantly expanded, opening it up to smaller commercial installations, which did not require operating engineers. Food stores, dairies and refrigerated warehouses would welcome the trend. So to the public who would see on the market a whole new range of foods for their health and enjoyment.


Drop-in evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.029
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A mid 20th century, drop-in, evaporator for farm milk can cooler, with electric motor driven water agitator, built in stove pipe configuration, circa 1950.



Item: Drop-in evaporator
Manufacturer: Possibly Woods Co, Guelph Ontario, manufacturer a
Make: Believed to be Woods, Guelph OntarioDelco motor, St Catharines Ont.
Model: Delco motor, Mo

Technical Significance:
A special marker in time, the device represented a relatively low cost solution to simplify the farm milk can cooling process. Such innovations would be relatively short lived, however, with the introduction of farm bulk milk coolers in many areas in the early 1960’s


Refrigerant flow control ‘EB4885’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.059
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early low-side float, liquid refrigerant flow control, in deep draw copper header, with brass float valve assembly mounted on eight bolt brass flange, with heavy galvanised over coat, designed for four-pass fin coil cooling unit; Frigidaire, EB4885, circa 1929.



Item: Refrigerant flow control ‘EB4885’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio.
Make: Frigidaire
Model: EB4885, see Not

Technical Significance:
Following earlier experimentation with automatic expansion valves refrigeration engineers next turned to completely flooded systems for increased evaporator efficiency, using a float valve to meter liquid into the low side of the system.

Low side float metering devices, such as this, were widely employed by the industry in the late 1920’s through the 30’s in both household cabinet refrigerators and commercial applications.

Found in walk-in meat and vegetable coolers in food stores and ware-houses across Canada, these cooling units were to become the work-horses of the commercial refrigeration industry from the 1920’s often through to the 1940

With good maintenance these systems would have a remarkable service life, some in operation for 25 to 30 years, often well into the post WW II period, where they would be replaced by smaller more compact, more efficient systems using the new non-noxious fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, e.g., Freon 12

Costly, delicate, requiring regular service, they would be a short lived solution to refrigerant metering, awaiting the development and refinement of the thermostatic expansion valve

The first widely used, so-called low pressure refrigerant, for household and commercial applications in Canada was sulphur dioxide – highly noxious and corrosive. As a result the prevailing practice in the 1920’s and early 30’s was to make evaporators of copper with a heavy coat of galvanizing.

Industrial Significance:
Much of the Canadian commercial refrigeration service industry would cut its teeth on flooded evaporators and liquid level refrigerant metering float controls. A significant service industry grew up dedicated to maintaining flooded evaporators in good working condition; see extracts from Frigidaire and Kelvinator service manuals.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TS10’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.060
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve, housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with galvanised over coat; thermal power element and 4 ft. capillary tube; engineered for sulphur dioxide and a new generation of forced air cooling unit applications. It would appear much like the company’s earlier Model S automatic expansion valve, on which it was patterned; Model TS10, Frigidaire, circa 1932. [On of a set of two, see #ID 185]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TS10’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: TS 10
Features:
Original capillary bulb, tubing clamp

Technical Significance:
This valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

One of the earliest in production by Frigidaire, then the rapidly developing name brand supplier to the household and commercial refrigeration field.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
These valve would see service well into the 1950’s attesting to their robust construction and field serviceability, with an operating life of 20 to 30 years and more.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘FTS’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.061
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve, housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with galvanised over coat; thermal power element and 4 ft. capillary tube; engineered for the new Feon 12 refrigerant and a new generation of forced air cooling unit applications. It would appear much like the company’s earlier Model S automatic expansion valve, on which it was patterned; Model FTS, Frigidaire, circa 1932. [On of a set of two, see #ID 184]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘FTS’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: FTS
Features:
Original capillary bulb, tubing clamp

Technical Significance:
Adapted for the new generation of non-noxious, hydrocarbon refrigerants, this TX valve design by Frigidaire would find wide spread application in anew generation of refrigeration systems

The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

One of the earliest in production by Frigidaire, then the rapidly developing name brand supplier to the household and commercial refrigeration field.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
These valve would see service well into the 1950’s attesting to their robust construction and field serviceability, with an operating life of 20 to 30 years and more.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.062
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, compact, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve made by arguably the leader in expansion valve technology of the period; with brass body, “high tech.” Bakelite cover plate, power element and 4 ft. capillary tube, for methyl chloride refrigerant; patterned off the company’s earlier, Model 670, automatic expansion valve; Model 671- M, Series-2, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1936.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 671- M, Series

Technical Significance:
This valve, compact and elegant in design and construction, in contrast to similar valves produced by Frigidaire of the period [See ID # 184 and 185], was the work of a relative new comer in the refrigeration field, Detroit Lubricator. It would prove to be a significant marker of the changing times.

The age of the component parts, systems, specialty manufacturer had arrived, here as in the automotive field. In the future brand name system and equipment suppliers to the HVACR market would concentrate on system development, production and marketing. Increasingly, component technologies would be out sourced to specialty companies with the engineering know how and needed production capacities.

The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673-M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.063
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A mid 20th century, thermostatic expansion valve, a work horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry through much of the later part of the century, double bellows construction with wide range superheat adjustment, widely used by original refrigeration equipment manufacturer and for replacement work; made in a wide range of capacities for methyl chloride, Freon 12 and 22, power element and 5 ft. capillary tube, Model 673- M, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1946. [1 of a set of 2, seeID# 188]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673-M’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Mode: l673- M
Features:
Original superheat bulb clamp

Technical Significance:
This artifact of history, a workhorse of its times in the refrigeration, thermostatic expansion valve field tells the many stories of the explosion of commercial refrigeration applications and their wide adoption in Canada throughout the middle and later years of the 20th century.

Much of the success of this technology was due to the wide range of capacities and applications built into the design by Detroit Lubricator

Aware of the exploding market in commercial refrigeration applications, as well as the increasing diversity in system designs and engineering design requirements, the manufacturer built the valve around a basic platform that could be readily adapted with changes in orifice size and inlet and outlet connections to suit a wide range of refrigerants [methyl chloride, Freon 12, and Freon 22], temperature applications [low and commercial range] and refrigerating tonnage capacity ratings [1.2 to 4 tons]. It was a success story that led the industry.

The valve would be the darling of refrigeration wholesalers and original equipment manufacturers, because of the range of applications accommodated [see wholesalers catalogue]


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673-M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.064
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A mid 20th century, thermostatic expansion valve, a work horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry through much of the latter part of the century, double bellows construction with wide range superheat adjustment, widely used by original refrigeration equipment manufacturer and for replacement work; made in a wide range of capacities for methyl chloride, Freon 12 and 22, power element and 5 ft. capillary tube, Model 673- M, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1946. [1 of a set of 2, seeID# 187]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673-M’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 673- M
Features:
Original superheat bulb clamp

Technical Significance:
This artifact of history, a workhorse of its times in the refrigeration, thermostatic expansion valve field tells the many stories of the explosion of commercial refrigeration applications and their wide adoption in Canada throughout the middle and later years of the the 20th century.

Much of the success of this technology was due to the wide range of capacities and applications built into the design by Detroit Lubricator

Aware of the exploding market in commercial refrigeration applications, as well as the increasing diversity in system designs and engineering design requirements, the manufacturer built the valve around a basic platform that could be readily adapted with changes in orifice size and inlet and outlet connections to suit a wide range of refrigerants [methyl chloride, Freon 12, and Freon 22], temperature applications [low and commercial range] and refrigerating tonnage capacity ratings [1.2 to 4 tons]. It was a success story that led the industry.

The valve would be the darling of refrigeration wholesalers and original equipment manufacturers, because of the range of applications accommodated [see wholesalers catalogue]


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘Peerless’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.065
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A mid to late 20th century, high capacity thermostatic expansion valve, for methyl chloride refrigerant; a special marker of the time when this refrigerant was still being specified by commercial refrigeration system manufacturers, in advance of the wave of conversion to chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, Freon 12 and 22; in heavy, plated brass body with superheat adjustment, highly decorated it would represent an emerging new styling idiom for component part manufacturers, by a late 20th century newcomer to the field, Peerless, 1948.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘Peerless’
Manufacturer: Peerless of America, New York, Chicago, and Los An
Make: Peerless
Model: V
Features:
Original superheat bulb clamp

Technical Significance:
A mid to late 20th century, high capacity thermostatic expansion valve, for methyl chloride refrigerant; a special marker of the time when this refrigerant was still being specified by commercial refrigeration system manufacturers, in advance of the wave of conversion to chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, Freon 12 and 22.

In a heavy, plated brass body, an unusually robust, crisp and polished product for the times, when compared with other valves off the period, see for example #ID 184 and 185.

With colourful orange and black decal and imprinted red and black cover plate the valve would represent a new era in industrial, component, product design, bring with it a fresh new look and sales appeal.

Industrial Significance:
Manufactured by a late 20th century newcomer to the field, one bringing fresh new ideas about how an expansion valve should look and operate.

Highly decorated it would represent the values and interests of a new generation of mid 20th century industrial design.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.066
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An amazingly compact, mid capacity, mid to late 20th century, thermostatic expansion valve designed to meet the needs of an increasingly wide range of packaged, compact, commercial refrigeration applications, for methyl chloride and Freon 12 refrigerants, Model 207, Automatic Products Co., Mil., Circa 1945 [1 of a set of 2, see ID#191]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207’
Manufacturer: Automatic Products Co., Mil.
Make: Automatic Products [AP]
Model: AP207, type PF

Technical Significance:
Smaller than the Detroit Lubricator model 673 [see ID#187 and 188] in similar capacity range, this valve would set a new standard of compact, precision operation for the Canadian market place. Engineered by Automatic Products it would help to make possible a new generation of packaged, compact, commercial refrigeration appliances for confectioneries, food stores and similar applications.

In response to the buoyant market for TX valve technology a number of manufacturers, including Detroit Lubricator, Mayson, Automatic Products, Sporlan and Danfoss, among others entered the field in the late 1930’s and 40’s. They produced a remarkable range of design configurations and capacities for different refrigerants and cooling applications – in low temperature, commercial and air conditioning ranges.

The AP207, generally representative of the period, was engineered with a range of interchangeable orifices, variously for methyl chloride, F12 and sulfur dioxide refrigerants, for low, commercial and air conditioning applications, over the range of 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, and 1 ton capacities.

Industrial Significance:
With 60″ capillary line and 3/8″ bulb, wide range of orifice sizes, adjustable superheat feature and built in liquid line screen, this compact valve would help to make possible an explosion of refrigeration and air conditioning applications in the latter part of the 20th century.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.067
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An amazingly compact, mid capacity, mid to late 20th century, thermostatic expansion valve designed to meet the needs of an increasingly wide range of packaged, compact, commercial refrigeration applications, for methyl chloride and Freon 12 refrigerants, Model 207, Automatic Products Co., Mil., Circa 1945 [1 of a set of 2, see ID#190]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207’
Manufacturer: Automatic Products Co., Mil.
Make: Automatic Products [AP]
Model: AP207

Technical Significance:
Smaller than the Detroit Lubricator model 673 [see ID#187 and 188] in similar capacity range, this valve would set a new standard of compact, precision operation for the Canadian market place. Engineered by Automatic Products it would help to make possible a new generation of packaged, compact, commercial refrigeration appliances for confectioneries, food stores and similar applications.

In response to the buoyant market for TX valve technology a number of manufacturers, including Detroit Lubricator, Mayson, Automatic Products, Sporlan and Danfoss, among others entered the field in the late 1930’s and 40’s. They produced a remarkable range of design configurations and capacities for different refrigerants and cooling applications – in low temperature, commercial and air conditioning ranges.

The AP207, generally representative of the period, was engineered with a range of interchangeable orifices, variously for methyl chloride, F12 and sulfur dioxide refrigerants, for low, commercial and air conditioning applications, over the range of 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, and 1 ton capacities.

Industrial Significance:
With 60″ capillary line and 3/8″ bulb, wide range of orifice sizes, adjustable superheat feature and built in liquid line screen, this compact valve would help to make possible an explosion of refrigeration and air conditioning applications in the latter part of the 20th century.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.077
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, compact, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve made by arguably the leader in expansion valve technology of the period, beautifully crafted with brass body, “high tech.” Bakelite cover plate, similar to item ID #186 and #202, but differently fitted with 14 inch remote bulb power element, and flare connection; part of this company’s impressive stable of valves, patterned off its earlier, Model 670, automatic expansion valve; Model 671- M, Series-2, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1936.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 671- M, Series

Technical Significance:
This valve, compact and elegant in design and construction, in contrast to similar valves produced by Frigidaire of the period [See ID # 184 and 185], was the work of a relative new comer in the refrigeration field, Detroit Lubricator. It would prove to be a significant marker of the changing times.

The age of the component parts, systems, specialty manufacturer had arrived, here as in the automotive field. In the future brand name system and equipment suppliers to the HVACR market would concentrate on system development, production and marketing. Increasingly, component technologies would be out sourced to specialty companies with the engineering know how and needed production capacities.

The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
The range of configurations in which this valve was produced was a marker of an increasingly diverse market place for thermostatic expansion valve technology, with different fitments to meet the different requirements of original equipment manufacturers. It was an industry in its first period of rapid growth. See also ID # 186, 201, 202


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.078
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, compact, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve made by arguably the leader in expansion valve technology of the period, beautifully crafted with brass body, “high tech.” Bakelite cover plate, similar to item ID #186 and #201, but differently fitted, this model licensed under patent to Universal Cooler Corp.; part of an impressive stable of valves, patterned off Detroit Lubricator’s earlier, Model 670, automatic expansion valve; Manufacturer’s name given here as American Radiator, Model 671- M, Series-1, circa 1936.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’
Manufacturer: American Radiator Co., Detroit
Make: American Radiator
Model: 671- M, Series

Technical Significance:
This valve, compact and elegant in design and construction, in contrast to similar valves produced by Frigidaire of the period [See ID # 184 and 185], was the work of a relative new comer in the refrigeration field, Detroit Lubricator. It would prove to be a significant marker of the changing times.

The age of the component parts, systems, specialty manufacturer had arrived, here as in the automotive field. In the future brand name system and equipment suppliers to the HVACR market would concentrate on system development, production and marketing. Increasingly, component technologies would be out sourced to specialty companies with the engineering know how and needed production capacities.

The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
Carrying the name American Radiator, the exact genealogy of this device remains to be determined, including its relationship to Detroit Lubricator,

The range of configurations in which this valve was produced was a marker of an increasingly diverse market place for thermostatic expansion valve technology, with different fitments to meet the different requirements of original equipment manufacturers. It was an industry in its first period of rapid growth. See also ID # 186, 201, 202

The valve is also an industry marker of the early entry of Universal Cooler, destined to be a major new player in the growing commercial refrigeration field.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘Fedders’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.079
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, large, heavy body, adjustable thermostatic expansion by Fedders, marking the entrance of another national supplier to the commercial refrigeration field, during its first period of rapid expansion in the mid 1930’s; fitted with 4 foot remote bulb power element, with brown Bakelite shell and tinned brass body, with severe stress marks indicating something of its difficult life’s journey, Fedders, circa 1934.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘Fedders’
Manufacturer: Fedders ???
Make: Fedders
Model: 33???
Features:
Heavily stressed body, telling stories of the difficult life’s journey of this valve, its use and abuse in a period of little industry maturity.

Original shop tag telling stories of the life and times of the valve

Technical Significance:
The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
This valve was the work of a relative new comer in the refrigeration field in the mid 1930’s, Fedders. It would prove to be a significant marker of the changing times, with new markets and new suppliers with national aspirations.

The valve, heavy and clumsy by comparison with the work of more mature suppliers to the market place of the period, notably Detroit Lubricator [see ID # 186, 201 and 202], would suggest a less well developed engineering and manufacturing capability.

The heavy stress marks also tell something of the times in which this valve lived out its life. It was a period in which service and installation workers in the refrigeration field were not well trained in this area of speciality, moving into the field from other areas of mechanical work. It was a period too in which few specialized tools where available. The marks on the body suggest the use of brut force without the tools and experience appropriate for the job.

The original stock tag in Howard Oliver’s hand writing tells much of the life and times in matters of trade practice. In the mid 1930’s parts where not expendable commodities except in rare circumstances. It was a period much more disposed to a “repair and recycle” philosophy, an essential part of the post depression period of “waste not want not”. New parts were not considered an option, if they could be replaced on an exchange basis, so as to ensure continued operation, at the lesser of costs. This meant that a repaired part was also available for a future, potential user.

The frequency of the service and repair rate of the period also reflected the much less sophisticated engineering design, materials and manufacturing methods of the times.

It was a period, too, in which inventorying methods and transportation made new parts much less readily available, which again gave preference to more expedient solutions, when breakdown occurred and perishable foods were likely to be lost.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘small-body’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.080
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, small body, adjustable thermostatic expansion fitted with 4-foot remote bulb power element, with brown Bakelite shell and brass body, with stylish, partially obliterated, decal in red and gold, manufacturer yet to be determined based on existing body markings, circa 1936.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘small-body’
Make: Unknown
Model: A37

Technical Significance:
The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
This valve was more than likely the work of another relative new comer in the refrigeration field in the mid 1930’s. Similar in configuration to the Fedder’s valves of the period, it genealogy remains to be determined from partially obliterated body markings.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.081
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early version of the 20th century, classic 673, Detroit Lubricator thermostatic expansion, made in a wide range of capacities for sulphur dioxide, methyl chloride, Freon 12 and 22; the work horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry through much of the m, latter part of the 1900’s; with classic brass body and brown Bakalite shell, power element, 5 ft. capillary tube, and adjustable superheat, widely used by original refrigeration equipment manufacturer and for replacement work, Model 673 – Series 5A 34, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1935. [See also ID# 187, 188]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: Model 673 – Ser

Technical Significance:
This artifact of history, a workhorse of its times in the thermostatic expansion valve field, tells the many stories of the explosion of commercial refrigeration applications and their wide adoption in Canada throughout the middle and latter years of the 20th century.

Much of the success of this technology was due to the wide range of capacities and applications built into the design by Detroit Lubricator

Aware of the exploding market in commercial refrigeration applications, as well as the increasing diversity in system and engineering design requirements, the manufacturer built the valve around a basic platform that could be readily adapted with changes in orifice size and inlet and outlet connections to suit a wide range of refrigerants [methyl chloride, Freon 12, and Freon 22], temperature applications [low and commercial range] and refrigerating tonnage capacity ratings [1.2 to 4 tons]. It was a success story that led the industry.

Industrial Significance:
The valve would be the darling of refrigeration wholesalers and original equipment manufacturers, because of the range of applications accommodated [see wholesalers catalogue]


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TEV’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.082
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early mid 20th century, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve, housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with galvinized overcoat and classic brown Bakelite casing; thermal power element and 4 ft. capillary tube; the TEF series, engineered for the new Freon 12 as well as SO2 applications, superseded the TS series, being more compact and better sealed against moisture; recommended for multiplexed applications popular in the period; Model TEV, Frigidaire, circa 1936. [1 of a set of 2, see ID# 207]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TEV’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division General Motors Corporation, Da
Make: Frigidaire
Model: TEV, Series 18

Technical Significance:
Adapted for the new generation of non-noxious, hydrocarbon refrigerants, this early mid 20th century TX valve by Frigidaire was more compact and better protected from moisture than its earlier TS series [see ID# 185 & 186]. It was promoted by Frigdaire for multiplexed systems and would find wide spread application in a new generation of small , commercial refrigeration to be found in a new generation of food stores and confectioneries.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of technological diffusion and wide spread adoption of TX refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
Of special significance is the appearance of General Motors name on the valve, marking the period in which large manufactures, having built significant engineering and manufacturing know-how, as well as cash reserves would move into new fields. Horizontal integration would soon become a bus word in the industrial world.

These valve would see service well into the 1950’s attesting to their robust construction and field serviceability, with an operating life of 20 to 30 years and more.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TEV’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.083
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early mid 20th century, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve, housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with galvinized overcoat and classic brown Bakelite casing; thermal power element and 4 ft. capillary tube; the TEF series, engineered for the new Freon 12 as well as SO2 applications, superseded the TS series, being more compact and better sealed against moisture; recommended for multiplexed applications popular in the period; Model TEV, Frigidaire, circa 1936. [Similar to ID# 206, but with higher range and mounting bracket]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TEV’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division General Motors Corporation, Da
Make: Frigidaire
Model: TEV, Series 21
Features:
Heavy steel mounting bracket with galvinized overcoat

Technical Significance:
Adapted for the new generation of non-noxious, hydrocarbon refrigerants, this early mid 20th century TX valve by Frigidaire was more compact and better protected from moisture than its earlier TS series [see ID# 185 & 186]. It was promoted by Frigdaire for multiplexed systems and would find wide spread application in a new generation of small, commercial refrigeration to be found in a new generation of food stores and confectioneries.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of technological diffusion and wide spread adoption of TX refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
Of special significance is the appearance of General Motors name on the valve, marking the period in which large manufactures, having built significant engineering and manufacturing know-how, as well as cash reserves would move into new fields. Horizontal integration would soon become a bus word in the industrial world.

Made in a wide range of capacities the TEV would mark a major, costly engineering commitment by Frigidaire to TX valve technology in the period, confident of its market potential.

These valve would see service well into the 1950’s attesting to their robust construction and field serviceability, with an operating life of 20 to 30 years and more.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘893’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.084
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

By the middle of the 20th century, the pressure was on for a new generation of compact thermostatic expansion valves to meet the growing market for small commercial refrigeration appliances. The 893, designed for this market, would raise eyebrows, with high style nameplate in bright chrome with blue highlighting. A sign of the times, Detroit would soon replace it with the even more compact design, the 777, Model 893, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1952.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘893’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 893
Features:
High style chrome name plate and logo, a new slick look for the expansion valve

Technical Significance:
The 893 compact thermostatic expansion valve, although short lived, was a significant marker of the times, as the industry, responding and at the same time shaping the market place, moved to ever more compact, more sophisticated engineering designs based on cumulative know how. A sign of the now rapidly changing times, Detroit would soon replace the 893 with the even more compact design, the 777.

Industrial Significance:
High style chrome name plate and logo, a new slick look for expansion valves in the early post W.W.II years, reflecting the new interest of manufacturers in the emerging field of industrial design

The now rapidly changing market place would trigger substantial investments in R and D by companies like Detroit. The life of this product would be a short one, soon to be replaced with an even more compact design, the 777. A sign of things to come.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207C’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.085
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Representing AP’s new generation of further compacted thermostatic expansion valves designed to meet the needs of a new generation of small commercial refrigerated appliances, for methyl chloride and Freon 12 refrigerants, Model 207C, Automatic Products Co., Mil., Circa 1950 [see also ID#189,190 and 208]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207C’
Manufacturer: Automatic Products Co., Mil.
Make: Automatic Products [AP]
Model: AP207C

Technical Significance:
In response to the buoyant market for compact TX valve technology a number of manufacturers, including Detroit Lubricator, Mayson, Automatic Products, Sporlan and Danfoss, among others entered the field in the late 1930’s and 40’s. They produced a remarkable range of design configurations and capacities for different refrigerants and cooling applications – in low temperature, commercial and air conditioning ranges.

The AP207C was AP’s contribution of the times to super compact, 1/2 ton valves.

Industrial Significance:
The AP207CWith 60″ capillary line and 3/8″ bulb, adjustable superheat feature and built in liquid line screen would help to make possible an explosion of refrigeration and air conditioning applications in the latter part of the 20th century.


Commercial refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.040
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, commercial application, air-cooled, refrigeration machine [condensing unit] by Kelvinator of Canada designed for use with anhydrous, sulphur dioxide. an early refrigerant that made possible, for the first time, small commercial refrigeration applications in food stores etc. The use of low pressure refrigerants, rather than high pressure anhydrous ammonia, opened up a vast commercial market for refrigeration equipment and, in turn, set new expectations by Canadian consumers of what was available at their local grocer and butcher shop, Kelvinator, circa 1932.



Item: Commercial refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Unknown, Compre

Pop cooler refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.041
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

In characteristic red, an early, commercial application, air-cooled, refrigeration machine [condensing unit] designed and built by Kelvinator of Canada for Coca Cola pop coolers. The marketing of fresh new taste sensations was central to the creation of new consumer demands by the food and entertainment industries in the 1930’s, as well as by Canadian refrigeration equipment manufacturers, Kelvinator, circa 1938.



Item: Pop cooler refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: 4975

Open system refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.042
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Engineered by Kelvinator, an acknowledged leader of the field, for the new generation of chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, this new generation of quiet, belt driven, open system refrigeration machines for small commercial applications was equipped with medium speed, precision made, high efficiency, extended life compressors. In retrospect the series would be seen as part of the Kelvinator of Canada legacy of its mature corporate years in Canada, Kelvinator circa 1945.



Item: Open system refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: CB325

Open system refrigation machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.043
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Like Item #042, this series refrigeration machines, designed for the new generation of chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, was developed by Kelvinator in the post WWII years, for small and medium sized commercial refrigeration applications. The Kelvinator SB medium speed, precision made, high efficiency, open system compressor would become a standard of engineering quality for the times . The machine, like #042, would in retrospect, be seen as part of the Kelvinator of Canada legacy of its mature corporate years in Canada, Kelvinator circa 1945.



Item: Open system refrigation machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Part No. 708907

Low-pressure refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.044
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

With the availability of chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, in the post WWII years, the demand quickly developed for larger and larger low-pressure refrigeration machines, as an alternative to ammonia systems, in this HP range. This 2 HP, water cooled, open-system machine by Kelvinator is a fine example of the genre. Like #042, and #043, it would come to be seen as part of the Kelvinator of Canada legacy of its mature corporate years in Canada, Kelvinator circa 1948.



Item: Low-pressure refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Part No. 07285
Features:
– Tube-in-tube water cooled condenser.- 1 1/2 HP 25 cycle Wagner electric single phase type RA motor with original motor warranty- Heavy rubber vibration insulators- Smoothly streamlined modern frame construction- Copland 2 cyl, V belt driven compressor

Industrial Significance:
Somewhat paradoxically, while the market for larger and larger low-pressure refrigeration machines grew, well beyond the expectations of many after WWII, the diversity of equipment feeding the market diminishedIt was a period of increasing competitive pressure for manufacturers, with more of them bargaining for a slice of the market. Equipment development costs were also increasing due, among other things, to increased performance expectations, reliability and the life expectancy of systems.
Manufacturers moved into areas of specialisation and new partnerships were established, as exemplified here by Kelvinator’s use of Copland compressors. Kelvinator had by now dropped out of the manufacture large compressors, although their efforts in earlier years were impressive ( see section 5.02)


Refrigeration machine ‘H’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.045
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

The Frigidaire’s “H” series condensing unit for small commercial applications was an essential part of the industry’s “golden years” of early innovative refrigeration engineering. With a new series of compact compressors; a high tech, fully integrated condenser receiver assembly; a floating motor mount and automatic belt tightener, it was a truly innovative contribution to a new generation of quiet, more maintenance free and more user friendly refrigeration machines for the mid 1930’s, letting loose a new wave of consumer expectations of what their local grocer or dairy bar might have in store for them, Frigidaire, Circa 1935.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘H’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: H203


Refrigeration machine ‘S’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.046
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A refrigeration condensing unit, with rolled and formed steel frame, massive in appearance, given its modest capacity, the Frigdaire Model S served to perpetuate the “machinery look” of the 1920’s well in to the next decade. With oval coil, static air condenser it would be recognised as a kind of icon of the engineering culture of the times, with its ideas of what a proper refrigeration machine should look like. A real time piece of the era in which it was conceived, many would still be in service 30 years later, servicing Canada’s food and hospitality industries, Frigidaire, 1929.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘S’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Model S
Features:
– Original decorative Frigidaire sticker and logo- Original wiring harness in steel sheathed BX, 2/14 cable and Square D disconnect switch Cat No 98251, with original 15 amp. cartridge fuses

Refrigeration machine ‘S’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.047
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A refrigeration condensing unit, with rolled and formed steel frame, massive in appearance, given its modest capacity, the Frigdaire Model S served to perpetuate the “machinery look” of the 1920’s well in to the next decade. Unlike similar Artifact #046, this machine is equipped with a 25 cycle, pre WWII, high torque, repulsion induction motor by Sangamo Electric Toronto Ont., allowing it to appear much the way it did in its early operating years, Frigidaire, 1929.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘S’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Model S

Refrigeration machine ‘G’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.048
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

The oval, copper tube, static air condenser, along with the hefty, solid look of a no-nonsense refrigeration machine seemed to be a winning formula for Frigidaire in the late 1930’s, one that would be reflected and perpetuated through several years of design and production. The higher capacity Model G, with an added oval tube condenser stack, was similarly endowed to the Model S [See #046 and #047]. Also using sulphur dioxide refrigerant, the Model G would be seen in Canadian estate homes, institutions, food stores, diary bars and hospitality applications well into the 1950’s, when the clear preference of the industry and its publics swung heavily to the use of non-noxious refrigerants, leaving this recognised time piece well behind, Frigidaire, 1929.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘G’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Model G

Technical Significance:
Frigidaire’s commitment to the oval tube, stacked condensing medium in the period was substantial [See Frigidaire manual for the nature and scope of its application]. A simple engineering response, using the materials and know-how of the times, it seemed to perform passably well. The idea of adding additional stacks was a reasonable one, in order to add machine capacity. For a number of reasons the technology would prove to be limited to small capacity, fractional horsepower machines and Frigidaire would need to rethink the form and structure of their condensers, as the inevitable demand for larger and larger machines continued.For Frigidaire an important point of inflection in their design and development curve was at hand. There would be a transition to the more efficient, higher performance, forced air, fin and tube condenser, already in popular use by other manufactures, The oval stacked condenser, a hall mark of Frigidaire’s refrigeration machines was about to disappear, see item #049 and #045.
With the recognised need to move with the times came the commitment to upgrading and the retrofit of existing machines, as a hedge against their obsolescence – in may ways an uncharacteristic market response. Retrofit kits were engineered, packaged and marketed by Frigidaire for a wide range of earlier static air condenser equipped condensing units – see items Group 6.00, 6.02-5 and 6.02-6. These kits were an early example of technological up-grading and retrofitting by a manufacturer moving with the market opportunities of the times.


Refrigeration machine ‘AW’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.049
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Frigidaire’s model AW refrigeration machine exemplifies their engineering approach to what was referred to as “radiator type” condensing, as it was employed by the company on larger capacity condensing units [See also Model S and G, #046 – #048]. Using sulphur dioxide refrigerant, the Model AW would be seen in Canadian estate homes, institutions, food stores, diary bars and hospitality applications in higher capacity, fractional horsepower applications, well into the 1950’s. Then the clear preference of the industry and its publics swung heavily to the use of non-noxious refrigerants, Frigidaire, 1932.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘AW’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton, Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: AW
Features:
The machine is equipped with Frigidaire’s floating motor mounting system, a distinctive contribution to the engineering of the period, now by-passed with a rigid mount. The modification stands as historic marker of frequency standardisation in Ontario, circa 1948, when all 25 cycle motors were removed to be replaced by 60 cycle.

Refrigeration machine ‘F12’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.050
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early refrigeration machine, by Frigidaire designed and built for the new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerant of the times, “F12”. A significant, transitional and transformational piece technology, moving from the use of noxious to non-noxious refrigerants, it would serve to vastly increase the market for refrigeration machines and, in turn, their impact on Canadian society and culture. It also serves as a vehicle for telling the stories of the unintended environmental consequences of the move, Frigidaire, circa 1937.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘F12’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire
Model: Frigidaire Corp

Refrigeration machine ‘GM’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.051
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An innovative adaptation of an air-cooled refrigeration machine of the mid 1930’s, attempting to make it more user friendly, less machine like, by fully enclosing it in its own ventilated cabinet. The identification plate carries the name “Frigidaire Electric Refrigerator, Product of General Motors”, marking a significant, somewhat ominous step, in the maturation and pre WWII restructuring of the North American refrigeration industry. The plate also carries the corporate address of Toronto, clearly establishing the company’s residency in Canada, Frigidaire, 1937.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘GM’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Electric Refrigeration Products, Genera
Make: Frigidaire
Model: K

Industrial Significance:
The restructuring of the North American refrigeration industry prior to WWII, was a sign of the times, as markets mushroomed, market competition ballooned and the costs of engineering, development, production and marketing increased many fold. The result was the need for increased capital and stable operating funding for research and development, which were seen as available from big business. Big business was also getting bigger and where anxious to move into developing markets and defining new profit centres for themselves.


Refrigeration machine ‘iron frame’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.052
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A truly remarkable statement of its social and cultural times, as well as the evolutionary stage of refrigeration machine technology in Canada, in the second decade of the 20th century. Crafted as the embodiment, and the ultimate statement of the early 20th century “machine”, it was a mechanical wonder in every respect. From its massive 200lbs, to its crude 1 1/4 inch angle iron frame, its lumbering 370 RPM compressor, its hefty, automatic pressure control with leavers, weights and springs, fashioned in cast iron, steel and brass, and the constant odour of sulphur dioxide, it would be a nightmare for the mechanics of the time, as they struggled to learn new trade, Frigidaire, circa 1928.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘iron frame’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: N
Features:
– Heavily pitted from years of use and misuse in damp and highly acidic, atmosphere produced by leaking sulphur dioxide refrigerant vapour.

Commercial refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.053
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A smoothly sculptured, quiet operating, fractional horsepower, commercial application refrigeration machine, part of the mid 20th century experience of Canadian grocers, butchers and confectioners, in a period when the “hermetic” motor compressor was still 20 years in the future for most such equipment owners. The machine represents the work three leading Canadian manufactures [Universal Cooler, Brampton Ont. and Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont., and McKinnon Industries, St Catherines Ont. ] and the best Canadian trade practice of the 1950’s, Universal Cooler, 1955.



Item: Commercial refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Universal Cooler, Brantford Ont.
Make: Universal Cooler
Model: A15F6I-2

Technical Significance:
The 1950’s and on into the 60’s was the “golden age” of the open-system refrigeration machine. Behind the industry were its crude beginnings in Canada. Machines were now operating on non-noxious refrigerants [principally F12], were smaller, lighter, quieter, more efficient and reliable.As important was the fact that they were readily field serviceable, allowing major components to be removed for repair or replacement. Too, major component replacement was facilitated, even with parts of a different manufacture, because of the level of universality and flexibility, which was an inherent part of the open-system design, a feature which would soon be lost, as the industry moved to higher efficiency, less costly sealed system design.


Refrigeration machine ‘UC’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.054
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A typical, 1/4 HP, open-system refrigeration machine by Universal Cooler Brantford Ont., a recognised, prominent leader during the Canadian industry’s, historic, golden age of refrigeration equipment manufacturing, It admirably represents the increasingly ubiquitous, yet unobtrusive, and largely unsung, commercial refrigeration applications of the 1950’s and 60’s. Stuffed in cubby holes, dark basements, under counters and other wise unseen, it went about, non-the-less, contributing to a new world of Canadian health, safety and hygiene, while providing new taste delights in the food markets of the nation, Universal Cooler, 1958.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘UC’
Manufacturer: Universal Cooler, Brantford Ont.
Make: Universal Cooler
Model: TA25MS1
Features:
Rubber mounting feet

Refrigeration machine ‘Tecumseh’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.055
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

In the middle years of the 20th century Tecumseh and their related Chieftain products were leaders in “unbranded” Canadian refrigeration machines appearing in the Canadian market place, as represented here by this 1/3 HP, 2 cylinder, air-cooled, open-system machine. Tucked away, out of public view, in food stores restaurants and similar applications across the nation, such machines would quietly go about contributing to historic changes in the daily lives of Canadians throughout those defining, middle years, Tecumseh Products, 1956.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Tecumseh’
Manufacturer: Tecumseh Products
Make: Chieftain
Model: F13U2LE

Industrial Significance:
The post WWII growth years of the Canadian refrigeration industry saw a proliferation of new manufactures of small, commercial, open-system, refrigeration machines, each bargaining for a share of the growing market. Unlike Kelvinator and Frigidaire, they were essentially “unbranded” machines and readily available through an increasingly wide network of wholesalers and jobbers servicing the Canadian industry. The proliferation of manufactures, branded and unbranded, vastly increased competitive forces which, along with changes in the technology itself [closed-system, hermetic machines] would, in turn, lead to a re-alignment and restructuring of the field, as part of its new maturity.
The traditional brands of the early years of the century would soon all but vanish. With in 5 years the open-system refrigeration machine would be seriously challenged by a new generation of fractional horsepower hermetic condensing units- a vast and far reaching point of inflection and transition had arrived.
The traditional brands, would themselves be seen as starting to market unbranded, competitive lines. Kelvinator of Canada’s, London Ont. Catalogue of 1948 would market their own machines, by 1951 they had established the Refrigeration Supplies Co. in London [RESCO], which market Tecumseh products, among others


Refrigeration machine ‘Gilson’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.056
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Among the proliferation of refrigeration machine manufacturer in the explosive market years of the mid 20th century, a few uniquely Ontario, entrepreneurial, family companies stood out, including the Gilson and Woods companies of Guelph and Robert Elder of Toronto. This I/4 HP, unsophisticatedly engineered machine by Gilson would help establish them as a kind of venerated cultural icon of the period, in rural and small town Ontario, Gilson, 1954.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Gilson’
Manufacturer: Gilson Manufacturing Co, Guelph, Ont
Make: Gilson
Model: SC4-M

Industrial Significance:
The mid 20th century, prior to the advent of increasingly complex closed-system, hermetic machines, was characterised by relatively simple system technology. It was a period that saw many new manufacturers who were largely assemblers of components provided by other OEM’s. This allowed small family companies many the offshoot of Canada’s early years of industrialisation, often with modest engineering resources, to move into the refrigeration machine and equipment business.


Refrigeration machine ‘Brunner’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.057
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A classic piece of mid 20th century, Toronto built, heavy duty, no nonsense, open-system, refrigeration machinery by a Canadian manufacture, well recognised for its unique Canadian engineering solutions and contributions to commercial and industrial refrigeration process applications, Brunner, 1952.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Brunner’
Manufacturer: Brunner Corporation, Canada, Ltd.
Make: Brunner
Model: A18FC
Features:
Unique system of belt tightening designed and built by Brunner

Industrial Significance:
Canada had many small companies spring up in the middle years of the 20th century to participate in the boom years of the industry. Most had modest ambitions and resources, and were satisfied by building a modest range of equipment. Brunner was an exception, building small fractional horsepower, open-system machines, as demonstrated here, as well as engineering and building large systems up to 100 HP or more.


Refrigeration machine ‘Silver King’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.058
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A refrigeration machine by a small, long-gone, Toronto manufacturer, hoping to get a share of the developing market for such machines in the industry’s golden growth years of 20th century. The appeal was typically to a small niche market, likely here to the rural Ontario market for, milk can, cooling equipment, Silver King, 1953.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Silver King’
Manufacturer: Silver King Cooler Co, Toronto
Make: Silver King
Model: SK6

Industrial Significance:
The market open to such small, start-up companies would be short lived, for with the advent of more sophisticated, hermetic system design, would come considerable increase in the engineering and capital resources needed.Most such successful ventures by small start-up companies were predicated on the co-operation of OEM component suppliers, here Brunner, as well as on good working partnership arrangements with other manufactures interested in pursuing the same markets and sharing the work, here likely the Woods Company of Guelph ,Ont, see item #029


Refrigeration machine ‘Elder’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.059
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Applications engineering, like the science and technology it depend on for inspiration, is moved from time to time by creative new ideas, ones that fundamentally alter traditional approaches. The idea of engineering a refrigeration machine in which the compressor is placed on top of the motor, instead of beside it, in order to better fit the space available in a self-contained refrigerated fixture, is just such an inspirational idea, here by a small Ontario company in its distinctive orange, Robert Elder Ltd. Toronto, 1956.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Elder’
Manufacturer: Robert Elder Ltd., Toronto
Make: Frost Master
Model: DC25P

Industrial Significance:
Robert Elder, like Gilson [see item #056], both small Ontario niche manufactures, sought to differentiate themselves with unique, colours, daring to be different, separating themselves from the pack. The effect was to create quite a different corporate culture and image.


Fractional HP compressor ‘C1’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.104
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, FRIGIDAIRE, MODEL C1 – With integral service valves, it would be representative of a new, early/mid 20th century, generation of smaller higher speed compressor design by Frigidaire for F12 refigerant. It would have a ubiquitous presence, although hidden away from view, in the then rapidly expanding chain of food stores and confectioneries across Canada.



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘C1’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Div. General Motors Corp
Make: Frigidaire
Model: C1

Twin cylinder compressor ‘SB’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.105
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP, TWIN CYLINDER COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, KELVINATOR, MODEL SB, CIRCA 1948 – Now in its sunset years, as a result of substantial restructuring within the industry, this superb piece of design would in some ways represent the peak of the company’s engineering and manufacturing expertise, developed in over 40 years, by an acknowledged pioneer of the field. A moderate high speed machine designed for F12 refrigerant, it too would have a presence, hidden away from view, in the rapidly expanding network of food stores and confectioneries across Canada, starting in the 1940’s.



Item: Twin cylinder compressor ‘SB’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont.
Make: Kelvinator
Model: SB

Fractional HP compressor ‘A1001-5’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.106
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, TECUMSEH/CHIEFTAIN, MODEL A1001-5 – A mid 20th century, open market, twin cylinder compressor, available from wholesalers acoss the country, it would be found in a myriad of applications, as a popular replacement compressor, servicing Canada’s now growing after-market requirements for the maintenance of its increasing network refrigeration machine applications.



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘A1001-5’
Manufacturer: Tecumseh Products
Make: Tecumseh/ Chieftain
Model: A1001-5

Fractional HP compressor ‘DD’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.107
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP, TWIN CYLINDER COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, Universal Cooler, Type DD, CIRCA 1952 – engineered and manufactured by a principal, original equipment manufacturer [OEM] of refrigeration machines during Canada’s “golden”, growth years of the industry. Representative of a new, mid 20th century, generation of smaller higher speed, open system compressor design for F12 refrigerant, it too would appear ubiquitously in the then rapidly expanding network of food stores and confectionery applications across Canada.



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘DD’
Manufacturer: Universal Cooler, Brantford Ontario
Make: Universal Cooler
Model: DD

High capacity compressor ‘FFN’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.108
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP, HIGH CAPACITY COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, TECUMSEH, MODEL FFN, CIRCA 1955 – In an unusual gray/green finish, intended to suggest something new was afoot, this new generation of “high speed” compressors was equipped with 8 inch flywheel and twin V belt drive. It would turn the heads of experienced refrigeration mechanics in amazement, and herald the coming of high speed, direct drive hermetic motor compressors and the new precision and know-how required to engineer and manufacture them.



Item: High capacity compressor ‘FFN’
Manufacturer: Tecumseh Products, Tecumseh, Mich., District Offic
Make: Tecumseh
Model: FFN

Fractional HP compressor ‘SL’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.109
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP, COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, PAR, MODEL SL,CIRCA 1949 – This compressor, with distinctive configuration, was to be found on the company’s open market refrigeration condensing units, widely available through refrigeration wholesalers in the middle years of the 20th century. Unremarkable in many ways, it would find its way in a number of small “designer built”, trade, applications, including farm milk coolers.



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘SL’
Manufacturer: Par Compressor Div. Lynch Corporation, Toledo, Ohi
Make: Par
Model: SL

Industrial Significance:
The open market manufacturers of refrigeration machinery of the period [such as Tecumseh Par and Bruner] would be a critical component of the Canadian refrigeration industry. They would be the direct line of equipment supply to the network of small, independent refrigeration mechanics that emerged by mid century. Their products, not tied to dealerships or franchises, would be found in a myriad of small applications such as farm milk cooling, in what was then a largely rural population of small, independent milk producers across Canada.
During this period Par equipment was marketed in Canada through R and E Thermal controls [Railway and Engineering], through their net work of operations across Canada
The Lynch Corporation, would go on to build a serviceable hermetic motor compressor, with much appeal to the trade, for its serviceability


Fractional HP compressor ‘SM’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.110
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP, COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, PAR, MODEL SM,CIRCA 1949 – This compressor, similar in outwards appearance to the Par SL [see #3109], was also to be found on the company’s open market refrigeration condensing units, widely available through refrigeration wholesalers in the middle years of the 20th century. Unremarkable in many ways, it would find its way in a number of small “designer built”, trade, applications, including farm milk coolers.



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘SM’
Manufacturer: Par Compressor Div. Lynch Corporation, Toledo, Ohi
Make: Par
Model: SM

Industrial Significance:
The open market manufacturers of refrigeration machinery of the period [such as Tecumseh Par and Bruner] would be a critical component of the Canadian refrigeration industry. They would be the direct line of equipment supply to the network of small, independent refrigeration mechanics that emerged by mid century. Their products, not tied to dealerships or franchises, would be found in a myriad of small applications such as farm milk cooling, in what was then a largely rural population of small, independent milk producers across Canada.
During this period Par equipment was marketed in Canada through R and E Thermal controls [Railway and Engineering], through their net work of operations across Canada
The Lynch Corporation, would go on to build a serviceable hermetic motor compressor, with much appeal to the trade, for its serviceability


Fractional HP compressor ‘SM’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.111
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP, COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, PAR, MODEL SM,CIRCA 1949 – This compressor [like #110], similar in outwards appearance to the Par SL [see #109], was also to be found on the company’s open market refrigeration condensing units, widely available through refrigeration wholesalers in the middle years of the 20th century. Unremarkable in many ways, it would find its way in a number of small “designer built”, trade, applications, including farm milk coolers.



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘SM’
Manufacturer: Par Compressor Div. Lynch Corporation, Toledo, Ohi
Make: Par
Model: SM

Industrial Significance:
The open market manufacturers of refrigeration machinery of the period [such as Tecumseh Par and Bruner] would be a critical component of the Canadian refrigeration industry. They would be the direct line of equipment supply to the network of small, independent refrigeration mechanics that emerged by mid century. Their products, not tied to dealerships or franchises, would be found in a myriad of small applications such as farm milk cooling, in what was then a largely rural population of small, independent milk producers across Canada.
During this period Par equipment was marketed in Canada through R and E Thermal controls [Railway and Engineering], through their net work of operations across Canada
The Lynch Corporation, would go on to build a serviceable hermetic motor compressor, with much appeal to the trade, for its serviceability


Fractional HP compressor ‘5997’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.112
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP, RELATIVELY CRUDELY FASHIONED COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, Bruner, MODEL 5997, CIRCA 1947 – A Bruner compressor with unique head plate markings, it would be part of a genre, which while less sophisticated in its engineering than many others of the period, would be widely marketed to the trade and become a work-horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry – to be found in food stores, confectionery and farm milk cooling applications, during the middle years of the 20th century. [see also #113, 114, 115]



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘5997’
Manufacturer: Bruner Manufacturing Co., Utica N.Y.
Make: Bruner
Model: 5997
Features:
Equipped with Detroit Lubricator, bracket mounted Low pressure control, Model 250 , with original wiring harness.

Fractional HP farm compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.113
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP COMPRESSOR EMPLOYED FOR FARM MILK CAN COOLING, BRUNER, MODEL UNMARKED, CIRCA 1948 – This unique compressor, with clearly documented genealogy, was employed on a farm milk cooler application, where, its eccentric mechanism having failed, was replaced by a Kelvinator model SB [see #105]. Part of a larger genre, Bruner was widely marketed to the trade to become a work-horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry, in its time. [see also #113, 114, 115]



Item: Fractional HP farm compressor
Manufacturer: Unmarked
Make: Bruner
Model: Unmarked

Fractional HP compressor ‘5893’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.114
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, BRUNER, MODEL 5893, CIRCA 1947 – Part of the long line of compressors and condensing units, it would exemplify the company’s engineering and manufacturing through much of the middle years of the 20th century, where it would become a work-horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry – its products to be found in food stores, confectionery and farm milk cooling applications across the country [see also #113, 114, 115]



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘5893’
Manufacturer: Unmarked
Make: Bruner
Model: 5893

Fractional HP compressor ‘4491’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.115
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, BRUNER, MODEL 4491, CIRCA 1947 – Similar to #114, it would be part of the long line of compressors and condensing units. It would exemplify the company’s engineering and manufacturing through much of the middle years of the 20th century, where it would become a work-horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry – its products to be found in food stores, confectionery and farm milk cooling applications across the country [see also #113, 114, 115]



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘4491’
Manufacturer: Unknown
Make: Bruner
Model: 4491

3-5 HP compressor ‘T6-53’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.116
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (3 TO 5 HP), BRUNER CORPORATION, MODEL T6-53, Circa 1953 – A weighty and relatively crude, open system compressor, widely employed in food store applications, prior to the adoption of sealed hermetic refrigeration machines in this capacity range. Following the development of the large food chains throughout Canada in the 1950’s and 60’s, these machines would be found hidden away in machine rooms across the country, helping to provide Canadian’s with their first large food store shopping experience.



Item: 3-5 HP compressor ‘T6-53’
Manufacturer: Bruner Corporation, Port Hope Ontario
Make: Bruner
Model: T6-53

2-3 HP compressor ‘R?’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.117
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (2 TO 3 HP), BY FRIGIDAIRE, possibly MODEL R, CIRCA 1942 – it would be representative of a new generation of open system refrigeration compressors for F12 refrigerant, which began to emerge in the late 1930’s. With a whopping 17 inch, twin V belt fly wheel, in formed and riveted steel plate, it followed the slow speed, high displacement compressor design idiom preferred by Frigidaire in the period. It would come to stand as an historic marker of the end of an epic era in refrigeration machinery engineering.



Item: 2-3 HP compressor ‘R?’
Manufacturer: Frigidair Div. General Motors Corporation
Make: Frigidaire
Model: R [see note]

1-3 HP compressor ‘6R?’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.118
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (1 TO 3 HP), FOR SULPHUR DIOXIDE REFRIGERANT BY FRIGIDAIRE, POSSIBLY MODEL 6R, CIRCA 1936- with 16 inch flywheel, it would be come to represent the company’s last years of design and production of slow speed, high displacement, open system refrigeration compressors for S02 refrigerant.



Item: 1-3 HP compressor ‘6R?’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Div. General Motors Corporation
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Possibly 6R (se


2-3 HP compressor ‘R?’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.119
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (2 TO 3 HP), BY FRIGIDAIRE, POSSIBLY PART OF THEIR MODEL R SERIES, CIRCA 1942 – it would also be part of the company’s new generation of open system refrigeration compressors for F12 refrigerant, which began to emerge in the late 1930’s [see also #117]. With a 17 inch, twin V belt fly wheel, in formed and riveted steel plate, it also followed the slow speed, high displacement compressor design preferred by Frigidaire in the period, and would come to stand as an historic marker of the end of an epic era in refrigeration machinery engineering.



Item: 2-3 HP compressor ‘R?’
Manufacturer: Frigidair Div. General Motors Corporation
Make: Frigidaire
Model: 6R (see note)

1 1/2-3 HP compressor ‘5208’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.120
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (1 1/2 TO 3 HP), BY KELVINATOR, MARKED # 5208, CIRCA 1928 – With water cooled head and 17 inch, 25 lb. flywheel, in Kelvinator red [possibly not the original], it would be representative of the company’s early years, as well as those of the industry, in the design and production of such refrigeration machines, opening up an new epic period, providing for the first time automatic, mechanically cooled, commercial food storage for Canadians.



Item: 1 1/2-3 HP compressor ‘5208’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator
Features:
– water cooled head- attachment bracket for low pressure control

1 1/2-3 HP compressor ‘5208’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.121
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (1 1/2 TO 3 HP), BY KELVINATOR, MARKED # 5208, CIRCA 1928 – With water cooled head it would be representative of the company’s early years, as well as those of the industry, in the design and production of such refrigeration machines, opening up an new epic period, providing for the first time automatic, mechanically cooled commercial food storage for Canadians.



Item: 1 1/2-3 HP compressor ‘5208’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator

1-2 HP compressor ‘T’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.122
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (1 TO 2 HP), BY INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER, MODEL T, CIRCA 1948 – A distinctive compressor in design and styling, marketed by a “come-lately” company to the field of refrigeration machinery, a well known supplier to the Canadian agricultural sector, hoping to secure a market share in the then rapidly expanding, specialised niche market for farm milk can cooling.



Item: 1-2 HP compressor ‘T’
Manufacturer: International Harvester Co. , likely a stencil lin
Make: International Harvester
Model: T

Industrial Significance:
In the 1940’s through early 60’s the farm milk cooler trade in Canada, was a strong market for refrigeration equipment. With many small milk producers scattered over the country side, prior to the dramatic changes starting in the 1960’s which would consolidate the industry, weeding the small farm production unit.


2-3 HP compressor ‘A’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.123
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (2 TO 3 HP), BY UNIVERSAL COOLER, TYPE A, CIRCA 1952 – With 12 inch flywheel, designed for twin V belt drive, this twin cylinder, open system compressor, among the last of a breed, would mark the movement to increasingly higher compression speeds, a precursor of the then imminent move to direct drive, high speed hermetic motor compressor engineering.



Item: 2-3 HP compressor ‘A’
Manufacturer: Universal cooler
Make: Universal Cooler
Model: A

Massive 3-5 HP compressor ‘G’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.124
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A MASSIVE, INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (3 TO 5 HP), BY KELVINATOR, Model G, CIRCA 1955 – This 150 lb, compressor [refrigeration by the ton], with water cooled head, would be representative of the company’s last years in the engineering and production of refrigeration compressors, as the market for refrigeration machinery was dramatically restructured both by changes in the technology and new comers to the field of refrigeration engineering and manufacture.



Item: Massive 3-5 HP compressor ‘G’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, UK
Make: Kelvinator
Model: G

Condenser assembly ‘SO2’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.060
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An historic, elemental, coiled tube, static refrigerant condenser assembly, by Frigidaire, from the early years of the low pressure, commercial refrigeration industry in Canada – originally used on Frigidaire model K, cabinet style, condensing unit, using SO2 refrigerant, see Item #051, code 4.02-13. The company later produced a modernisation kits to convert these S02 machines to forced air, tube and fin, radiator style condensing, See code 6.02-5, Frigidaire 1929.



Item: Condenser assembly ‘SO2’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Electric Refrigeration Products, Genera
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Model K condens

SO2 refrigerant receiver

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.061
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A vertical refrigerant receiver for low-pressure refrigeration machines, as found in Canadian food stores, restaurants and institutional applications in the early years of the 20th century. Painted in machinery black of the period, and holding 20 lbs. of noxious, anhydrous sulphur dioxide, it was fabricated in heavy, rolled steel plate with brazed steel end plates, and equipped with half inch brass inlet and quarter inch liquid outlet shut off valves for SAE flare connections, Frigidaire, 1929.



Item: SO2 refrigerant receiver
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire

Technical Significance:
An example of the significant over design that characterised much of the engineering of early refrigeration machines, following the introduction of low-pressure refrigerants such as SO2. While the pressures were substantially lower than with ammonia refrigerants, manufactures, with little engineering data to draw on, still used similar high-pressure designed vestals. This practice would quickly change, however, to light rolled steel construction. Containing enough noxious SO2 to clear the house and the neighbourhood, the manufacturer, for now, wished to take no chances.


Water-cooled condenser and receiver

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.062
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A vertical water-cooled condenser and receiver for low-pressure refrigeration machines, as found in Canadian food stores, restaurants and institutional applications in the early years of the 20th century. Painted in machinery black of the period, and holding 20 lbs. of noxious, anhydrous sulphur dioxide, it was fabricated in heavy, rolled steel plate with brazed steel end plates, and equipped with 3/8″ IPS water inlet with 1/2 union, 3/8″ SAE flare water outlet, and refrigerant valves – including 1/2″ SAE flare, hot gas inlet and 1/4″ SAE flare, liquid outlet, Frigidaire, 1929.



Item: Water-cooled condenser and receiver
Manufacturer: Frigidaire, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire

Technical Significance:
An example of the significant over design that characterised much of the engineering of early refrigeration machines, following the introduction of low-pressure refrigerants such as SO2. While the pressures were substantially lower than with ammonia refrigerants, manufactures, with little engineering data to draw on, still used similar high-pressure designed vestals. This practice would quickly change, however, to light rolled steel construction. Containing enough noxious SO2 to clear the house and the neighbourhood, the manufacturer, for now, wished to take no chances.


Horizontal refrigerant receiver

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.063
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An horizontal refrigerant receiver for low-pressure refrigeration machines, as found in Canadian food stores, restaurants and institutional applications in the early years of the 20th century. Painted in machinery black of the period, and holding 25 lbs. of noxious, anhydrous sulphur dioxide, it was fabricated in heavy, rolled steel plate with brazed steel bellied end plates, and equipped with 3/8 inch brass inlet and quarter inch liquid outlet shut off valves for SAE flare connections, as well as welded mounting brackets for four point bolt mount, Frigidaire, 1929.



Item: Horizontal refrigerant receiver
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire

Technical Significance:
The use of steel, bellied end plates is a mark of increasing sophistication in strength of materials engineering and manufacturing methods, contrasted with the flat end plates in items 061 and 062. An example of the significant over design that characterised much of the engineering of early refrigeration machines, following the introduction of low-pressure refrigerants such as SO2.
While the pressures were substantially lower than with ammonia refrigerants, manufactures, with little engineering data to draw on, still used similar high-pressure designed vestals. This practice would quickly change, however, to light rolled steel construction. Containing enough noxious SO2 to clear the house and the neighbourhood, the manufacturer, for now, wished to take no chances.


Condenser modernization kit

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.064
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A “modernization” kit, by Frigidaire for replacing the copper tube, coiled, static air condensers on their Model O refrigeration machine with a forces air, fin and tube, radiator style, high efficiency condenser. Constructed of heavily tinned copper tubing, for use with corrosive, noxious anhydrous SO2, it used heavy steel fins, coated with gloss black enamel, a truly remarkable piece of re-engineering for the “after market” of the 1940′, Frigidaire, 1941.



Item: Condenser modernization kit
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Frigidaire, Uni

Technical Significance:
A remarkable snap shot in time, demonstrating manufacturing and engineering practices for operation in the corrosive atmosphere of anhydrous sulphur dioxide, including the use of costly, heavy, tinned, coated copper and an enamelled steel case and fins. The enamelling of fins would represent a significant bow to the issue of corrosion resistance at the cost of lower heat transfer.The streamlined air shroud is an indication of the increasingly engineering sophistication in airflow design, as well as manufacturing methods.
The high gloss sprayed finish is also a significant marker of the times, in contrast to the crude machine black finishes of items 061, 062, and 063, for example. Duco enamels and the spray techniques for applying them industrially was a significant technological advancement of the period.

Industrial Significance:
Of significance also is the commitment of Frigidaire to the continued use of anhydrous Sulphur dioxide well into the 1940’s. It was a period in which much of the industry looked to system upgrades adapting then for use with the new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, non-corrosive and non-noxious.


Condenser modernization kit

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.065
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A “modernization” kit, by Frigidaire for replacing the copper tube, coil, static air condensers on their Model K, enclosed, cabinet model, refrigeration machine [See 1tem 051]with a forces air, fin and tube, radiator style, high efficiency condenser. Constructed of heavily tinned copper tubing, for use with corrosive, noxious anhydrous SO2, it used heavy steel fins, coated with gloss black enamel, a truly remarkable piece of re-engineering for the “after market” of the 1940′, Frigidaire, 1941.



Item: Condenser modernization kit
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Frigidaire Unit

Technical Significance:
A remarkable snap shot in time, demonstrating manufacturing and engineering practices for operation in the corrosive atmosphere of anhydrous sulphur dioxide, including the use of costly, heavy, tinned, coated copper and an enamelled steel case and fins. The enamelling of fins would represent a significant bow to the issue of corrosion resistance at the cost of lower heat transfer.The streamlined air shroud is an indication of the increasingly engineering sophistication in airflow design, as well as manufacturing methods.
The high gloss sprayed finish is also a significant marker of the times, in contrast to the crude machine black finishes of items 061, 062, and 063, for example. Duco enamels and the spray techniques for applying them industrially was a significant technological advancement of the period.

Industrial Significance:
Of significance also is the commitment of Frigidaire to the continued use of anhydrous sulphur dioxide well into the 1940’s. It was a period in which much of the industry looked to system upgrades adapting then for use with the new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, non-corrosive and non-noxious.


Two pass replacement condenser

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.069
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A handsome, staggered, two pass, after-market, replacement air-cooled condenser manufactured for small, FHP commercial application refrigeration machines, employing chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants [methyl chloride or Freon 12]. Fabricated with tin plated steel frame, 3/8 inch copper tube with aluminised return bends and heavily swaged copper, plate fins, it was likely supplied by Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario to their dealers, circa 1940.



Item: Two pass replacement condenser

Technical Significance:
See also items 6.01-1, 6.01-2, 6.01-3, 6.02-7, 6.02-8, together they profile the evolution of the tube and fin, air-cooled condenser for FHP refrigeration machines in Canada


Condenser & receiver assembly

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.070
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An all steel, mid 20th century, forced air, refrigerant condenser and receiver assembly, representing a world change and an epic period of transition in the engineering design and construction of refrigeration machines, making possible a new range of offerings by Canadian grocers, bakeries and restaurateurs. It was engineered for a new generation of non-noxious, non-corrosive refrigerants, the chlorinated hydrocarbons, by a new generation of equipment manufacturers, Chieftain, Tecumseh Products, 1951.



Item: Condenser & receiver assembly
Manufacturer: Tecumseh Products, Tecumseh, Mich, USA
Make: Chieftain
Model: FS16-1L

Technical Significance:
By the 1940’s times had changed and changed greatly, as a result of the introduction of hydrocarbon refrigerants, largely at the time, methyl chloride and Freon 12. The new refrigerants were non-noxious and non-corrosive, allowing the use of less expensive steel tubing for condensers. The thermodynamic properties of the refrigerants required less volume of liquid in circulation, leading to smaller refrigerant receivers. The design of pressure vessels was also better understood allowing for safe, lighter weight, more economic and environmentally safe construction.By way of contrast see item 061, classification code 6.02-2, for a receiver for sulphur dioxide, in rolled steel plate, 7 inches dia, 16 inches high, weighing 25 lbs, compare, 3 inches in dia, 7 inches high, in pressed steel, weighing 3 lbs for F12, both of similar horsepower.
Hard on the heals of this epic change in the nature of refrigeration machines, based on the development of hydrocarbon refrigerants, was another engineering revolution now well on the way and gathering momentum. So called “conventional” refrigeration machines, open systems with separate motor and belt driven compressor would soon largely disappear, in FHP capacities. They would be replaced by the end of the 1950’s by “hermetic” units and compressors, in which the motor and compressor were sealed in a single enclosure, making possible yet another generation of lighter weight, more efficient refrigeration machines [see item 039, classification group 4.01-10]


Refrigeration pressure/temperature control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.028
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, commercial application, hydraulic bellows actuated, dual function, automatic pressure and temperature control, for refrigeration systems requiring extended capillary tube temperature sensing; equipped with tilting mercury tube, line voltage switching and heavy, press formed, galvanised, steel enclosure, Mercoid, 1930.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers, profiling a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing various design modifications made to same basic configuration. [See items ID # 153- 155]



Item: Refrigeration pressure/temperature control
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Company Mercoid Control No.848-
Make: Mercoid, Detroit Lubricator
Model: Detroit Lubrica
Features:
Of special interest is the glass enclosed, mercury bulb switch, still in tact and operable. These are immensely fragile devices by definition and seldom have a long life, particularly after being taken out of service.

Note large electrical junction box with 4 electrical connector knock-outs, representative of the wiring practice approved for commercial equipment of the period, which required heavy steel shielded twin conductor cable referred to as BX.

Technical Significance:
An exemplar of what is likely the first generation of wide spread, commercially manufactured and marketed pressure and temperature refrigeration controllers, popularly found in Canada.

Connected by a small copper tube to the refrigeration compressor, this dual bellows controller provided high pressure cut-out protection. As well as it provided low side, refrigerator temperature control by means of a thermal bulb on the end of long coiled capillary tube attached to a second hydraulic bellows. The bulb would likely have been attached to the refrigeration-cooling unit [evaporator]. A simple ingenious mechanical mechanism allowed the mercury switch to be operated by either bellows, turning the refrigeration on or off in response to both high pressure and refrigerator temperature

The electrical switching properties of mercury had been discovered and the tilting mercury bulb would become the switching method of choice for much of the early 20th century for fractional HP applications. It was a period in which little empirical design data was available on alternating current switching. With an induction motor rating of up to 1 HP, and a split-phase rating of 1/4 HP this controller and most like it of the period was limited to fractional HP applications.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers, profiling a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing design modifications made to this basic configuration. This economic, robust configuration provided a platform readily adaptable to a wide range of commercial refrigeration field requirements [See items ID # 153- 155].

Industrial Significance:
A range of corporate names appear on the controls in the series, suggesting a range of corporate partnerships between Mercoid and other early players in the refrigeration control field: American Radiator Company; The Federal Gauge Company; Detroit Lubricator Company. The genre would give way within the decade to smaller, more sophisticated engineering approaches, yielding increasingly more precise refrigeration system control [See ID # 163 to 165].


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘Mercoid’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.029
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, commercial application, hydraulic bellows actuated, ambient temperature sensing, automatic temperature control; equipped with line voltage, tilting mercury tube switch and unusual rotary quick-make-and-break, manual on-off switch, for use in small food store, walk-in-refrigerators, Mercoid, 1930.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers, profiling a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing various design modifications made to same basic configuration. [See items ID # 153- 155]



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘Mercoid’
Manufacturer: Mercoid Control, American Radiator Company, USA [S
Make: Mercoid, American Radiator Company
Model: Un-marked
Features:
Of special interest is the glass enclosed, mercury bulb switch, still in tact and operable. These are immensely fragile devices by definition and seldom have a long life, particularly after being taken out of service.

Unusual Danfield rotary quick-make-and-break, snop action, manual on-off switch, HEPC approved, with white porcelain base and black Bakelite cover and control knob,with handsome corporate logo.

Smith and Stone, with facilities in George town Ontario, 5 amp conduit fitting base for rotary switch

Large electrical junction box with 4 electrical connector knock-outs, representative of the wiring practice approved for commercial equipment of the period, which required heavy steel shielded twin conductor cable referred to as BX.

Technical Significance:
An exemplar of what is likely the first generation of wide spread, commercially manufactured and marketed pressure and temperature refrigeration controllers, popularly found in Canada.

The control, designed to mounted inside the refrigerated space, sensed the temperature through a copper sheathed bellows mechanism. A line voltage, manual on-off switch was attached for convenience. The rotary quick-make-and-break style was popular in the period, being extensively used on electrical stoves

The electrical switching properties of mercury had been discovered and the tilting mercury bulb would become the switching method of choice for much of the early 20th century for fractional HP applications. It was a period in which little empirical design data was available on alternating current switching. With an induction motor rating of up to 1 HP, and a split-phase rating of 1/4 HP this controller and most like it of the period was limited to fractional HP applications.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers, profiling a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing design modifications made to this basic configuration. This economic, robust configuration provided a platform readily adaptable to a wide range of commercial refrigeration field requirements [See items ID # 153- 155].

Industrial Significance:
A range of corporate names appear on the controls in the series, suggesting a range of corporate partnerships between Mercoid and other early players in the refrigeration control field: American Radiator Company; The Federal Gauge Company; Detroit Lubricator Company. The genre would give way within the decade to smaller, more sophisticated engineering approaches, yielding increasingly more precise refrigeration system control [See ID # 163 to 165].


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘Mercoid’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.030
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, commercial application, hydraulic bellows actuated, dual function, automatic pressure and temperature control, for refrigeration systems requiring extended capillary tube temperature sensing; similar to ID # 152, except with tilting mercury tube not included, Mercoid, 1930.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers. The set profiles a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing various design modifications made to the same basic configuration [See items ID # 153- 155].



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘Mercoid’
Manufacturer: Mercoid Control, The Federal Gauge Co. USA [See no
Make: Mercoid, The Federal Gauge Co.
Model: unknown see ID
Features:
Note large electrical junction box with 4 electrical connector knock-outs, representative of the wiring practice approved for commercial equipment of the period, which required heavy steel shielded twin conductor cable referred to as BX.

Technical Significance:
An exemplar of what is likely the first generation of wide spread, commercially manufactured and marketed pressure and temperature refrigeration controllers, popularly found in Canada.

Connected by a small copper tube to the refrigeration compressor, this dual bellows controller provided high pressure cut-out protection. As well, it provided low side, refrigerator temperature control by means of a thermal bulb on the end of long coiled capillary tube attached to a second hydraulic bellows. The bulb would likely have been attached to the refrigeration-cooling unit [evaporator]. A simple ingenious mechanical mechanism allowed the mercury switch to be operated by either bellows, turning the refrigeration on or off in response to both high pressure and refrigerator temperature

The electrical switching properties of mercury had been discovered and the tilting mercury bulb would become the switching method of choice for much of the early 20th century for fractional HP applications. It was a period in which little empirical design data was available on alternating current switching. With an induction motor rating of up to 1 HP, and a split-phase rating of 1/4 HP this controller and most like it of the period was limited to fractional HP applications.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers, profiling a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing design modifications made to this basic configuration. This economic, robust configuration provided a platform readily adaptable to a wide range of commercial refrigeration field requirements [See items ID # 153- 155].

Industrial Significance:
A range of corporate names appear on the controls in the series, suggesting a range of corporate partnerships between Mercoid and other early players in the refrigeration control field: American Radiator Company; The Federal Gauge Company; Detroit Lubricator Company. The genre would give way within the decade to smaller, more sophisticated engineering approaches, yielding increasingly more precise refrigeration system control [See ID # 163 to 165].


Refrigeration pressure/temperature control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.031
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, commercial application, hydraulic bellows actuated, dual function, automatic pressure and temperature control, for refrigeration systems requiring extended capillary tube temperature sensing; similar to ID # 154, with tilting mercury tube and pressure bellows not included, Mercoid, 1930.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers. The set profiles a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing various design modifications made to the same basic configuration. [See items ID # 153- 155]



Item: Refrigeration pressure/temperature control
Manufacturer: Mercoid Control, American Radiator Company [See no
Make: Mercoid, American Radiator Company
Model: unknown see ID
Features:
Note large electrical junction box with 4 electrical connector knock-outs, representative of the wiring practice approved for commercial equipment of the period, which required heavy steel shielded twin conductor cable referred to as BX.

Technical Significance:
An exemplar of what is likely the first generation of wide spread, commercially manufactured and marketed pressure and temperature refrigeration controllers, popularly found in Canada.

Connected by a small copper tube to the refrigeration compressor, this dual bellows controller provided high pressure cut-out protection. As well, it provided low side, refrigerator temperature control by means of a thermal bulb on the end of long coiled capillary tube attached to a second hydraulic bellows. The bulb would likely have been attached to the refrigeration-cooling unit [evaporator]. A simple ingenious mechanical mechanism allowed the mercury switch to be operated by either bellows, turning the refrigeration on or off in response to both high pressure and refrigerator temperature

The electrical switching properties of mercury had been discovered and the tilting mercury bulb would become the switching method of choice for much of the early 20th century for fractional HP applications. It was a period in which little empirical design data was available on alternating current switching. With an induction motor rating of up to 1 HP, and a split-phase rating of 1/4 HP this controller and most like it of the period was limited to fractional HP applications.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers, profiling a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing design modifications made to this basic configuration. This economic, robust configuration provided a platform readily adaptable to a wide range of commercial refrigeration field requirements [See items ID # 153- 155].

Industrial Significance:
A range of corporate names appear on the controls in the series, suggesting a range of corporate partnerships between Mercoid and other early players in the refrigeration control field: American Radiator Company; The Federal Gauge Company; Detroit Lubricator Company. The genre would give way within the decade to smaller, more sophisticated engineering approaches, yielding increasingly more precise refrigeration system control [See ID # 163 to 165].


Refrigeration pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.032
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early automatic low side pressure control for commercial refrigeration\r\napplications, made in the form of the then familiar Bourdon tube actuated pressure gauge; equipped with line-voltage, tilting mercury bulb switch, with glass viewing window, Mercoid Switch, Federal Gauge Chicago, Ill., Circa 1928.



Item: Refrigeration pressure control
Manufacturer: Mercoid Switch, Chicago, Federal Gauge Chicago, Il
Make: Mercoid Switch
Model: Type H, Reset
Features:
rear mounted manual adjustments, executed in brass see below; Beautifully etched name plate in sheet broass

Technical Significance:
An example of early pressure gauge design and construction based on the use of a relatively crude Bourdon tube-actuating device, found prior to the wide spread introduction of hydraulic bellows and extended capillary line actuators – See ID # 151-154

See also notes on significance, ID # 151

Mercoid Division , Dwyer Instruments Inc, Michican City Ind. Currently show in their catalogue listings a range of Bourdon tube pressure switches of very similar construction and operation, indicating something of the precision and reliability to be expected of this genre of commercial and industrial controller technology. See note 1

Industrial Significance:
The development of early automatic pressure controls started with the materials and understandings of the day. In the early 1920’s these included the Bourdon pressure tube and the mercury bulb switch.

The circular Bourdon tube is designed to responds to changes in internal pressure by changing its curvature, used here to move a mercury bulb switch through a simple and elegant brass linkage.

The control has a manual set knob on the back, as well as a means of repositioning the bulb, so as to re-set its control point.

The control is designed to operate over the commercial, So2 pressure/temperature range of 7-1/2 lbs. pressure to 5 inch of vacuum, requiring a large tube to respond to these low pressures.

A crude device, when compared with even mid-20th century practices, it provided the essential beginnings for the development of fully automated refrigeration equipment.


Refrigeration ‘silver dollar’ thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.033
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early automatic temperature control for commercial refrigeration\r\napplications, employing a “silver dollar” style hydraulic power element and extended capillary tube sensor; with line-voltage, four pole open contact switch, mounted in heavy two-piece, screw assembled, cast enclosure with rubber sealing gasket, Tag Snapon, Circa 1928

One of a set of two controllers, demonstrating variations in design and engineering by the manufacturer, as well as the various effects of natural ageing in use, disuse, abuse and abandonment.



Item: Refrigeration ‘silver dollar’ thermostat
Manufacturer: C. J. Tagliabue Mfg Co, Brooklyn N. Y.
Make: Tag Snapon Controller
Model: Type C-1
Features:
“Silver dollar” style hydraulic power element; original porcelain electrical box connector representative of practice in the period; original wiring harness, using an early form of twin, stranded wire, SJ cable; original two wire black backbite attachment cap; Cast enclosure overcoated with aluminium paint, employing a dispersion of aluminium particles in petroleum-based paint vehicle, new for the period.

Technical Significance:
Representative of one of the broad range of approaches to the engineering, design and construction of temperature controllers being experimented with by “me too manufactures”. It was a period of rapid growth in what appeared to be an expanding, economically attractive market place

The heavy, open style, four pole switching marked the controller as able to handle larger HP applications than the mainstream of tilting mercury bulb controllers of the time – although current and HP ratings are not shown

The unusual attention given here to robust ,water proof [drip proof] construction and other design attributes is symptomatic of the period. It was one in which, in the absence of field-based experience and codified engineering data, manufactures tended, in many ways, to over design. The effects of progressive simplification can be seen in other controllers in the 7.02 series.

Other significant aspects of the controller include: “Silver dollar” style hydraulic power element; original porcelain electrical box connector representative of practice in the period; original wiring harness, using an early form of twin, stranded wire, SJ cable; original two wire black backbite attachment cap

Industrial Significance:
See above


Refrigeration ‘silver dollar’ thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.034
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early automatic temperature control for commercial refrigeration\r\napplications, employing a “silver dollar” style hydraulic power element, capillary tube sensor and bulb with liquid tight dealing gland; line-voltage, four pole open contact switch, mounted in heavy two-piece, screw assembled, cast enclosure with rubber sealing gasket, Tag Snapon, Circa 1928

One of a set of two controllers, demonstrating variations in design, engineering and application by the manufacturer, as well as the various effects of natural ageing in use, disuse, abuse and abandonment.



Item: Refrigeration ‘silver dollar’ thermostat
Manufacturer: C. J. Tagliabue Mfg Co, Brooklyn N. Y.
Make: Tag Snapon Controller
Model: Un marked
Features:
Brass, screw threaded, water tight sealing gland allowing immersion of temperature sensing bulb in liquid bath; “Silver dollar” style hydraulic power element; Cast enclosure overcoated with black paint

Technical Significance:
Representative of one of the broad range of approaches to the engineering, design and construction of temperature controllers being experimented with by “me too manufactures”. It was a period of rapid growth in what appeared to be an expanding, economically attractive market place

The heavy, open style, four pole switching marked the controller as able to handle larger HP applications than the mainstream of tilting mercury bulb controllers of the time – although current and HP ratings are not shown

The unusual attention given here to robust, waterproof [drip proof] construction and other design attributes is symptomatic of the period. It was one in which, in the absence of field-based experience and codified engineering data, manufactures tended, in many ways, to over design. The effects of progressive simplification can be seen in other controllers in the 7.02 series.

Industrial Significance:
See above


Refrigeration ‘pancake’ thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.035
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, crude, mechanically refrigerated cabinet temperature control, engineered with large “pan-cake” style hydraulic power element with large, built-in, thermal sensing bulb; open, single pole heavy copper switch contacts, mounted on steel plate base with press formed sheet steel cover, handsomely decorated in gold and black, Frigidaire, circa 1926.



Item: Refrigeration ‘pancake’ thermostat
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Un-marked
Features:
Cover decorated in black with gold lettering, detailing monthly oiling instructions for condensing unit; Visual pleasing, unusual, oval, pressed steel cover with twin knurled brass hold-down nuts; Unusually rugged mechanical switch construction, with larger copper contact surfaces, a construction style which would soon disappear with the advent of increasingly smaller more finely engineered control technology, see for example ID # 165, code 7.02-10

Technical Significance:
An unusually crude, weighty and rugged, automated, mechanical switching device in iron plate and steel bolted construction, a quintessential product of Canada’s early period of industrialization. In its design and execution it appears, in many ways, much more like the product of a local blacksmith or iron monger than that of an industrial manufacturing process.

It stands as a classic marker and supreme accomplishments of its industrial times. Its significance is as an embryonic product of engineering and manufacturing know-how in the field of automated, electrical switching devices. It represented a know-how that would shortly be seen as the end of a genre. The genre would give way to a new generation of much more sophisticated engineering design concepts, made possible by a new generation of engineering theory building and practice, materials and manufacturing methods. See for example ID # 161 to 164.

Of special interest, in benchmarking and appreciating the technology represented here, is in contrasting it with micro-switch technology in common use in automated controllers in Canada by the 1950’s. The contrast in precision engineering, manufacture and performance represents a vast step ahead. See for example ID # 165, code 7.02-10

Industrial Significance:
See above


Refrigeration hydraulic pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.036
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic pressure control for mid 20th century, commercial refrigeration applications, with dual high-low pressure functions, for control of low-side temperature and high pressure cut-out, a new generation thermal motor overload protection and manual reset, Frigidaire, Circa 1937.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic pressure control
Manufacturer: Frigidaire, Div of General Motors Corp, Dayton Ohi
Make: Frigidaire
Model: type YD, Model

Technical Significance:
It was the mid 1930’s and the refrigeration and air conditioning industry was a buss with the promise of a post depression and pre WWW II period. As a marker, a new generation of well-integrated and carefully engineered refrigeration condensing units, readily adapted to a wide range of field applications was in production at Frigidaire – reflecting the market optimism of the period.

According to Frigidaire’s installation and service manual No. SER,-405, for products manufactured prior to 1937, the YD series of controls had just been put on the market.

With new engineering and manufacturing know-how, the control was designed and built to performs the 3 functions of low side operating temperature/pressure, high side pressure protection and motor overload cut-out, using spring compensated bellows and overload heater coil with manual reset.

With the market optimism of the time, the control series was produced in a wide range of models, covering various functional combinations for installation on all Frigidaire condensing units. Included were low and high pressure, as well as temperature sensing bulbs, all with various lengths of capillary line, plus a range of motor overload, trip, heater coils from 1 to 15 amperes.

Industrial Significance:
The control stands as a marker of significantly changing times in the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry and the consumer market place that motivated and sustained it

Creating and responding to market forces for automated refrigeration and air conditioning systems, pressure control technology evolved rapidly in the late 1930’s. Better engineering data, new materials and new more precise manufacturing methods all helped the industry to respond to thye now vastly changing times.

Engineers were learning how to combine multiple functions within the same control device – low side operating pressure, high side safety cut-out and automatic motor over load protection.


Refrigeration hydraulic pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.037
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic refrigeration cabinet temperature control for mid 20th century, commercial refrigeration appliances, with user friendly temperature adjustment control knob, extended capillary line temperature sensor and new generation thermal motor overload protection with manual reset, in attractive gloss black Bakelite enclosure, Frigidaire, Circa 1938.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic pressure control
Manufacturer: Frigidaire, Div of General Motors Corp, Dayton Ohi
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Model T00, Type
Features:
Gloss black Bakelite temperature control knob, user friendly, calibrated 0-5, warm and cold; Original cable connector demonstrating installation trade practices of the times; Original motor overload heater selection table.; Tightly coiled, extendable capillary line, with 4in. bulb

Technical Significance:
An extended capillary tube temperature control standing a quintessential product of the engineering designer’s and manufacture’s art form of the mid 1930’s.

To understand the nature and scope of the advances made by the industry, in matters of engineering design, performance precision, materials applications and utilization, as well as manufacturing and production prowess, it must be contrasted with the technology offered by the industry a decade or so earlier [See ID # 157-160]

The device demonstrates the growing interest by equipment manufacturers of the time in producing increasingly, visually attractive, as well as increasingly functional and efficient product lines. The era of the industrial designer was close at hand. [for comparison , see for example ID # 157 to 160]

The appearance of such automated controllers, made possible by a new generation of engineering precision and know-how, as well by new industrial mass production methods, was a response to, as well as a driver of, an astonishingly broad range of new refrigerated appliances to be found on main street Canada. Included were: ice cream cabinets, water coolers, small food merchandisers, reach-in and packaged walk-in coolers, and packaged, self contained air conditioners. Frigidaire’s and Kelvinator’s product and service manuals of the late 1930’s and 40.s tell this remarkable story of sector achievement and profound market shifts.

Industrial Significance:
The artifact is symptomatic of the vast changes taking place in the manner in which the refrigeration and air conditioning industry was re-organizing itself, in order to take advantage of post-depression market expectations. The industrial giants of the period were eyeing the sector as a potentially expanding and profitable one. The General Motors Corp. would purchase Frigidaire, and with its engineering and capital reserves, quickly turn it in to a dominant player in the field, with a comprhensive product line which would dwarf other players in the industry .

Frigidaire’s market profile was a remarkable one through to the 1960’s in the range of products produced, from controls of the variety shown here to stylish household cabinet refrigerators and commercial refrigerated appliances and large central station installations, employing low-pressure refrigerants of the period.


Refrigeration hydraulic pressure control ‘FHP’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.038
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, crude, hydraulic bellows actuated, FHP, single pole, snap action, refrigeration system, low-side pressure/temperature controller, in black cast iron enclosure, configured and levered much like a door lock of the period, appearing much more like the product of a locksmith than a new generation of early 20th century, automatic electric control engineers [incomplete assembly], Penn, circa 1929.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic pressure control ‘FHP’
Manufacturer: Penn Electric Switch Co. Des Moines Ida.
Make: Penn Electric
Model: Type E
Features:
Handsome, etched brass name plate decorated in black enamel; Full operating instructions and diagram on inside of cover plate

Technical Significance:
The controller, although itself an incomplete assembly, when seen in the context of the offerings by other suppliers to the field [see the range of other artifacts of the period held by HHCC in the 7.02 series], helps to demonstrate the wide range of engineering design concepts being offered by the industry, as it experimented with the materials and know-how of the times to respond to potential market needs, and to grow the industry.

This controller, much like the door lock, which seems to have inspired it, is a quintessential statement of serviceability. The cover plate, removable by means of a single wing nut, reveals the simplest of mechanical actions with levers and springs in door lock style.

To further reinforce the strongly held value of maintainablility and serviceability the inside of the cover plate carries a still very readable account of the control and its operation, along with a full drawing of the control showing all operating components.

Industrial Significance:
The control admirably demonstrates the lengths original equipment manufactures of the times went to assist, often ill trained field installation and service personnel to understand and maintain the equipment.


Refrigeration hydraulic low pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.039
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Automatic, hydraulic bellows actuated, low pressure control for commercial and industrial refrigeration equipment applications, with fully adjustable, user friendly range and differential settings, and tilting mercury bulb switching, in attractive, streamlined heavy, plated steel enclosure and handsome cover plate in stylish green, Minneapolis-Honeywell, Circa 1945.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic low pressure control
Manufacturer: Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co. Minneapolis, M
Make: Minneapolis-Honeywell
Model: Type L414-1
Features:
Attractive, simple elegant styling with plated steel, bright enclosure, long radius streamlined corners and decorated nameplate cover in green.

A mercury bulb controller, with precision mechanism, it includes calibrated scales for cut-out and differential field adjustment and out-board replaceable and interchangeable bellows. Beautifully engineered, it is enclosed in 3 1/2″ x 4 “x 2″deep 1/16” formed steel box with full, front, access cover,

With miniature, built-in pendulum to help ensure plumb mounting needed for the precise operation of the mercury bulb at designated control point.

Technical Significance:
A sophisticated state of the art automated refrigerant low-side pressure controller of the mid 20th century. Representative of the 1940’s and the new generation of commercial and industrial, refrigeration pressure and temperature controls that came with it – compact, precisely engineered by earlier standards,

They were well supported with installation instructions and service personnel, new for the period

The L series, in its many variations, is well documented in company catalogues and in field instruction sheets, variously dated through the latter 1940’s and 50’s.

The control was made in a number of versions for industrial, as well as commercial refrigeration applications, including farm milk coolers, refrigerated display cases, walk-in coolers and freezer cabinets.

Industrial Significance:
Models with snap action switching, replacing the mercury bulb, were available for applications where vibration and tilting were concerned.

The Minneapolis-Honeywell L control series represented well the mid-century control technology of the times, enabling the development of a vast range of new refrigeration applications by the Canadian refrigeration industry.


Refrigeration pressure/temperature control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.040
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Automatic, hydraulic bellows actuated, dual function, high pressure and low-side temperature control with extended capillary tube, for commercial and industrial refrigeration equipment applications, equipped with fully adjustable, user friendly range and differential settings, and tilting mercury bulb switching, in attractive, streamlined heavy, plated steel enclosure, now telling the many stories of natural use on a farm milk cooler in York Region, Minneapolis-Honeywell, Circa 1945.



Item: Refrigeration pressure/temperature control
Manufacturer: Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co. Minneapolis, M
Make: Minneapolis-Honeywell
Model: Type L413-1
Features:
Attractive, simple elegant styling with plated steel, bright enclosure, long radius streamlined corners and decorated nameplate cover in green.

A mercury bulb controller, with precision mechanism, it includes calibrated scales for cut-out and differential field adjustment and out-board replaceable and interchangeable bellows.

With miniature, built-in pendulum to help ensure plumb mounting needed for the precise operation of the mercury bulb at designated control point.

Once beautifully engineered, it is enclosed in stream lined, formed steel, bright plated enclosure with, full front, access cover: but now stained and spotted with white paint telling the stories of many years of use on Ontario farm near Aurora, on a typical, early, mechanically refrigerated, water bath milk cooler

Technical Significance:
Representative of leading practice in the engineering of sophisticated state of the art, dual function, automated refrigerant high pressure cut-out and low-side temperature controllers of the mid 20th century.

Built on a platform that was readily adaptable to a wide range of functions and applications it represented a significant advance in the field, enabling an ever widening range of functionality, and equipment manufacture’s needs. [See also ID # 163, 7.02-8]

New also for the period was the attention given by leading control manufacturers to product support. The L series, in its many variations, is well documented in company catalogues and in field instruction sheets, variously dated through the latter 1940’s and 50’s.

The control was made in a number of versions for industrial, as well as commercial refrigeration applications, including farm milk coolers, refrigerated display cases, walk-in coolers and freezer cabinets.

Industrial Significance:
The Minneapolis-Honeywell L control series represented well the mid-century control technology of the times, enabling the development of a vast range of new refrigeration applications by the Canadian refrigeration industry.


Refrigerated meat sales counter

Other Refrigerating and Air conditioning Components and Parts – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.010
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Meat sales counter for mechanical refrigeration, display section, in 1/4 inch plate glass and solid oak cabinet with clear, light golden varnished finish, 1930.



Item: Refrigerated meat sales counter
Manufacturer Believed to be Sherer-Gillet Co. Ltd, Guelph Ontario
Make: Unknown, believed to be Sherer-Gillet Co. Ltd, Guelph Ontario, See Note #1
Model: Unknown
Features:
Sliding oak framed, 1/4 “, plate glass access doors, fitted to oil impregnated, oak runners, with top plate glass lights, plate glass end panels and sloping front, with top plate glass customer viewing window.

Technical Significance:
This classic, refrigerated, commercial meat display case from the early years of the 20th century reflects well the state of refrigeration, application engineering of the period. Here refrigeration equipment manufacturers are seen reaching out for new innovated applications for their technology, making the technology a part of indispensable, everyday experience in the life of the nation. Here, too, we see the evolution of the new food industry and culture, mechanically refrigerated foods from producer, to neighbourhood merchant to the household refrigerator. The new industry would provide new foods never experienced before by the consumer, as well as traditional ones but fresher safer and longer lasting. The embryoniuc years of the modern food retailer are to be found in this early, refrigerated, meat display fixture
The design idiom, construction techniques, available for cabinet technology, as well as materials of social preference are also well illustrated here, plate glass and solid oak in natural finish. What is illustrated is an early offering of the refrigeration industry. A product of the “wooden ice box culture”, this idiom was about to change dramatically, however, as customer preference moved to a more modern look for a new time.
Henceforth, refrigeration fixtures would appear with cabinetry executed in gleaming white porcelain steel panels, brake formed using the increasingly sophisticated manufacturing techniques and machinery, much of it developed in Ontario for Ontarians, by a new innovated generation of designers, engineers and production line craftsman. 1) The refrigeration fixture catalogues of the period tell many interesting stories of social and cultural change, as well as the massive technological and social values driven changes, driving a new Ontario economy.

Industrial Significance:
A classic example of a “transitional” or “sandwich” technology, one caught on the fly. Here the snapshot is between two cooling technologies, cooling with ice and mechanical refrigeration – often a little of both in the early yearsSocio-economic Significance


Compressor parts

Other Refrigerating and Air conditioning Components and Parts – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.072
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An assembly of historic, open system, reciprocating, refrigeration compressor parts, for commercial refrigeration applications, many parts in their original cartons. Including refrigerant shaft seals, valves and fittings demonstrating what they are; what they do; and how they worked in the groceries, bakeshops, confectioneries, restaurants and institutions, as well as in industrial applications in Canada in the 1920’s to 1940’s Various manufacturers, circa 1948.
[For additional compressor parts see also items 8.02-1, 8.01-1 and 8.02-3]



Item: Compressor parts
Manufacturer: Various manufacturers, including Kelvinator, Frigi

Compressor parts

Other Refrigerating and Air conditioning Components and Parts – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.073
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An assembly of historic, open system, reciprocating, refrigeration compressor parts, for commercial refrigeration applications, many parts in their original cartons. Including refrigerant shaft seals, valves and fittings demonstrating what they are; what they do; and how they worked in the groceries, bakeshops, confectioneries, restaurants and institutions, as well as in industrial applications in Canada in the 1920’s to 1940’s Various manufacturers, circa 1948.
[For additional compressor parts see also items 8.02-1, 8.01-1 and 8.02-3]



Item: Compressor parts
Manufacturer: Various manufacturers, including Kelvinator, Frigi

Compressor parts

Other Refrigerating and Air conditioning Components and Parts – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.074
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An assembly of historic, open system, reciprocating, refrigeration compressor parts, for small, commercial refrigeration applications, many parts in their original cartons. Including valve plates and valves, demonstrating what they are; what they do; and how they worked in grocery stores, bakeshops, confectioneries and institutions in Canada in the 1920’s to 1940’s Various manufacturers, circa 1948.
[For additional compressor parts see also items 8.02-1, 8.01-1 and 2]



Item: Compressor parts
Manufacturer: Various manufacturers, including Kelvinator, Frigi

Refrigeration water regulator ’68A’

Other Refrigerating and Air conditioning Components and Parts – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.086
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A modulating, water flow, regulating valve for use on water cooled refrigerant condensers, equipped with brass body and 2 ply copper bellows, operates on refrigerant system head pressure to minimize water consumption, adjusting water flow to meet the needs of the system without overrun and wastage, Model 68A, Automatic Products, 1948.



Item: Refrigeration water regulator ’68A’
Manufacturer: Automatic Products, Milwaukee, Wis.
Make: Automatic Products [AP]
Model: 68A
Features:
Brass casing with aluminium sleeve

Technical Significance:
It was the mid 20th century, a period before water conservation was a matter of wide spread public interest and concern. Yet water costs were escalating in many urban centres, where water metering had been introduced – thus making water conservation much more a matter of economics than an essential and mandatory conservation practice.

Industrial Significance:
Many early commercial refrigeration applications in dairies, food stores and confectioneries, were water-cooled systems. More efficient than air cooling the practice prevailed through out much of the 20th century, where the cost of water made it an affordable condensing medium.

In larger and multiple installations involving a number of condensing units a water tower would be used allowing the water to be evaporatively cooled and recycled.

Air cooling became increasingly popular in the latter part of the 20th century, with water conservation an ever increasing public issue, and with the development of large remote, multiple pass air condensers and head pressure control devices [See item ID # 195]


Water flow regulating valve

Other Refrigerating and Air conditioning Components and Parts – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.087
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A compact, modulating, water flow, regulating valve for use on water cooled refrigerant condensers, equipped with brass body, external power element and 2 foot capillary line, calibrated for Freon 12 and 22, operates on refrigerant system head pressure to minimize water consumption, adjusting water flow to meet the needs of the system without overrun and wastage, Model 2300, Penn Controls, 1955.



Item: Water flow regulating valve
Manufacturer: Penn Controls Inc. Goshen, Ind.
Make: Penn Controls
Model: 2300, Type 246P03AR
Features:
– Eexternal, replaceable power element and capillary line

Technical Significance:
– It was the mid 20th century, a period before water conservation was a matter of wide spread public interest and concern. Yet water costs were escalating in many urban centres, where water metering had been introduced – thus making water conservation much more a matter of economics than an essential and mandatory conservation practice.

Industrial Significance:
– Many early commercial refrigeration applications in dairies, food stores and confectioneries, were water-cooled systems. More efficient than air cooling the practice prevailed through out much of the 20th century, where the cost of water made it an affordable condensing medium.
– In larger and multiple installations involving a number of condensing units a water tower would be used allowing the water to be evaporatively cooled and recycled.
– Air cooling became increasingly popular in the latter part of the 20th century, with water conservation an ever increasing public issue, and with the development of large remote, multiple pass air condensers and head pressure control devices [See item ID # 195]


Commercial rotary gear pump

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.151
Exhibit: Heating

Commercial, high capacity, two stage rotary, gear style pump, in cast steel body with extended shaft, a product of post W.W.II , compacted and functionally integrated engineering. [4th wave] it stands as a marker of the wide spread application of high pressure atomizing oil burner technology to commercial and institutional uses in Canada in the last half of the 20th century, Webster, Circa 1958.



Item: Commercial rotary gear pump
Manufacturer: Name plate missing
Make: Webster
Features: Original line fittings

Technical Significance:
From the vantage point of the early 21st century, the evolution of oil fired, automatic home heating equipment would be seen as generally advancing in four broad waves, each of which would take place over a considerable period of time, each producing many variations of the genre:

1. Vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology [see Group 11.01 artifacts, no. 11.01-1]

2. Elemental, motorized, platform mounted technology with peripheral piping and valving components [see Group 12.01, artifact no 12.01-1, and pump assembly 12.06-1]

3. Compacted motorized technology with inherent, peripheral component parts engineered into the pump assembly [see pump assembly Group 12.06, artifact, and 12.06-2]

4. Functionally integrated, motorized technology, beyond being compacted, a number of functions would be smoothly integrated into a single pump assembly, including piping and valving [see Group 12.01, artifact 12.01-2 and pump assembly 12.06-2]

This pump assembly stands as an example of a high capacity, advanced 4th wave fuel oil pump technology, compact and functionally integrated in heavy cast steel body, designed for commercial and institutional applications.


Commercial rotary gear pump ‘Detroit’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.153
Exhibit: Heating

Commercial, high capacity, two stage rotary, gear style pump, in cast steel body, with barrel and flange motor mount and brass drive coupling. A product of post W.W.II compacted and functionally integrated engineering. [4th wave], it stands as a marker of the wide spread application of high pressure atomizing oil burner technology to commercial and institutional uses in Canada in the last half of the 20th century, Detroit Lubricator, Circa 1958.



Item: Commercial rotary gear pump ‘Detroit’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator, Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: CR8-333
Features: Original line fittings and tubing illustrating the historic trade practices of the period

Technical Significance:
From the vantage point of the early 21st century, the evolution of oil fired, automatic home heating equipment would be seen as generally advancing in four broad waves, each of which would take place over a considerable period of time, each producing many variations of the genre:

1. Vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology [see Group 11.01 artifacts, no. 11.01-1]

2. Elemental, motorized, platform mounted technology with peripheral piping and valving components [see Group 12.01, artifact no 12.01-1, and pump assembly 12.06-1]

3. Compacted motorized technology with inherent, peripheral component parts engineered into the pump assembly [see pump assembly Group 12.06, artifact, and 12.06-2]

4. Functionally integrated, motorized technology, beyond being compacted, a number of functions would be smoothly integrated into a single pump assembly, including piping and valving [see Group 12.01, artifact 12.01-2 and pump assembly 12.06-2]

This pump assembly stands as an example of a high capacity, advanced 4th wave fuel oil pump technology, compact and functionally integrated in heavy cast steel body, designed for commercial and institutional applications.

Industrial Significance:
Detroit Lubricator would be one of a relatively few engineering manufactures that would produce for both the oil heating and refrigeration sectors of the HVACR industry. Their reputation in regulating valves and electric controls for refrigeration systems was well established – see group classification 7.02 and 3.02.


8K volt ignition transformer

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Ignition Transformers

Accession # HHCC.2006.131
Exhibit: Heating

An 8,000 volt, electric spark, ignition transformers, in gloss black steel case with brass nameplate. Such devices in the home and the sparks they generated would be a source of great public mystery and often apprehension in the early years of the 20th century. Yet, they would be the true heroes of early technology for the Canadian home; without them the mechanical wonders of the period would not have been possible, the internal combustion engine, the automobile, and automatic home heating. Webster, Circa 1936.



Item: 8K volt ignition transformer
Manufacturer: Webster Electric Co., Racine, Wis.
Make: Webster
Model: 20-D F
Features: Original wire connector illustrating electrical trade practices of the times

Chrome plated cameo styled, brass nameplate, highly decorate with logo.

Technical Significance:
In a period of increasingly sophisticated mechanical contrivances, the development of electrical apparatus – including reliable, efficient high voltage ignition transformers and electric motors tended, for the most part, to lag well behind the mechanical mechanisms which they supported.

The engineering and manufacturing challenge was to build an electrical transformer, to operate on 110 volts alternating current [the then accepted standard for hydro electrification in Canada], one that would create a sufficiently hot spark, about 8,000 to 10,000 volts, needed to reliably ignite an atomised oil vapor and air mixture.

Little of a theoretical practical nature was known in the early years of the 20th century about the design of electrical equipment, certainly not high voltage transformers. The principles of alternating electrical circuits, as well as those of magnetic circuits were little understood, by those who must apply them.

Farada’s experiments of the 1840’s and 50 had only been translated into the mathematical formula needed for precise engineering design in the 1870’s. And Steinmetz would not set out the basic parameters for the design of electromagnetic circuits until the early years of the 20th century. But the market place could not wait, engineering design proceeded empirically, with the knowledge available – with much trial and error.

The toe crushing weight and size of these early specimens [15 to 20 lbs] is a reminder of the crude design criteria employed and the materials available, especially the crude dielectric materials for the insulation of wire and coil bundles operating at high potential levels. As a result electrical failure was common, with all the accompanying dangers of un-ignited explosive mixtures being pumped into the furnace fire box.

Of special significance is this, long obsolete, 25 cycle, AC specimen. Once the standard in Ontario, 25 cycle equipment was heavier and bulkier than its 60 cycle counter part.

Industrial Significance:
By the mid 1930’s the future of the Canadian oil heat industry was assured of a long period of solid growth. With hydro electrification now well advanced in many urban areas in Canada, the desire for automatic, home heating was almost universal, and with it the pressure to engineer high voltage ignition devices in Canada, at reduced cost and improved reliability and performance – See ID# 256 and 257.


10K volt ignition transformer

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Ignition Transformers

Accession # HHCC.2006.132
Exhibit: Heating

A 10,000 volt, electric spark, ignition transformers, in non-ferro-magnetic, brass case in gloss black enamel, manufactured and stencilled for Fess Oil Burners of Canada, an acknowledged early pioneer and Canadian market leader. Such high voltage devices in the home would be a source of great public mystery and often apprehension in the early years of the 20th century. But without the electric spark the mechanical wonders of the age would not have been possible, the internal combustion engine, the automobile, and automatic home heating. Webster, Circa 1938.



Item: 10K volt ignition transformer
Manufacturer: Webster Electric Co., Racine, Wis.
Make: Webster
Model: 27D13
Features: Original wire connector and cable stub, illustrating electrical trade practices of the times; Chrome plated, classical oval, brass nameplate, highly decorate with Fess logo, torch held high.

Technical Significance:
In a period of increasingly sophisticated mechanical contrivances, the development of electrical apparatus – including reliable, efficient high voltage ignition devices [transformers] and electric motors tended, for the most part, to lag well behind the mechanical mechanisms which they supported.

The engineering and manufacturing challenge was to build an electrical transformer, to operate on 110 volts alternating current [the then accepted standard for hydro electrification in Canada], one that would create a sufficiently hot spark, about 8,000 to 10,000 volts, needed to reliably ignite an atomised oil vapour and air mixture.

Little of a theoretical nature was known in the early years of the 20th century about the design of electrical equipment, certainly not high voltage transformers. The principles of alternating electrical circuits, as well as those of magnetic circuits were little understood, by those who must apply them.

Farada’s experiments of the 1840’s and 50 had only been translated into the mathematical formula needed for precise engineering design in the 1870’s. And Steinmetz would not set out the basic parameters for the design of electromagnetic circuits until the early years of the 20th century. But the market place could not wait, engineering design proceeded empirically, with the knowledge available – with much trial and error. The cost would be in reliability and performance standards

The toe crushing weight and size of these early specimens [25 lbs] is a reminder of the crude design criteria employed, and the materials available, especially the crude dielectric materials for the insulation of wire and coil bundles operating at these high potential levels. As a result electrical failure was common, with all the accompanying dangers posed by un-ignited explosive mixtures being pumped into the furnace fire box.

Of special significance is this 25 cycle specimen. Once the standard in Ontario, 25 cycle equipment was heavier and bulkier than its 60 cycle counter part. Frequency standardization in Ontario, a project of monolithic proportion, now long forgotten was a technological marvel in its own right. It occurred, largely, in the latter half of the 1940’s

Industrial Significance:
A rare marker of the early years in the Canadian, automatic oil heating industry, this ignition transformer by the acknowledged, early US leader in transformer engineering, design and manufacturer, Webster Electric, was stencilled for Fess Oil Burners of Canada, then an acknowledged early pioneer and market leader in the engineering, design and manufacture of oil burners in Canada. The suggestion here is that there were no Canadian ignition transformer manufactures in the period.

By the mid 1930’s the future of the Canadian oil heat industry was assured of a long period of solid growth. With hydro electrification now well advanced in many urban areas in Canada, the desire for automatic, home heating was almost universal, and with it the pressure to engineer high voltage ignition in Canada, at reduced cost and improved reliability and performance – See ID# 256 and 257.


10Kv 60 cycle ignition transformer

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Ignition Transformers

Accession # HHCC.2006.133
Exhibit: Heating

A 10,000 volt, 60 cycle spark, ignition transformer, in ferro-magnetic, steel case in gloss black enamel, with long radius corners, reminiscent of the Art Deco style. Equipped with built in junction box, adjustable base and brown porcelain high tension insulators with screw terminals, it stands as an historic example of the work of early, Canadian, ignition transformer, speciality manufactures, tooling up for the now rapidly expanding, home heating market in Canada, Amalgamated Electric, 1960.



Item: 10Kv 60 cycle ignition transformer
Manufacturer: Jefferson Electric, Amalgamated Electric Corporati
Make: Jefferson
Model: Cat No. 638-241
Features: Original wire connector and cable stub, illustrating electrical trade practices of the times

Art Deco inspired, long radius. rounded corners

Technical Significance:
Early high voltage ignition transformers were built in non-ferro magnetic, brass enclosures [See ID# 255 and 256], considered necessary to isolate the enclosure from the electro magnetic circuit. Subsequent engineering studies confirmed the use of magnetic steel shells, as seen here – a cost saving feature for the manufacturer.

By the 1960’s the toe crushing weight of early ignition transformers [See ID# 255 and 256] had been reduced by 50%, due to advances in engineering design, the use of new inorganic dielectric, insulating materials able to with stand high voltages and surges, as well as as a consequence of frequency standardization [25 to 60 cycle]

Industrial Significance:
The smoothly rounded, long radius corners, giving this device a distinctly modern Art Deco look, is also a marker of the advanced, production manufacturing methods of the 1960’s

The early patent numbers are somewhat surprising [1930 to 1932], suggest that there was little new in the technology, which could be patented, through the ensuing years to the 1960’s, the major advances being made in materials and manufacturing methods.

By the 1960’s the Canadian automatic oil heating industry was into supplying a major after-market, for parts and upgraded equipment. This ignition transformer is a marker of those times, built with adaptable, slotted base-plate, making it readily adaptable to a number of different oil burner manufacturer’s applications.

The increasingly wide range of different physical configurations, as well as different technologies appearing on the Canadian oil heating market by the 1960’s, demonstrated the immense inventiveness characterizing the Canadian automatic oil heating industry of the times. As a result, Canadian ignition transformer manufactures were called upon to adapt their deigns to many different configurations, in order to meet the needs of original equipment manufacturers, as well as the diversity of forms required to economically service the after market [See also ID# 258].

Much of the credibility of the Canadian oil heat industry would rest on its ability to service the after-market promptly, efficiently and at a cost homeowners could afford. Motors, high voltage ignition transformer and electrodes, as well as high pressure oil atomizing nozzles and oil pumps were all casualties of normal ware and tear, often breaking down as a result of prolonged periods of cold Canadian winter weather. A substantial service industry in towns and cities across the country would develop by the 1960’s, with the challenge of maintaining a stock of replacement parts in the many configurations required for emergency, “no-heat” service.


10Kv 60 cycle ignition transformer

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Ignition Transformers

Accession # HHCC.2006.134
Exhibit: Heating

A 10,000 volt, 60 cycle spark, ignition transformer, in ferro-magnetic, steel case in gloss black enamel, with long radius corners, reminiscent of the Art Deco style. Equipped with hinged base-plate and enclosed high tension insulators with adjustable brass pressure contacts and built in junction box, it stands as an historic example of the immense diversity and inventiveness of the Canadian oil heat industry during its years of post W.W.II rapid growth, Allison 1964.



Item: 10Kv 60 cycle ignition transformer
Manufacturer: Allanson Armature Mfg Co. Ltd, Toronto
Make: Allanson
Model: Cat No. 521, ty
Features: Original wire connector and cable stubs, illustrating electrical trade practices of the times

Art Deco inspired, long radius. rounded corners

Technical Significance:
Early high voltage ignition transformers were built in non-ferro magnetic, brass enclosures [See ID# 255 and 256], considered necessary to isolate the enclosure from the electro magnetic circuit. Subsequent engineering studies confirmed the appropriate use of magnetic steel shells, as seen here – a cost saving feature for the manufacturer.

By the 1960’s the toe crushing weight of early ignition transformers [See ID# 255 and 256] had been reduced by 50%, due to advances in engineering design, the use of new inorganic dielectric, insulating materials able to with stand high voltages and surges, as well as as a consequence of frequency standardization [25 to 60 cycle]

Industrial Significance:
The Canadian automatic oil heating industry was expanding rapidly in the 1960’s. The Allanson, Armature Mfg. Co., having made its name in the manufacture electric armatures for the automotive industry, for use in generators and starters would see in the heating industry opportunities for horizontal expansion, making use of its core skills – electrical coil winding.

By the 1960’s the Canadian automatic oil heating industry was into supplying a major after-market, for parts and upgraded equipment. This ignition transformer designed with a hinged base and enclosed high tension connections stands as an example of the range of configurations needed in transformers to meet the diverse engineering and design requirements of the period

The increasingly wide range of different physical configurations, as well as different technologies appearing on the Canadian oil heating market by the 1960’s, demonstrated the immense inventiveness characterizing the Canadian automatic oil heating industry of the times. As a result, Canadian ignition transformer manufactures were called upon to adapt their designs to many different configurations, in order to meet the needs of original equipment manufacturers, as well as the diversity of forms required to economically service the after-market [See also ID# 258].

Much of the credibility of the Canadian oil heat industry would rest on its ability to service the after-market promptly, efficiently, and at a cost homeowners could afford. Motors, high voltage ignition transformer and electrodes, as well as high pressure oil atomizing nozzles and oil pumps were all casualties of normal ware and tear, often short lived, often breaking down as a result of prolonged periods of cold Canadian winter weather. A substantial service industry in towns and cities across the country would develop by the 1960’s, with the challenge of maintaining a stock of replacement parts in the many configurations required for emergency, “no-heat” service.

The smoothly rounded, long radius corners, giving this device a distinctly modern Art Deco look, is a marker of the advanced, production manufacturing methods of the 1960’s


Hard fire brick

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.119
Exhibit: Heating

In the embryonic and early development years of automatic, oil heating systems in Canada, high temperature fire brick were the building blocks of the “fire box” [combustion chamber]. The firebox, holding a 2.600 degree F. flame in check, was a critical component, determining both system safety and performance. It would be skilfully crafted on-the-job, according to the size of the fire chamber, the combustion rate and the unique flame configuration of the oil burner, hard fire brick, A P Green, Circa 1938.



Item: Hard fire brick
Manufacturer: A P Green, Toronto
Make: A P Green
Model: A – Empire DP

Technical Significance:
In the embryonic and early development years of automatic, oil heating systems in Canada, high temperature “Hard” fire brick were the building blocks of the “fire box” [combustion chamber]. Shaped much like regular bricks, but made from clays withstanding high temperature.

The firebox, holding a 2.600 degree F. flame in check, was a critical component, determining both system safety and performance, a matter of concern for the installer and technician.

It would be skilfully crafted on-the-job, according to the combustion rate and the unique flame configuration of the oil burner the size of the fire chamber and the gut feel of the installer.

Industrial Significance:
The construction of fireboxes was an art form of the day, with all to often little for the installer to guide him in a wide range of decisions to be made, effecting the performance of the oil burner and the safety of the system see references.

Most heating automatic oil heating systems of the 1920’s on into the 40’s in Canada were of the “conversion” type, typically coal and wood fired furnaces and boilers in which oil burners were installed. Wood and coal grates were removed and firebrick used to build a box like configuration, typically, but not always, with a hole at one end to receive the blast tube of the oil burner.

With the evolution of the industry came softer lighter fire brick, see ID#244, as well as pre-cast moulded refractory materials, in a range of sizes, pre-shaped for certain firing rates and fire chambers, see ID#245.

The significant developments in ceramics engineering, reflected in the refractory materials of the period, should not be understated, for they made possible the evolution of automatic home heating and its seminal contribution to life in Canada. An unobtrusive technology in the public eye, the accomplishments in ceramics engineering tend to get lost in the midst of the Gee-Whiz technological achievements in combustion and electric control engineering of the 1920’s and 30’s.

By the 1960’s much ceramic-based combustion chamber engineering would give way to light weight stainless steel configurations, considered preferable for the new world of unitary equipment, pre-tested and shipped to the job site ready for installation.


‘Soft’ fire brick

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.120
Exhibit: Heating

In the embryonic and early development years of automatic, oil heating systems in Canada, high temperature fire brick were the building blocks of the “fire box” [combustion chamber]. The firebox, holding a 2.600 degree F. flame in check, was a critical component, determining both system safety and performance. It would be skilfully crafted on-the-job, according to the size of the fire chamber, the combustion rate and the unique flame configuration of the oil burner, “soft” fire brick, A P Green, Circa 1940.



Item: ‘Soft’ fire brick
Manufacturer: A P Green, Toronto
Make: A P Green

Technical Significance:
With the evolution of the industry came soft light weight fire brick, as well as pre-cast moulded refractory materials, in a range of sizes, pre-shaped for certain firing rates and fire chambers, see ID#245

In the embryonic and early development years of automatic, oil heating systems in Canada, high temperature fire brick were the building blocks of the “fire box” [combustion chamber]. Shaped much like regular bricks, but made from clays withstanding high temperature

The firebox, holding a 2.600 degree F. flame in check, was a critical component, determining both system safety and performance, a matter of concern for the installer and technician.

It would be skilfully crafted on-the-job, according to the combustion rate and the unique flame configuration of the oil burner the size of the fire chamber and the gut feel of the installer.

Industrial Significance:
The construction of fireboxes was an art form of the day, with all to often little for the installer to guide him in a wide range of decisions to be made, effecting the performance of the oil burner and the safety of the system see references

Most heating automatic oil heating systems of the 1920’s on into the 40’s in Canada were of the “conversion” type, typically coal and wood fired furnaces and boilers in which oil burners were installed. Wood and coal grates were removed and firebrick used to build a box like configuration, typically, but not always, with a hole at one end to receive the blast tube of the oil burner.

The significant developments in ceramics engineering, reflected in the refractory materials of the period, should not be understated, for they made possible the evolution of automatic home heating and its seminal contribution to life in Canada. An unobtrusive technology in the public eye, the accomplishments in ceramics engineering tend to get lost in the midst of the Gee-Whiz technological achievements in combustion and electric control engineering of the 1920’s and 30’s.

By the 1960’s much ceramic-based combustion chamber engineering would give way to light weight stainless steel configurations, considered preferable for the new world of unitary equipment, pre-tested and shipped to the job site ready for installation.


Fire box sections

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.121
Exhibit: Heating

Pre-cast, sectional, circular, high temperature refractory sections, made in a range of sizes and compositions, became widely used starting in the 1940’s for the construction of “fire boxes” [combustion chambers]. The firebox, holding a 2.600 degree F. flame in check, was a critical component, determining both system safety and performance, 2 sections, model 424, A P Green, Circa 1945.



Item: Fire box sections
Manufacturer: A P Green, Toronto
Make: A P Green
Model: 424

Technical Significance:
With the evolution of the industry came pre-formed, sectional, circular refractory sections in a range of sizes, pre-shaped for certain firing rates and fire chambers

The evolution of pre-formed, sectional, circular refractory was hastened by the development of unitary, factory made and assembled warm air furnaces, winter air conditioners and hot water home heating boilers. Shipped to the job site this equipment came complete with oil burner, refractory and control system reedy for installation.

Industrial Significance:
With the evolution of unitary equipment for residential heating in Canada came generally higher levels of system performance, reliability and safety, with much of the guess work required with the conversion of hand fired wood and coal fired systems gone.

The significant developments in ceramics engineering, reflected in the refractory materials of the period, should not be understated, for they made possible the evolution of automatic home heating and its seminal contribution to life in Canada. An unobtrusive technology in the public eye, the accomplishments in ceramics engineering tend to get lost in the midst of the Gee-Whiz technological achievements in combustion and electric control engineering of the 1920’s and 30’s.

By the 1960’s much ceramic-based combustion chamber engineering would give way to light weight stainless steel configurations, considered preferable for the new world of unitary equipment, pre-tested and shipped to the job site ready for installation.


Panel wall fan

Ventilation Equipment and Systems – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.085
Exhibit: Ventilation

The second half of the 20th century brought with it new realisations of the importance of air quality and the need for proper ventilation of working spaces. This elemental, 16″, 3 blade, panel wall fan, in knock-down form, for assembly on-the-job, equipped with automatic wall damper was a response to the growing market of the late 1950’s, Waugh and McKewen, London Ont., Supplier to the trade, 1957.



Item: Panel wall fan
Manufacturer: Unknown
Make: Unknown

Ducted fan assembly

Ventilation Equipment and Systems – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.086
Exhibit: Ventilation

A special application ducted fan assembly, with rubber mounted, centrifugal, high static pressure fan, hub mounted, shaded pole electric motor and high temperature, thermal disk limit control, in custom formed housing with baked, brown wrinkled enamel, complete with 110 volt line cord and plug, illustrating the sophistication of the small application, air handling equipment available by the mid 1950’s, with a well developed network of OEM parts suppliers feeding the industry. 1957.



Item: Ducted fan assembly
Manufacturer: unknown
Make: Unknown

Repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.170
Exhibit: Ventilation

Classic mid 20th century, heavy duty, repulsion induction, brush lifting motor, dual voltage and mechanically reversible. Canadian made, it would characterize much of the Canadian experience through middle and latter years of the century, a period which saw massive growth in the demand for such high torque motors following W.W.II and frequency standardization. Yet, paradoxically, the period also witnessed the progressive demise of the technology, Leland [new and unused], Circa 1960. [See also ID# 308]



Item: Repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric Canada Limited, Guelph Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: Form AKWJH, Type R
Features:
– Built-in well for the possible installation of “Klixon” motor overload protector with automatic reset.
– Shop tag in Howard Oliver’s hand writing, “checks OK, Jan 1975”

Technical Significance:
– With a built-in “well” making provision for “Klixon” inherent motor overload protector technology, this artifact is a marker of the advances made by mid century in personal and property protection for the FHP motor owners. By then, the inherent, automatic overload projector with automatic reset had become a mainstream technology, for which provisions were being built into the motor body, whether the particular application required it or not. Inherent, automatic overload motor protection was a universal truth for FHP motor design by the middle of the 20th century. It was yet another indicator of the new world of advances made through automation – as it existed in the mid 20th century.
– Canadian made, this motor would characterize much of the Canadian experience through middle and later years of the century, in high torque, FHP motor development. A period which saw massive growth in the demand for such high starting torque motors, typically for use on refrigeration equipment, which flooded the market in those years, following W.W.II and frequency standardization.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology,throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– For the Canadian household and commercial refrigeration industry, pioneered by Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it would be a “just-in-time” technology, as well as an immensely enabling one – and what it enabled was considerable. Sir William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, had just set out the theoretical principles of the compression refrigeration, Carnot cycle [see Note #1]. But there existed no electro-motive devices with sufficient starting torque able to drive the compressor, making mechanical cooling practical for household and commercial uses – even for those who were otherwise able to enjoy the benefits of electrification. The push was on to develop such a device, the repulsion induction, single-phase motor would quickly follow.
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Well recognized for their performance, reliability and maitainability, the repulsion induction engineering designs employed by Leland Electric, Guelph Ontario, along with Wagner Electric Leaside would in many ways serve to characterizing best Canadian practice through middle and later years of the century.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


Variable speed repulsion motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.171
Exhibit: Ventilation

A rarity, a variable speed repulsion motor, with mechanical speed, forward and reverse control lever. A classic, mid 20th century piece of speciality, repulsion induction technology, marking the apogee of the genre – in a period when the genre was still the wonder-boy of single phase, electric motor engineering. Canadian made, it would stand as a special time piece, marking the achievements and sophistication of the Canadian electric motor engineering and manufacturing, part of the “golden years” of the industry in Canada, Leland, 1948.



Item: Variable speed repulsion motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric Canada Limited, Guelph Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: Form BOWJH, Type RV
Features:
– 6 inch pressed steel V pulley for B and C-section belts. The pulley, now badly out of alignment, and showing the signs of rusting, as a result of normal ware and tar, marks these pulleys, fabricated in pressed steel, as best for light duty applications

Technical Significance:
– Variable speed repulsion motor with mechanical speed, forward and reverse control lever.
– A classic, mid 20th century piece of speciality, repulsion induction technology, marking the apogee of the genre – in a period when the genre was still the wonder-boy of single phase, electric motor engineering. For it would be another half century before capacitor start, electronic, digital speed control would be popularly available.
– Canadian made, it would stand as a special time piece, marking the achievements and sophistication of the Canadian electric motor engineering and manufacturing, part of the “golden years” of the industry in Canada,
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Well recognized for their performance, reliability and maitainability, the repulsion induction engineering designs employed by Leland Electric, Guelph Ontario, along with Wagner Electric Leaside would in many ways serve to characterizing best Canadian practice through middle and later years of the century.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.172
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, repulsion induction, brush lifting, 25 cycle motor, manufactured in Canada for Kelvinator’s pioneering generation of cabinet refrigerators for the home. With bronze bearings and short, snap cap oilers, open ventilated, cast iron frame, and slotted 4 bolt, rigid steel base, it stands as a rare time piece in the evolution of the Canadian FHP motor and refrigeration industries, Wagner, 1928.



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: Type 66XL7 RA
Features:
– 3 original manufacturers shipping tags

Technical Significance:
– A rare glimpse of the earliest years of Canadian commercial production of repulsion induction, FHP, single phase, motor technology. In spite of the engineering and manufacturing challenges faced, the development was spurred on by the promise of ever increasing market demand for high starting torque motors for home and commercial applications.
– The technology, complete with centrifugally operated brush lifters [to reduce wear and noise], and armature short circuiting mechanism [to convert from repulsion start to induction run operation] represented a truly astonishing level of research and development, and manufacturing know how, all in an era with little theory and practical experience to draw on.
– The bearing oiling system, engineered without extended oiler tubes, stands as an example of early consumer product development, with little regard for public safety. Many fingers would get caught in pulleys and fan blades before extension safety oiler tubes would become common place [see for example ID# 301 to 307]. With the ever-increasing range and sophistication of electro-motive devices for home use would come increasingly stringent safety requirements with the regulatory agencies needed to enforce them. By the end of the century substantial space in customer owning and operating manuals would be given over to safety precautions.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– For the Canadian household and commercial refrigeration industry, pioneered by Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it would be a “just-in-time” technology, as well as an immensely enabling one – and what it enabled was considerable. Sir William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, had just set out the theoretical principles of the compression refrigeration, Carnot cycle [see Note #1]. But there existed no electro-motive devices with sufficient starting torque able to drive the compressor, making mechanical cooling practical for household and commercial uses – even for those who were otherwise able to enjoy the benefits of electrification. The push was on to develop such a device, the repulsion induction, single-phase motor would quickly follow.
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Canadian made, this motor would stand as a marker of the earliest years of FHP, single phase, electric motor manufacturing in the country. It would be spurred on by the promise of new market opportunities for electro-mechanical home appliances,
– The oil soaked service tags, still attached to the motor after close to 80 years, tell a number of stories of their life and times:
1. Of constant oil spillage, typically running over the floor of a Canadian kitchen somewhere, the result of over oiling of motor bearings and leaking refrigeration compressor seals. The sealed motor compressor unit could not come too soon for many home owners.
2. Of the 20 some odd service centres across Canada, established to support the service of Wagner motors and Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, as early as 1928
3. Of the four-year replacement program, which Kelvinator maintained to promote the quality and reliability of the cabinet refrigerators they marketed to wary homeowners, as early as the 1920’s.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.173
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with historic innovative, first generation, vibration isolating motor mounts, a significant step in helping to reduce the noise level in the canadian kitchen, resulting from the introduction of motorized machinery, built in Canada for Kelvinator’s cabinet refrigerators introduced in the early 1930’s, Wagner, Circa 1932.



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL22B110K128, Type SAR
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– With original shop tag, T.H. Oliver, Refrigeration and Electric Service, marked “salvage …..”

Technical Significance:
– An artifact of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology for the Canadian home:
1. An early Canadian made FHP motor for an early Canadian refrigerator manufacturer, marking the optimism of the times, the capital investment made, in spite of a period of marked economic depression
2. A pioneering step in quieting the Canadian kitchen. The 4 point, rubber vibration insulating base would be an historic step of significant proportion in reducing noise in the kitchen, which followed the introduction of electro-motive powered machinery into the home. It would be the first step in an evolutionary sequence which would result, in the complete disappearance of the noisy, hazards, FHP motor, embedding it within the refrigeration system itself, the hermetic refrigeration motor compressor. [see examples classification code 4.01] [see also Note 1]
3. Part of the historic movement to unitize and package the mechanical refrigeration systems, to be marketed to the Canadian home owner – with all its piping, motor, compressor, valving and so forth. Manufactures understood that the popular acceptance of the technology by homeowners, would increasingly depend on making this mechanical wonder not only quieter, but more reliable and repairable, independent of local highly skilled tradesman. The packaged, factory ready refrigeration replacement system was seen as the answer, although not altogether successful in the earliest attempts of which this motor was part – See Reference 12.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.174
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with historic, innovative, first generation, vibration isolating, rubber motor mounts, a significant step in helping to reduce the noise level in the kitchen, resulting from the introduction of motorized machinery, Delco, Circa 1932. [see also ID# 299, 301, 302]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 5094
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts

Technical Significance:
– Stands as an exemplar of the dissemination of 4 point rubber insulating motor mounting technology in the early 1930’s adopted here by Delco, a division of Frigidaire – see also ID# 297
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.175
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with historic, innovative, two point cradle style, vibration isolating, rubber motor mounting, a significant step in helping to reduce the noise level in the kitchen, resulting from the introduction of motorized machinery, Delco, Circa 1932. [see also ID# 298, 301, 302]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 2144
Features:
– T. H. Oliver service tag in Mr. Oliver’s hand writing, “Mr Dryden, Danels and Dryden”, “25 cycle motor, defective winding”

Technical Significance:
– An example of the innovative engineering of the period working to quiet the cabinet refrigerator in the early 1930’s, adopted here by Frigidaire/Delco, – see also ID# 298
– The cradle mount provided Frigidaire with a dual function of motor quieting, as well as automatic belt tightening, afforded by a spring tension devices operating on the cradle to hold the belt in a taught position – see Reference 12
– The cradle motor mount by Frigidaire/Delco would be one more significant step in an evolutionary sequence which would result, in the complete disappearance of the noisy, hazards, FHP motor, embedding it within the refrigeration system itself, the hermetic refrigeration motor compressor. [see examples classification code 4.01]
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor, 1/4HP ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.176
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, 1/4 HP repulsion induction motor, equipped with rigid base for use on small commercial refrigeration applications, commonly found in Canada on Frigidaire condensing units in small food store and confectionery applications, throughout the pre W.W.II years and beyond to frequency standardization and the birth of the hermetic motor compressor, Delco, Circa 1936.



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor, 1/4HP ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 4394

Technical Significance:
– The physical size and crushing weight of this 1/4 HP motor of the period is a matter of note. The magnetic circuits required for 25 cycle applications, along with the all ferro-magnetic bodies, coupled with the relatively crude engineering designs of the period would lead to massive equipment by future standards. For examples of applications by Frigidaire see Reference No 12
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.177
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor for household cabinet refrigerator with vibration isolating motor mounts, and fusetron holder, two significant innovations, helping to reduce noise in the kitchen, and the risk of property and personal injury due to motor overheating, Delco, Circa 1934. [see also ID# 298, 302]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 4089
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– Fusetron holder now blanked off, early technology for motor overload protection

Technical Significance:
– Represented here are two major innovations in FHP motor technology for the Canadian home, associated with the early 1930’s. One for the reduction of noise [the four-point vibration, rubber mount], the second for reduction of risk of property and personal damage, due to an overheated motor [the fusetron]. Both were crude beginnings, soon to be replaced by more advanced forms of the technology.
– The fusetron [See item code 16.06-5], now removed and opening blanked off, tells important stories of technological evolution and advancement in personal and property protection. The fusetron was a slow blow fuse engineered to take the high starting current associated with inductive loads, but to open circuit in response to prolonged over load conditions. Lacking a recycling capability, it left the homeowner vulnerable. As a consequence many homeowners would find their refrigerator off, with resultant food spoilage. The inherent motor overload protector with an automatic recycling capability would still be another decade in the making. In the meantime many fusetrons were disabled by local refrigeration service technician, on the request of angry homeowners. [see ID#294 for example of “Klixon” inherent, automatic overload protection]
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.178
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor for household cabinet refrigerator with vibration isolating motor mounts, and fusetron holder, two significant innovations, helping to reduce noise in the kitchen, and the risk of property and personal injury due to motor overheating, Delco, Circa 1934. [see also ID# 298, 301]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 4093
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– Fusetron holder now blanked off, early technology for motor overload protection

Technical Significance:
– Represented here are two major innovations in FHP motor technology for the Canadian home, associated with the early 1930’s. One for the reduction of noise [the four-point vibration, rubber mount], the second for reduction of risk of property and personal damage, due to an overheated motor [the fusetron]. Both were crude beginnings, soon to be replaced by more advanced forms of the technology.
– The fusetron [See item code 16.06-5], now removed and opening blanked off, tells important stories of technological evolution and advancement in personal and property protection. The fusetron was a slow blow fuse engineered to take the high starting current associated with inductive loads, but to open circuit in response to prolonged over load conditions. Lacking a recycling capability, it left the homeowner vulnerable. As a consequence many homeowners would find their refrigerator off, with resultant food spoilage. The inherent motor overload protector with an automatic recycling capability would still be another decade in the making. In the meantime many fusetrons were disabled by local refrigeration service technician, on the request of angry homeowners. [see ID#294 for example of “Klixon” inherent, automatic overload protection, and ID# 303 for example of early protector by Wagner]
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.179
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with two historic innovations, a first generation, vibration isolating motor mount, and an inherent overload protector with automatic reset, helping to reduce both noise and the risk of personal and property injury in the Canadian kitchen, built in Canada for Kelvinator of Canada’s cabinet refrigerators introduced in the early 1930’s, Wagner, Circa 1936. [see also ID# 297]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL22B55, Type SAR
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset

Technical Significance:
– An artifact of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology for the Canadian home:
1. An early Canadian made FHP motor for an early Canadian refrigerator manufacturer, marking the optimism of the times, the capital investment made, in spite of a period of marked economic depression
2. A pioneering step in quieting the Canadian kitchen. The 4 point, rubber vibration insulating base would be an historic step of significant proportion in reducing noise in the kitchen, which followed the introduction of electro-motive powered machinery into the home. It would be the first step in an evolutionary sequence which would result, in the complete disappearance of the noisy, hazards, FHP motor, embedding it within the refrigeration system itself, the hermetic refrigeration motor compressor. [see examples classification code 4.01] [see also Note 1]
3. An early historic technology for reducing the risk of personal and property damage due to motor overload, the inherent automatic overload protector – See Note No. 1.
4. A combination compressor drive pulley with condenser fan, a technology widely used in the 1920’s and 30’s, here employed by Kelvinator on a Model J15 condensing unit for a home cabinet refrigerator. The pulley hub performs a dual function, acting also as the drive hub of a four blade, 9 inch propeller style condenser fan blade. Driven at 1440 RPM, the un-guarded blade would represent a significant hazard to the un-wary homeowner [see Reference No. 13, P. 66].
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Commutating, single phase, 25 cycle motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.180
Exhibit: Ventilation

A rare, early 20th century, commutating, single phase, 25 cycle, alternating current motor, likely of the repulsion induction type, but requires further study. An early marker of vastly changing times to come, following the first wave of home electrification. It would herald the coming invasion of the Canadian home by electro-motive technology, General Electric, date unknown. [see also ID# 293]



Item: Commutating, single phase, 25 cycle motor
Manufacturer: General Electric Co. Schenectady, NY.
Make: General Electric
Model: Type RSA

Technical Significance:
– A rare example of an early communtating, alternating current motor
– Requires further research to document technical significance.
– An early marker of vastly changing times to come, following the first wave of home electrification technology. A cultural icon, it would herald the coming invasion of the Canadian home by electro-motive technology, starting in central Canada in the 1920’s.


1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.181
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, classic 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor with inherent overload protection and automatic reset, part of a rare set of three 25 cycle motors escaping frequency standardization in 1948. They define new standards of practice, telling many stories of the explosion of small commercial refrigeration applications, which were enabled in the 1940’s through 50’s, changing the lives of Canadians forever, Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1947. [see also ID# 306, 307]



Item: 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL26BF1924N, Type RA
Features:
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset
– State of the art, light weight, non-ferro magnetic, alloy end bells

Technical Significance:
– An artifact [artifacts] of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive technology::
1. Marking the immense engineering achievement in the development and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology well before the mid 20th century, paradoxically on the eve of its gradual demise and replacement by capacitor start FHP technology [see code 16.02],
2. Representing a technological achievement that would define the standard of practice for small commercial refrigeration motor applications in the 1940’s through 50’s, prior to the popularization of capacitor start motor technology and the widespread adoption of embedded motor and compressor equipment for commercial applications, the hermetic refrigeration condensing unit,
3. The popularization of small commercial refrigeration applications, enabled by the Wagner Type KA, a growth market in Canada in the post W.W.II years through the 1960’s, including ice cream and frozen food cabinets and merchandizers, reach-in, unitary refrigerators, display cases and merchandizers for small food stores and confectioneries – enabling a veritable explosion of new food products and tastes for Canadians.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.182
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, classic 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor with inherent overload protection and automatic reset, part of a rare set of three 25 cycle motors escaping frequency standardization in 1948. They define new standards of practice, telling many stories of the explosion of small commercial refrigeration applications, which were enabled in the 1940’s through 50’s, changing the lives of Canadians forever, Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1947. [see also ID# 305, 307]



Item: 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL26BF1924N, Type RA
Features:
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset
– State of the art, light weight, non-ferro magnetic, alloy end bells

Technical Significance:
– An artifact [artifacts] of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive technology::
1. Marking the immense engineering achievement in the development and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology well before the mid 20th century, paradoxically on the eve of its gradual demise and replacement by capacitor start FHP technology [see code 16.02],
2. Representing a technological achievement that would define the standard of practice for small commercial refrigeration motor applications in the 1940’s through 50’s, prior to the popularization of capacitor start motor technology and the widespread adoption of embedded motor and compressor equipment for commercial applications, the hermetic refrigeration condensing unit,
3. The popularization of small commercial refrigeration applications, enabled by the Wagner Type KA, a growth market in Canada in the post W.W.II years through the 1960’s, including ice cream and frozen food cabinets and merchandizers, reach-in, unitary refrigerators, display cases and merchandizers for small food stores and confectioneries – enabling a veritable explosion of new food products and tastes for Canadians.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.183
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, classic 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor with inherent overload protection and automatic reset, part of a rare set of three 25 cycle motors escaping frequency standardization in 1948. They define new standards of practice, telling many stories of the explosion of small commercial refrigeration applications, which were enabled in the 1940’s through 50’s, changing the lives of Canadians forever, Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1947 [see also ID# 305, 306]



Item: 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL26BF1924N, Type RA
Features:
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset
– State of the art, light weight, non-ferro magnetic, alloy end bells

Technical Significance:
– An artifact [artifacts] of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive technology::
1. Marking the immense engineering achievement in the development and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology well before the mid 20th century, paradoxically on the eve of its gradual demise and replacement by capacitor start FHP technology [see code 16.02],
2. Representing a technological achievement that would define the standard of practice for small commercial refrigeration motor applications in the 1940’s through 50’s, prior to the popularization of capacitor start motor technology and the widespread adoption of embedded motor and compressor equipment for commercial applications, the hermetic refrigeration condensing unit,
3. The popularization of small commercial refrigeration applications, enabled by the Wagner Type KA, a growth market in Canada in the post W.W.II years through the 1960’s, including ice cream and frozen food cabinets and merchandizers, reach-in, unitary refrigerators, display cases and merchandizers for small food stores and confectioneries – enabling a veritable explosion of new food products and tastes for Canadians.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1/6 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.184
Exhibit: Ventilation

Classic mid 20th century, repulsion induction high starting torque, 1/6th HP, motor, with inherent automatic overload protection and vibration insulating torsion base, engineered for household cabinet refrigerators. Canadian made by an acknowledged market leader, it would be characteristic of the period of massive growth in the demand for such motors on following frequency standardization, Leland , Circa 1958. [See also ID# 294]



Item: 1/6 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric Canada Limited, Guelph Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: Form AKWIH, Type R

Technical Significance:
– Canadian made, this motor would characterize much of the Canadian experience through middle and later years of the century, in high torque, FHP motor development. It was a period which saw massive growth in the demand for such high starting torque motors, typically for use on refrigeration equipment, following W.W.II and frequency standardization, prior to the domination of the market by embedded motor compressor technology, the hermetic motor compressor.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– For the Canadian household and commercial refrigeration industry, pioneered by Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it would be a “just-in-time” technology, as well as an immensely enabling one – and what it enabled was considerable. Sir William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, had just set out the theoretical principles of the compression refrigeration, Carnot cycle [see Note #1]. But there existed no electro-motive devices with sufficient starting torque able to drive the compressor, making mechanical cooling practical for household and commercial uses – even for those who were otherwise able to enjoy the benefits of electrification. The push was on to develop such a device, the repulsion induction, single-phase motor would quickly follow.
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Well recognized for their performance, reliability and maitainability, the repulsion induction engineering designs employed by Leland Electric, Guelph Ontario, along with Wagner Electric Leaside would in many ways serve to characterizing best Canadian practice through middle and later years of the century.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


1 1/2 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.185
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early mid 20th century, classic 1 1/2 HP, 25 cycle, repulsion induction, single phase motor, employing FHP technology extended to cover motors in the integral HP range, making possible larger capacity refrigeration and air conditioning applications in areas not served by industrial three-phase power, Wagner, Circa 1942.



Item: 1 1/2 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: Name plate not included

Technical Significance:
– An artifact of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive and refrigeration technology, including:
1. Witnessing the engineering achievement and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology by the mid 20th century.
2. The successful adaptation of FHP, single phase, repulsion induction motor technology to integral HP applications, typically 1, 1 1/2, 2, 3, and 5 HP.
3. The installation of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment in areas not served by three-phase power. As a result low pressure refrigeration system applications grew rapidly in the pre W.W.II years and beyond, including small cold storage plants, large food stores, food processing applications and ice cream making, etc – See Reference 7, P. 7
4. The development of large diary farms, such as the one at Eaton Hall, made possible by mechanical refrigeration equipment for rapid milk cooling and storage, prior to shipment to the dairy for processing.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1 1/2 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.186
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early mid 20th century, classic 1 1/2 HP, 25 cycle, repulsion induction, single phase motor, escaping frequency standardization in 1948, employing FHP technology extended to cover motors in the integral HP range, making possible larger capacity refrigeration and air conditioning applications in areas not served by industrial three-phase power, Wagner, new and un-used, Circa 1947.



Item: 1 1/2 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: ZL44BF2346, Type RA
Features:
– Original manufacturers warranty card and instructions

Technical Significance:
– An artifact of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive and refrigeration technology, including:
1. Witnessing the engineering achievement and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology by the mid 20th century.
2. The successful adaptation of FHP, single phase, repulsion induction motor technology to integral HP applications, typically 1, 1 1/2, 2, 3, and 5 HP.
3. The installation of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment in areas not served by three-phase power. As a result low pressure refrigeration system applications grew rapidly in the pre W.W.II years and beyond, including small cold storage plants, large food stores, food processing applications and ice cream making, etc.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.156
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, an early design engineered for a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with fuse-style, overload protection, and designed for “V” belt drive applications, with pivoted motor mounting and automatic belt tension device, Delco, Circa 1945.



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: McKinnon Industries, St. Catherines Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M1035
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

With a toe crushing weight this 1/6th HP motor weighs in at 35 lbs., illustrating the greater weight of 25 cycle rotating equipment, over 60 cycle a factor in moving to a higher cycle, in order to help reduce equipment costs.

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, a rare example, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

1940’s style, high tech, capacitor-start motor, designed for top mounted electrolytic capacitor [not included]

Representative of a class of innovations introduced by Frigidaire, to provide automatic control of belt tension, using a simple, extension coil spring, with motor pivotally mounted on base plate. Maintaining proper belt tension, on refrigeration compressor drives was a perennial problem, due to close coupling of motor and compressor and large compressor fly wheel diameter.

Includes an early form of overload protector, the fusetron. Socket provided fusetron not included. Over load protection was an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate un-attended in the home – without the attention of skilled work force.

This type of overload operated much like a standard instant blow fuse, but calibrated to carry the high starting current characteristic of induction loads. Its disadvantage was that it was a non-recycling device, which means that the refrigeration system could be off without the homeowner knowing it. Later devices would be automatically recycling [see ID# 281].

Industrial Significance:
The production of FHP electric motors under the Delco name was a marker of the post W.W.II doom in Canada’s appliance industry. Delco was a brand name, held by General Motors, under which auto electric components were manufactured and marketed. McKinnon Industries was a feeder plant to GM, located in St Catherines

The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper and foil style capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.157
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, with light alloy end bells, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, Delco, Circa 1948. [see also 12.02-2B]



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: McKinnon Industries, St. Catherines, Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M1395
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

Oringinal T.H. Oliver shop tag, in Howard Oliver’s writing

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, this motor is a now rare example, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

A truly advanced piece of FHP induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with advanced engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Drive bearing extended, safety oilier; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; high tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset; light weight alloy end bells, taking advantage of new high tech metallurgy

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

This generation of FHP capacitor-start motor technology in many ways would stand as a consummate achievement, a kind of icon of “the art form”, made economically possible by the high market demand for FHP motors in the Post W.W.II period. It was a market, too, that was augmented by the prospects of frequency standardization, and the massive undertaking of replacing all 25 cycle motors with 60 cycle equipment.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount. Other mounting technologies were developed, but of less staying qualities, [See for example item 16.01-10 and 16.01-11].

The race was on, also, to produce an inherently safer motor, safe for the Canadian householder who was required to attend to routine maintenance tasks such as oiling. It was a period well in advance of sealed bearing technology with lifetime lubrication. Wick-oiled bronze bearings of the time required oiling quarterly. In belt driven refrigeration equipment this brought the householder in contact with a moving, compressor drive belt and whirring condenser fan blade. The design of the extended oilier tube would be a simple but significant safety feature, for householder and service man alike, allowing fingers to keep out of danger’s way.


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.158
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, with light weight alloy end bells, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, Delco, Circa 1948. [see also 12.02-2A]



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: McKinnon Industries, St. Catherines, Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M1395
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, this motor is a now rare example, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

A truly advanced piece of FHP induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with advanced engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Drive bearing extended, safety oilier; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; high tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset; Light weight alloy end bells, taking advantage of new hight tech metallurgy; The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely un-attended in the home.

This generation of FHP capacitor-start motor technology in many ways would stand as a consummate achievement, a kind of icon of “the art form”, made economically possible by the high market demand for FHP motors in the Post W.W.II period. It was a market, too, that was augmented by the prospects of frequency standardization, and the massive undertaking of replacing all 25 cycle motors with 60 cycle equipment.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It was the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technolgy that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount. Other mounting technologies were developed, but of less staying qualities, [See for example item 16.01-10 and 16.01-11].

The race was on, also, to produce an inherently safer motor, safe for the Canadian householder who was required to attend to routine maintenance tasks such as oiling. It was a period well in advance of sealed bearing technology with lifetime lubrication. Wick-oiled bronze bearings of the time required oiling quarterly. In belt driven refrigeration equipment this brought the householder in contact with a moving, compressor drive belt and whirring condenser fan blade. The design of the extended oilier tube would be a simple but significant safety feature, for householder and service man alike, allowing fingers to keep out of danger’s way.


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.159
Exhibit: Ventilation

A latter mid 20th century, high tech, 60cycle capacitor-start motor, a new lighter weight, compact generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by a market now standardized on 60cycle power; with electrolytic, chemical capacitor, inherent, heat overload protection, and automatic reset, light weight alloy end bells, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts, and adaptable base plate, Wagner, Circa 1955.



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Elecrtric, Div. of Sangamo Electric, Leasid
Make: Wagner
Model: UL14BF4723N; Ty

Technical Significance:
A truly advanced piece of FHP induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding , post W.W.II, 60 cycle, refrigeration equipment market, equipped with advanced engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Drive bearing extended, safety oilier; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; high tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset; Light weight alloy end bells, taking advantage of new high tech metallurgy

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely un-attended in the home.

This generation of FHP capacitor-start motor technology in many ways would stand as a consummate achievement, a kind of icon of “the art form”, made economically possible by the high market demand for FHP motors in the Post W.W.II period. It was now a North American market, largely standardization, on 60 cycle power.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It was the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The capacitor-start, refrigeration motor, and the advanced 20th century electrical technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would soon disappear withnthe advance of hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Industrial Significance:
With the early 1950’s came the opportunity for FHP electric motor manufactures to move too a new generation of designs and styling, as exemplified here. The FHP motor would be smaller and lighter weight technology, made possible by standardisation on 60 cycle power, the development of new more sophisticated engineering design methodologies, new materials and metallurgy, coupled with the economic incentive for development, fostered by a now larger electrically standardized, consumer market place, as well as by a rapidly expanding post W.W.II economy.

The expanding market opportunities of the early 1950’s would attract a new cohort of suppliers to the field. The number of manufactures, working with this basic technology shown here, would increase dramatically throughout the 1950’s, in addition to Delco and Wagner, among many others were: GE [see item 12.06-4], Tamper [see item 12.06-6], Century [see item 12.06-7] and Leland.

This motor stands as a marker of the rapidly expanding, mid 20th century market for FHP motor technology, serving to attract Canadian manufactures. Wagner, a well established US manufacture, like Delco, would find a Canadian manufacturing partner, here the Sangamo Company, Leaside Ontario

Part of the times was also the emergence of a new look and feel for the FHP motor, sleeker more eye appealing, as demonstrated here – less a piece of mere machinery than a mid 20th century, sophisticated piece of electrical apparatus. The new emphasis on styling and eye appeal, along with functionality and performance would reflect the influence of the industrial designer and a new body of industrial styling practice, a development, new, for the mid 20th century.

The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race was on, also, to produce an inherently safer motor, safe for the Canadian householder who was required to attend to routine maintenance tasks such as oiling. It was a period well in advance of sealed bearing technology with lifetime lubrication. Wick-oiled bronze bearings of the time required oiling quarterly. In belt driven refrigeration equipment this brought the householder in contact with a moving, compressor drive belt and whirring condenser fan blade. The design of the extended oilier tube would be a simple but significant safety feature, for householder and service man alike, allowing fingers to keep out of danger’s way.


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.160
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, all steel body, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, GE, Circa 1948. [see also 12.02-5, for similar 60 cycle design]



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: Canadian General Electric co., Toronto
Make: GE
Model: 11F111BX
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, this motor is a now rare example, representative of Canadian General Electric’s motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s. See ID #285, Item 16.02-5 for similar motor in 6o cycle. The latter with 1/4 HP rating, has a laminated stack length of 3inches and weights 30 lbs. compared with the former, with only a 1/6th HP rating, with a 4 inch laminated stack length and weighing 35 lbs.

Representative of FHP, capacitor start, induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; High tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset.

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount [see ID # 281]. GE followed Delco’s lead.

The configuration employed by GE lacks some of the advanced features used by Delco in the the same period, including light weight alloy end bells and extended drive end safety oiler [see ID # 281]


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.161
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, high tech, 60 cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, all steel body, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, GE, Circa 1955. [see also 12.02-4, for similar 25 cycle design]



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: Canadian General Electric co., Toronto
Make: GE
Model: 11F122B
Features:
Original cable connector illustrating trade practices of the time

Technical Significance:
Provides a graphic contrast between 25 and 60 cycle design practice by GE. See ID #284, Item 16.02-4 for similar motor in 25 cycle. The latter with 1/6th HP rating, has a laminated stack length of 4 inches and weights 35 lbs. compared with the former, with a 1/4 HP rating, with only a 3 inch laminated stack length and a weight of 30 lbs.

Representative of FHP, capacitor start, induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; High tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset.

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount [see ID # 281]. GE followed Delco’s lead.

The configuration employed by GE lacks some of the advanced features used by Delco in the the same period, including light weight alloy end bells and extended drive end safety oiler [see ID # 281]


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Tamper’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.162
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, high tech, 60 cycle capacitor-start motor, made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor and inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount, engineered by a small, start-up Canadian Company, it tells many stories of the exceptionalities of its life and times. Tamper, Circa 1955.



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Tamper’
Manufacturer: Tamper Electric, Montreal
Make: Tamper
Model: MPR-1451-15BK
Features:
Carries Ontario Hydro brass identification plate: HEPC Stock NO. P56-02-22-12-308-0002

Technical Significance:
An historical artifact of the post W.W.II years in the evolution of FHP motor technology in Canada, which although un-remarkable in matters of innovation and excellence, tells important stories of the exceptionalities of its times:

Of one of the largest and most sophisticated engineering mega-projects in Canadian history, frequency standardization in Ontario

The remarkable, although short lived period of expansion of the Canadian FHP motor manufacturing industry,

The manner in which the industry attracted new entrance, as small start-up companies, such as Tamper, as well as large manufactures with almost un-limited economic and engineering resources to draw on, such as GE [see ID#285 and 284]

Representative of FHP, capacitor start, induction motor technology, built for the post W.W.II rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; High tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset.

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

The motor exemplifies increasingly sophisticated developments in the field of electrolytic condensers, on which the capacitor start motor depended for its performance. Capacitors were getting smaller and more reliable, as well as appearing in more sophisticated, high tensile strength plastic enclosures sealed against moisture and with built-in, easy release, snap mounting brackets

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Century’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.163
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, high tech, 60 cycle capacitor-start motor, made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with ball bearings, totally enclosed, all steel body with slotted, rigid base for general utility applications in damp environments , Century, Circa 1958.



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Century’
Manufacturer: Century Electric St Louis Mo.
Make: Century
Model: CSH-65L-DHC3-3F
Features:
Original electrical connector illustrating trade practices of the period

Technical Significance:
The motor exemplifies increasingly sophisticated developments in the field of electrolytic condensers, on which the capacitor start motor depended for its performance. Capacitors were getting smaller and more reliable, through the 1950’s.

Exemplifies the design and engineering of general utility, totally enclosed, ball bearing applications engineered for damp locations.

Industrial Significance:
Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]


Single phase, AC induction motor ‘Apex’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.164
Exhibit: Ventilation

A very early 20th century, single phase, alternating current induction motor, to be found in commercial production, uses the resistance phase splitting principle to produce self-starting, equipped with bronze sleeve bearings with external oil reservoirs and spring loaded wick oilers with snap caps, drip proof steel housing and external electric wiring junction box, for use in Canadian homes of the period on cloths washing machines, Apex, date unknown.



Item: Single phase, AC induction motor ‘Apex’
Manufacturer: The Apex Electric Mfg Co., Cleveland and Toronto
Make: Apex
Model: Type WG
Features:
With original service tag in Howard Oliver’s hand writing “Troyers, Oakridges”, Troyers operated a farm on the Oak Ridges Moraine, an hour north of Toronto in the early years of the 20th century

Technical Significance:
An exemplar of a rare, early 25 cycle, split phase, induction motor production, for home applications, typically in an early electric washing machine

Industrial Significance:
An icon of the earliest years of commercial electric motor design and production for use in the homes, of those that could afford labour saving electric appliances, and living in homes that enjoyed the recognized benefits of home electrification


Split phase, induction motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.165
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early mid 20th century split phase, induction motor with sealed [now pierced] bearings, built for the then rapidly expanding home appliance industry in post WW2 Canada, used on an early cloths drier, it is equipped a twin belt, single piece pulley, part of a drive technology of the period developed by Kenmore and sold by the Robert Simpson Co. one of Canada’s historic department stores of note. GE, Circa 1955.



Item: Split phase, induction motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: Canadian General Electric Co. Toronto
Make: GE
Model: 11F281
Features:
Equipped with an early version of so called “sealed bearings”, which were promoted as life time bearing requiring no oiling

Equipped a twin belt, single piece pulley, part of a drive technology of the period developed by Kenmore

Technical Significance:
Defines the engineering design idiom for split-phase, motor technology employed throughout the middle years of the 20th century, moving through the mature years of this genre towards the end of the century, when a new genre would progressively emerge, smaller, lighter and more energy efficient.

Marked an early attempt by manufacturers to produce a motor with “lifetime” sealed bearings requiring no oiling in the normal course of a lifetime of use. In fact electro-motorized appliance were becoming increasingly compacted, enclosed in high style cabinets which made service all but impossible, except by the trained appliance repair worker. As a result the sealed cap on the bearing became as much a recognition of the fact that the motor would never get oiled, then a marker of any special provisions made for prolonged bearing life. Whether motors made for such applications were equipped with oil caps or not was irrelevant. It would be several decades before a truly lifetime sealed, sleeve bearing would appear on the consumer appliance market.

Representative of a period of increasing innovation in the development of electro- motor enabled, home appliance technology, it is equipped with a twin belt, single piece pulley, part of a cloths drier drive technology for the period developed by Kenmore and sold by the Robert Simpson Co., one of Canada’s historic department stores of note. GE, Circa 1955.

Industrial Significance:
A marker of split phase electric motor production in Canada and the US, in the latter years of the 20th century. Manufactured in the hundreds of thousands, by GE and other manufacturers, it stands as an icon of its times, marking the first great period mass production and marketing of electric, motorized household appliances, now made possible by wide spread home electrification.


Split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.166
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early mid 20th century split phase, induction motor with ball bearings, built for the then rapidly expanding home workshop equipment industry in post W.W.II Canada, equipped with hefty 1/2 horsepower rating and manual reset over load protection, it would be a marker of a significant cultural shift in male leisure time pursuits, Delco, Circa 1958.



Item: Split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Mckinnon Industries St Catherines Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M253901
Features:
Shop service tag in Howard Olivers hand writing “Checks OK Jan, 75

Technical Significance:
Exemplifies the evolution of inherent, automatic overload protection devices with manual reset, a prerequisite requirement for home hobby shop equipment:

Such applications typically rewired low starting torque [as on circular saws, but moderate horse power, current ratings, which could readily lead to burn out under high load conditions

Motors were built for an affordable market and were built inexpensively, with little tolerance for prolonged loading [over loading],

While automatic overload protection was considered an essential safety precaution, both for personal and property reasons, automatic reset would constitute a safety hazard, allowing the equipment to come back on out of control of operator,

Defines the engineering design idiom for split-phase, low starting torque, motor technology employed throughout the middle years of the 20th century in home appliances and hobby shop equipment, moving through the mature years of this genre towards the end of the century, when a new genre would progressively emerge, smaller, lighter and more energy efficient.

Industrial Significance:
The motor stands as a relatively rare marker of a breed of home hobby shop motor which would soon disappear. The stand alone, home hobby shop motor as a product of the post W.W.II market place, would be a relatively short lived phenomena. Early power tools of the period were, designed for the home work shop were of the conventional belt drive type, through the 1950’s to 80’s, but the trend was increasingly to much more integrated designs in which the motor was built into the equipment, itself, as an inherent design component.

A marker of split phase electric motor production in Canada and the US, in the latter years of the 20th century. Manufactured in the hundreds of thousands, by Delco, GE and other manufacturers, it stands as an icon of its times, marking the first great period mass production and marketing of electric, motorized household appliances and hobby shop equipment, now made possible by wide spread home electrification.


Affordable split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.167
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early mid 20th century, split phase, affordable, induction motor, for general utility applications, built for an open, FHP electric motor market for use on light duty power equipment around the house, shop and farm. With hefty 1/3 horsepower rating, it serves as a marker of the vast in roads made by electro motive technology on every nook and cranny of popular Canadian life style by the 1950’s, Delco, Circa 1956.



Item: Affordable split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Mckinnon Industries St Catherines Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M2480A1
Features:
Shop service tag in Howard Olivers hand writing “Checks OK Jan, 75; Original wiring harness illustrating electrical wiring practices of the period

Technical Significance:
A remarkable, yet un- remarkable piece of electro motive technology of its time. It would be remarkable in the state of motive technology it represented, a level of remarkable achievement in engineering, mass production, and marketing as popular consumer product, all achieved in less then two decades [see ID#280]. Yet built for a low cost market, it would be quite un-remarkable in its lack of function and feature characterizing special purpose motors of the same period, including high starting torque, automatic over heat protection.

It defines the engineering design idiom for split-phase, low starting torque, motor technology employed throughout the middle years of the 20th century, in general utility applications for home, shop and farm, moving through the mature years of this genre towards the end of the century, when a new genre would progressively emerge, smaller, lighter and more energy efficient.


1/40 HP shaded pole induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.187
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early mid 20th century, 25 cycle, 1/40 th HP shaded pole, single phase induction motor, equipped with rigid base engineered for use on Kelvinator commercial refrigeration fan-coil cooling unit applications, commonly found in walk-in coolers in food stores and small cold storage plants throughout the pre W.W.II years and beyond to frequency standardization. It would help to change the expectations of Canadians about what was at the their local food store Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1948.



Item: 1/40 HP shaded pole induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Corporation, Saint Louis Mo.
Make: Wagner
Model: BY115A1992
Features:
– With original shop tag, T. H. Oliver Engineering Sales and Service, “New 25 cycle…..Kelv. coil……”

Technical Significance:
– Exemplifying the relative weight and bulk expected of 25 cycle motor technology of the times, compared with 60 cycle motors which followed frequency standardisation in Canada in the latter 1940’s – see for example ID#312
– A new and unused 25 cycle motor left behind at the time of frequency standardisation, it tells the story of one of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario – a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A one-of-a-kind, just-in-time technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


1/60 HP, 60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.188
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, 1/36 th HP, Canadian made, shaded pole, single phase induction motor, engineered for use on small commercial refrigeration fan-coil cooling unit applications, commonly found in walk-in coolers in food stores throughout the early post W.W.II years and beyond. It would help to change the expectations of Canadians about what was at the their local food store, Robins Myers, Circa 1952.



Item: 1/60 HP, 60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor
Manufacturer: Robins Myers of Canada Limited, Brantford
Make: Robins Myers
Model: Type T1-AEZ1, Frame C32

Technical Significance:
– Small, light weight and efficient, it is an example of the elegant and sophisticated, shaded pole motor technology that quickly emerged in Canada in the post W.W.II years, as a response to the market opportunities following frequency standardization and the rapid growth of the commercial refrigeration industry.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which encouraged US electric motor manufactures, like Robins Myers, to establish facilities in Canada, as well as Canadian manufactures to enter the field – see ID#313.
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics make the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A one-of-a-kind, just-in-time technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.189
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, Canadian made, shaded pole induction motor, engineered for use on small commercial refrigeration fan-coil cooling unit applications, commonly found on walk-in coolers in food stores throughout the early post W.W.II years and beyond. It would help to change the expectations of Canadians about what their local merchant had in store for them, Electrohome, Circa 1956.



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor
Manufacturer: Electrohome, Kitchener, Ont
Make: Electrohome
Model: 2828-53-12-03

Technical Significance:
– Small, light weight and efficient, it is an example of the elegant and sophisticated, shaded pole motor technology that quickly emerged in Canada in the post W.W.II years, as a response to the market opportunities following frequency standardization and the rapid growth of the commercial refrigeration industry.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which encouraged electric appliance and equipment manufacturers to enter the small motor’s – see also ID#312.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would rigger a movement in the commercial refrigeration industry solidly towards more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, in preference to natural or gravity systems [i.e., fan coil units replaced much static fin coils].


60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.190
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, Canadian made, shaded pole, induction motor, with custom fan hub, engineered for use on small commercial refrigeration fan-coil cooling unit applications, commonly found in food display cases throughout the 1950’s through 70’s, helping to change the face of Canadian food merchandising in Canada, with greater range of fresh vegetables and meat products, often held in refrigerated self-service display cases, Electrohome, Circa 1965. [see also ID#315 to 317]



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor
Manufacturer: Electrohome, Kitchener, Ont
Make: Electrohome
Model: 2828-53-12-03

Technical Significance:
– With custom fan hub, the motor would mark the increasing customization of shaded pole induction motor technology, matching it physically, as well as electrically and mechanically to the unique needs of equipment manufactures [See ID# 315 to 317]
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would trigger a movement in the commercial refrigeration industry solidly towards more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, in preference to natural or gravity systems [i.e., fan coil units replaced much static fin coils].
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which encouraged electric appliance and equipment manufacturers to enter the small motor’s – see also ID#312.
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics make it ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A one-of-a-kind, just-in-time technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.191
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, Canadian made, shaded pole, induction motor, with custom three point, vibration isolating, vertical mount, engineered for fan coil applications on refrigerated self-service display cases, used throughout the 1960’s and beyond, helping to change the face of Canadian food merchandising in Canada, with greater range of fresh vegetables and meat products as well as frozen foods, all now available self-service, Electrohome, Circa 1963. [one of a matched set of 3, new and unused, see also ID#316 and 317]



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor
Manufacturer: Electrohome, Kitchener, Ont
Make: Electrohome
Model: 18-53-05-07

Technical Significance:
– Representative of a new generation of sleek, compact, more electrically efficient and customized shaded pole motor technology for the 1960’s
– Designed for vertical mounting these motors, would typically be found in multiples of two, three, four or more arranged along the length of the refrigerated display case.
– New for the times, as a protection against personal and property damage due to over heating, these motors are equipped with “lock rotor protection”, ensuring that motor exciting current would not exceed safe levels even if the motor stalled.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would help move the Canadian commercial refrigeration industry solidly into a new generation of more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, making possible a wide range of new refrigeration appliances and fresh and frozen food merchandizers.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– One of a matched set of three motors, all of the same serial number, suggests that they came from the same production run in Electrohome’s Kitchener Ontario plant in 1963.
– The set of three identical motors represents the mode of application in which multiple motors where used together in a single refrigerated self service case
– All new, unused and pristine the set provides an authentic reflection of the engineering, production, materials and manufacturing processes of the period
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which among other things would encourage electric appliance and equipment manufacturers, like Electrohome, to enter the small motor’s [see also ID#312].
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.192
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, Canadian made, shaded pole, induction motor, with custom three point, vibration isolating, vertical mount, engineered for fan coil applications on refrigerated self-service display cases, used throughout the 1960’s and beyond, helping to change the face of Canadian food merchandising in Canada, with greater range of fresh vegetables and meat products as well as frozen foods, all now available self-service, Electrohome, Circa 1963. [two of a matched set of 3, all new and unused, see also ID#315 and 317]



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor
Manufacturer: Electrohome, Kitchener, Ont
Make: Electrohome
Model: 18-53-05-07

Technical Significance:
– Representative of a new generation of sleek, compact, more electrically efficient and customized shaded pole motor technology for the 1960’s
– Designed for vertical mounting these motors, would typically be found in multiples of two, three, four or more arranged along the length of the refrigerated display case.
– New for the times, as a protection against personal and property damage due to over heating, these motors are equipped with “lock rotor protection”, ensuring that motor exciting current would not exceed safe levels even if the motor stalled.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would help move the Canadian commercial refrigeration industry solidly into a new generation of more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, making possible a wide range of new refrigeration appliances and fresh and frozen food merchandizers.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– One of a matched set of three motors, all of the same serial number, suggests that they came from the same production run in Electrohome’s Kitchener Ontario plant in 1963.
– The set of three identical motors represents the mode of application in which multiple motors where used together in a single refrigerated self service case
– All new, unused and pristine the set provides an authentic reflection of the engineering, production, materials and manufacturing processes of the period
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which among other things would encourage electric appliance and equipment manufacturers, like Electrohome, to enter the small motor’s [see also ID#312].
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.193
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, Canadian made, shaded pole, induction motor, with custom three point, vibration isolating, vertical mount, engineered for fan coil applications on refrigerated self-service display cases, used throughout the 1960’s and beyond, helping to change the face of Canadian food merchandising in Canada, with greater range of fresh vegetables and meat products as well as frozen foods, all now available self-service, Electrohome, Circa 1963. [two of a matched set of 3, all new and unused, see also ID#315 and 316]



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor
Manufacturer: Electrohome, Kitchener, Ont
Make: Electrohome
Model: 18-53-05-07

Technical Significance:
– Representative of a new generation of sleek, compact, more electrically efficient and customized shaded pole motor technology for the 1960’s
– Designed for vertical mounting these motors, would typically be found in multiples of two, three, four or more arranged along the length of the refrigerated display case.
– New for the times, as a protection against personal and property damage due to over heating, these motors are equipped with “lock rotor protection”, ensuring that motor exciting current would not exceed safe levels even if the motor stalled.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would help move the Canadian commercial refrigeration industry solidly into a new generation of more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, making possible a wide range of new refrigeration appliances and fresh and frozen food merchandizers.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– One of a matched set of three motors, all of the same serial number, suggests that they came from the same production run in Electrohome’s Kitchener Ontario plant in 1963.
– The set of three identical motors represents the mode of application in which multiple motors where used together in a single refrigerated self service case
– All new, unused and pristine the set provides an authentic reflection of the engineering, production, materials and manufacturing processes of the period
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which among other things would encourage electric appliance and equipment manufacturers, like Electrohome, to enter the small motor’s [see also ID#312].
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.194
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor, suspended on three point rubber vibration isolating mount, from two legged pedestal, with 10 inch 4 blade fan, engineered for condenser fan coil applications on hermetic refrigeration units. Used throughout the 1960’s and beyond, it helped to make possible a new generation of quieter more efficient commercial refrigeration equipment and appliances, Delco Circa 1964.



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products, General Motors Corp, Dayton
Make: Delco
Model: A7839, Type SST, Universal No. 506035

Technical Significance:
– Representative of a new generation of sleek, compact, more electrically efficient, and customized shaded pole motor technology, for the mid 1960’s.
– With a totally sealed body and bearings, it was a marker of the now rapidly emerging body of engineering and manufacturing practice, moving to a “parts replacement” culture, from the traditional “parts repair” mode of operation.
– The small shaded pole condenser fan motor was a key development in the evolution of the hermetically sealed, commercial refrigeration condensing unit. The refrigeration compressor and drive motor had all of a sudden disappeared, what emerged in its place was a new configuration, with no drive belts, pulleys or drive motor to be seen. The new “hermetically sealed” configuration would be more efficient, quieter, reliable and maintainable. The drive motor was now “unobtrusive” [the motor had disappeared], and “inherent” [part of the compressor], as well as having become “embedded” [in a single envelope} in matters of engineering concept and design. But this new, innovative design concept left behind no compressor motor drive hub on which to mount a fan blade for condenser cooling. Shaded pole motor technology would arrive
– “just-in-time” to take its place and enable a new future for commercial refrigerated appliances and equipment.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would help move the Canadian commercial refrigeration industry solidly into a new generation of more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, making possible a wide range of new refrigeration appliances and fresh and frozen food merchandizers.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.
– A highly innovative shaded pole motor application by Delco, this configuration would become a classic of the commercial refrigeration industry, found on many refrigeration manufacture’s condensing units, here marked specifically for Universal Cooler Co.


60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.195
Exhibit: Ventilation

A heavy duty, mid 20th century, 60 cycle, 1/20 HP, shaded pole, induction fan motor, custom designed for GE window air conditioner, evaporator and condenser application. Equipped with rubber, torsion 2 point mounting and inherent, automatic overload protection, it helped to make possible a new generation of affordable, larger capacity, quieter more efficient “through-the-wall” [window] air conditioners which changed for ever the expectations of Canadians about what to do about the summer’s heat, GE, Circa 1964. [1 of a set of 3, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, see also ID#320 and 321]



Item: 60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: General Electric, Fort Wayne Ind.
Make: GE
Model: 5KSP21DG1834AS

Technical Significance:
– 1 of a set of 3, shaded pole, custom designed motors, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, in order to fit the specialized requirements of different air conditioner manufacturers, models, and model years, for example in matters of horsepower, starting torque, rotation, inherent automatic thermal protection, etc [see also ID#320 and 321].
– Equipped with torsion, rubber vibration mountings, and automatic, recycling, inherent overload protection, It would be representative of an 1960’s, generation of heavy, fan-duty, customized shaded pole motor technology, for the now rapidly maturing through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market.
– With a totally sealed body and bearings, it was a marker of the now rapidly emerging body of engineering and manufacturing practice, moving to a “parts replacement” culture, from the traditional “parts repair” mode of operation.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation, air conditioning and ventilation where imperatives.
– By the mid 1960’s the through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market was rapidly maturing, providing the Canadian public an affordable solution to spikes in summer heat that her-to-for could not have been imagined. The innovative, unitary engineering concept with cooling and heat rejection equipment all in the same cabinet made it readily installed by the do-it-yourself’s, without special tools and equipment. Air conditioners had become the newest home appliance.


60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.196
Exhibit: Ventilation

A heavy duty, mid 20th century, 60 cycle, 1/20 HP, shaded pole, induction fan motor, custom designed for GE window air conditioner, evaporator and condenser application. Equipped with rubber, torsion 2 point vibration isolating mounting, it helped to make possible a new generation of affordable, larger capacity, quieter more efficient “through-the-wall” [window] air conditioners which changed for ever the expectations of Canadians about what to do about the summer’s heat, GE, Circa 1964. [2 of a set of 3, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, see also ID#319 and 321]



Item: 60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: General Electric, Fort Wayne Ind.
Make: GE
Model: 5KSP21DG941B

Technical Significance:
– 1 of a set of 3, shaded pole, custom designed motors, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, in order to fit the specialized requirements of different air conditioner manufacturers, models, and model years, for example in matters of horsepower, starting torque, rotation, inherent automatic thermal protection, etc [see also ID#319 and 321].
– Equipped with torsion, rubber vibration mountings, and automatic, recycling, inherent overload protection, It would be representative of an 1960’s, generation of heavy, fan-duty, customized shaded pole motor technology, for the now rapidly maturing through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market.
– With a totally sealed body and bearings, it was a marker of the now rapidly emerging body of engineering and manufacturing practice, moving to a “parts replacement” culture, from the traditional “parts repair” mode of operation.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation, air conditioning and ventilation where imperatives.
– By the mid 1960’s the through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market was rapidly maturing, providing the Canadian public an affordable solution to spikes in summer heat that her-to-for could not have been imagined. The innovative, unitary engineering concept with cooling and heat rejection equipment all in the same cabinet made it readily installed by the do-it-yourself’s, without special tools and equipment. Air conditioners had become the newest home appliance.


“embedded” shaded pole induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.198
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early “embedded” application of shaded pole induction motor technology, as an “inherent” component of a small, direct drive, water circulating pump assembly. With plastic pump housing and impeller blade, and its own 8 blade cooling fan, it would be a marker of a new, trend setting, much more integrated approach to the engineering of electro-motive devices for the 1950 and beyond, in which the motor itself has become “unobtrusive” part of a larger whole, Gorman-Rupp, circa 1955.



Item: “embedded” shaded pole induction motor
Manufacturer: Gorman-Rupp Industries, Bellville, Ohio
Make: Gorman-Rupp

Technical Significance:
– An example of an early, trend setting, “embedded” application of shaded pole induction motor technology, as an “inherent” component of a small, direct drive, water circulating pump assembly, marking the movement to more integrated and holistic approach to the engineering of electro-motive devices for the 1950 and beyond, in which the motor itself has become “unobtrusive” part of a larger whole.
– A rare view of an early embedded shaded pole motor application, engineered as an inherent component of a small direct drive, water circulating pump assembly. Seen as cost saving measure, such assemblies, also made more economical on 60 cycle, would become increasingly popular, following frequency standardization in the late 1940’s in Canada on household appliances – for example on automatic dish washers and laundry equipment.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan and pump applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air and water circulation, air conditioning and ventilation where imperatives.


Electric motor sleeve bearings

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.202
Exhibit: Ventilation

Early mid 20th century, bronze alloy, FHP electric motor sleeve bearings, split bearing design, with spiral oil grooves, adapted for automatic wick oiling. A “state-of-the-art”, self oiling bearing developed for electric motors for use in Canadian homes, where long life and reliable performance would be expected, without the constant attention of an “operating engineer” with oil can in hand [set of two], manufacturer unknown, Circa 1948.


Short circuiting ring

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.203
Exhibit: Ventilation

A rare view of an early 1930’s, short circuiting ring [necklace], constructed of copper, stamped and formed, segments, hand strung on fine wire, approximately 40 to the inch, part of the centrifugally operated, automatic short circuiting mechanism, used to convert a high torque, repulsion start, induction run, single phase motors from repulsion start to induction run operation, representative of the complex, innovative engineering, manufacturing and craftsmanship represented in this early technology, [See ID# 296, item 16.01-5], Wagner, Circa 1932].


Electric brush lifter carton

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.204
Exhibit: Ventilation

A Canadian made, mid 20th century, classic Leland Electric brush lifter, carton only, for repulsion induction, single phase motor. A stencilled carton with graphics in blue and yellow, it would be representative of the newly emerging field of industrial graphic design of the times. As well as it would be a marker of the ever increasing importance of the “technology after-market”, supplying Canadian consumers of the new popular technologies invading their homes [post WWII electric and electronic appliances] with the replacement parts needed to help ensure satisfaction, Leland, Circa 1948. [See ID# 308, item 16.01-14]


Rubber equipment mountings

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.205
Exhibit: Ventilation

A collection of rubber mountings for vibration isolating, and quieting of electro-motive equipment. The 13 varieties included are representative of the proliferation and diversity of innovative solutions devised by the middle of the 20th century. Vibration and sound control quickly emerged as a critical engineering requirement for the wide spread acceptance of electro-motive technology by Canadian homes and places of business, manufacturers unknown, Circa 1948.


‘Slow blow’ fuse

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.206
Exhibit: Ventilation

The “fusetat’ [later fusetron] was an early step in the evolution of personal and property damage protection resulting from electric motor overload , on the way to fully automatic, inherent, overload protection for FHP motors used in Canadian homes and commercial establishments. Conceived as a special kind of “slow-blow”, throw-away fuse, it lacked the ability to re-close. As a consequence many owners would find their refrigerator off, with resultant food spoilage. The fully automatic, re-closing overload protector [See ID#331] would still be close to a decade away, before it saw wide spread application, Buss Fusetat, 1934.


Overload protector

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.207
Exhibit: Ventilation

Thermal disk, snap action, automatic re-closing, overload protector mounted on original motor manufacturer’s mounting plate, A key step in the evolution of personal and property damage protection resulting from FHP electric motor overload [over heating]. Overload, safety devices that re-closed automatically after cooling, built into the compressor motor itself, would be the final step in the development of refrigeration equipment that would operate un-attended, fully protected, while cycling automatically to maintain a set refrigerated temperature.


Miniature motor armature

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.208
Exhibit: Ventilation

Miniature armature for universal, AC – DC electric motor, equipped with wound rotor, commutator, inherent cooling fan and splined shaft, engineered for custom application, possibly and electric fan, electric drill, vacuum cleaner, or food processor. An engineering and manufacturing wonder of the early to mid 20th century, such technology would help to trigger a “sea change” in Canadian consumer expectations of the good things that the electric appliance industry had in store, manufacturer unknown, circa 1948.


Electric motor test block

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.209
Exhibit: Ventilation

An improvised, FHP, electric motor test block, locally made using standard home electrification hardware components found in the Canadian home of the 1920s to 40’s. Reflecting the ingenuity of HVACR mechanics of the times, the device when connected in series with a potentially faulty motor, limited the current flow, thus protecting the motor and the operator, locally made, circa 1946.


Refrigerator test analyser

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.210
Exhibit: Ventilation

A portable, household refrigerator, electrical test analyser in handsome wooden carrying case, locally made using an assembly of old electrical and radio test gear. Reflecting the ingenuity of an early HVACR mechanic, the device provided for fused fault protection, current limiting load protection and continuity testing, as well as providing for the measurement of applied voltage and load current, locally made, circa 1946.


Run time recorder

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.211
Exhibit: Ventilation

An improvised, cumulative running time operations recorder, making use of an electric, bedroom alarm clock, wiring harness, spring clips and rubber insulating sleeves. Reflecting the ingenuity of HVACR mechanics of the times the device, when connected in parallel with an automatic heating or refrigeration system, effectively measured the total time of operation within a 24 hour period, locally made, circa 1946.


Analogue ammeter

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.212
Exhibit: Ventilation

A portable, induction type, clamp-on, analogue ammeter and voltmeter in hansom, now well used, black leather case with spring clip. Reflecting a new generation of HVACR test equipment emerging in the 1950’s, it measured current on 6 scales from 6 to 300 amps, and voltage on three scales from 150 to 600 volts, Amprobe, circa 1955.


Rotary tachometer

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.213
Exhibit: Ventilation

A portable, hand-held, rotary, tachometer, calibrated from 400 to 4,000 RPM, equipped with rubber friction drive. Among other things the device would be a marker of the increasingly sophisticated test and measurement equipment used by HVACR technicians involved in system applications and equipment re-engineering, as the mid 20th century emerged, Corbin Screw Corp. New Britain, Conn.. Circa 1945.


Set of inside diameter gauges

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.214
Exhibit: Ventilation

Set of 4 telescoping inside gauges, range ? inch to 2 1/8 inches, varying in thousands of an inch. Each is beautifully crafted in machine steel with spring loaded plunger, knurled handle and knurled locking screw embedded in the handle, an example of the precision tools available to Canadian machinists and HVACR mechanics by the 1940’s – on which they would depend. Used, among other things, to measure the inside diameter of electric motor bearings, compressor cylinder displacement etc. In hansom, slide-top, wooden box, Model 229, Starrett, Circa 1942.


Two inch Micrometer calliper

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.215
Exhibit: Ventilation

Two inch Micrometer calliper for measuring by thousandths from one inch to two inches, with ratchet stop, knurled handle, and fraction/decimal equivalent chart engraved on yoke in 32nds and 64ths. An example of the precision tools available to Canadian machinists and HVACR mechanics by the 1940’s – on which they would be dependent. Used, among other things, to measure the diameter of electric motor bearings, compressor pistons, etc. Beranta, Circa 1942.


Bearing scraper

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.216
Exhibit: Ventilation

An 11 inch, narrow, bearing scraper, with 3 inch blade, designed for “modern bearings”, with black, turned, wooden handle and steel furl, an early 20th century tool for hand fitting journal bearings, “VLC4BK” CLEV’D.O., Circa 1930.


4 blade small bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.217
Exhibit: Ventilation

Set of 4 blade, small bearing reamers in sizes from ? to 7/16 inches, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of small, FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1940’s through 1960’s. Set of 7 enclosed in original blue, heavy card, custom case, with Beard logo and name plate stencilled in gold and blue, Circa 1945.


6 blade bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.218
Exhibit: Ventilation

Set of 6 blade, bearing reamers in sizes from 7/16 to 1 1/8 inches, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1930’s through 1960’s. Set of 9 enclosed in original heavy oak, clear varnished, custom case with manufacturer’s label, insignia and specifications in gold and black, Circa 1939.


Long 6 blade bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.219
Exhibit: Ventilation

Set of 6 blade, extra long, alignment bearing reamers, six in Snap-On, Blue Point case, sizes from ? to 1 1/16; with four supplementary reamers to extend range from 9/16 to 15/16, all with tapered self-alignment pilots, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1950’s through 1960’s, Variously made by Snap-On, Joborn and Webco, Circa 1958.


Room air conditioner ‘Frigidaire’

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Air Conditioners

Accession # HHCC.2003.006
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Household, Through-the-Window, Room Air Conditioner, Frigidaire, 1956.



Item: Room air conditioner ‘Frigidaire’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Products Canada Ltd, Scarborough, Ont
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Super 33

Features:
Automatic temperature control, Outside fresh air damper Air filter Complete, original installation kit

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen stands as a marker of the embryonic years of household air conditioning in Canada. While vastly under powered, by the standards that would follow, it was for most urban dwellers affordable and a significant market opener.

Industrial Significance:
The development of high heat transfer, capacity compressors, condensers, evaporators and flow control devices, at a price that home owners were likely to find affordable, would be a major challenge and success story for the refrigeration industry in the early years of home air conditioning. The industry would quickly adapting what had been learned in the design of reliable hermetic compressors and coiling for the food industry to high heat transfer systems required for household air conditioning applications.Suddenly the refrigeration and air conditioning industry expanded dramatically with a number of new non-traditional players designing, manufacturing and marketing equipment for household and commercial applications. In the face of increasing competition from manufactures with massive engineering and production facilities, many of the traditional suppliers to the refrigeration field would quickly fade from their earlier position of market leadership, including Kelvinator and Frigidaire.


Plate and tube evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.021
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Early plate and tube refrigerant evaporator, fabricated in 3/8″ copper tube, with 2″x 16″ rolled copper header with soldered end plates and refrigerant access port; 2 ” tinned copper, brake formed fins, soldered to 16x 24″, brake formed, tinned copper backing plate,1926.



Item: Plate and tube evaporator
Make: Hand made

Industrial Significance:
This historic relic is, in a sense, representative of the embryonic and earliest development years of any industri3es beginnings. It is here when those with skills, interests, tools and entrepreneurial energy find themselves captivated by the possibilities of the moment, striking out to see what successes are to be had. The birth and early years of the Canadian HVACR industry would be characterised by just such adventurers, whether in heating, ventilation, air conditioning or refrigeration.
As carriage makers found themselves imagining themselves in the early years of the automobile business, so metal shops and mechanics would see in the earliest rumblings of HVACR possibilities and opportunities for new human experience, personal growth and development, as well as economic return for their efforts.


3 tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.022
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Three tray, ice maker evaporator with low-side float, using an early form of modular design and construction, made in tinned copper tube and brake formed copper sheet. Cooling unit and icemaker for small commercial cabinet refrigerator, Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: 3 tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division, General Motors Corp.,Dayton O
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Marked 25 1/4 M
Features:
Of special interest is the “building block” construction design technique adopted here. An early example of modular construction concept, the design allows additional ice cube tray slide in boxes to be added for constructing larger capacity cooling units (See items 023,024, 025). By the use of modular construction it was possible to “grow an ice maker evaporator, and that is exactly what was done – as items 023, 024, and 025 demonstrate. Considerable economy in manufacture and assembly was possible, with predictable performance.Note the attention to the design of the lower tray box, constructed to be used as a deep drawer or for bulk frozen food, it would double as a 2 tray ice cube maker by sliding in a metal divider shelf

Technical Significance:
See background notes on technological significance of early mechanical cooling units (evaporator), THOC-HVACR inventory item 011.This specimen is representative of the proliferation of models and sizes of low-side float operated evaporators of the period, largely by Kelvinator and Figidaire, as they attempted to stretch this making technology to its limit. Dinosaur like, costly, complicated and trouble prone by comparison with the evaporator technologies that would shortly follow, this genre would largely disappear from manufacture’s catalogues by the early 1930’s, although would be operational in the field until after WWII.
To contrast the weight, size, seeming complexity, as well as materials and manufacturing costs with the technology reflected in inventory items 015 to 021 is instructive. The classic process of progressive simplification in technological innovation and change is well exemplified.

Industrial Significance:
With complex, demanding construction, the evaporator would make many demands on manufacturing and materials engineering in the early years of the 20th century.


3 tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.023
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Three tray, ice maker evaporator with low-side float, in tinned copper tube and brake formed copper sheet, cooling unit for small commercial cabinet refrigerator, similar to #022, Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: 3 tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division, General Motors Corp.,Dayton O
Make: Frigidaire

Technical Significance:
See background notes on technological significance of early mechanical cooling units (evaporator), THOC-HVACR inventory item 011.This specimen is representative of the proliferation of models and sizes of low-side float operated evaporators of the period, largely by Kelvinator and Figidaire, as they attempted to stretch this ice making technology to its limit. Dinosaur like, costly, complicated and trouble prone by comparison with the evaporator technologies that would shortly follow, this genre would largely disappear from manufacture’s catalogues by the early 1930’s, although would be operational in the field until after WWII – requiring repair shops to rebuild an calibrate floats and needle seats.
To contrast the weight, size, seeming complexity, as well as materials and manufacturing costs with the technology reflected in inventory items 015 to 021 is instructive. The classic process of progressive simplification in technological innovation and change is well exemplified.

Industrial Significance:
With complex, demanding construction, the evaporator would make many demands on manufacturing and materials engineering in the early years of the 20th century.


4 tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.024
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Four tray, ice maker evaporator with low-side float, using an early form of modular construction, in tinned copper tube and brake formed copper sheet. Cooling unit with gleaming porcelain tray pulls, for small commercial cabinet refrigerator, similar to #022, #023 Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: 4 tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division, General Motors Corp.,Dayton O
Make: Frigidaire
Features:
The early form of modular construction employed allowed the manufacturer to “grow” their evaporators using standard off the shelf components, with relatively predictable performance.

Technical Significance:
See background notes on technological significance of early mechanical cooling units (evaporator), THOC-HVACR inventory item 011.This specimen is representative of the proliferation of models and sizes of low-side float operated evaporators of the period, largely by Kelvinator and Figidaire, as they attempted to stretch this ice making technology to its limit. Dinosaur like, costly, complicated and trouble prone by comparison with the evaporator technologies that would shortly follow, this genre would largely disappear from manufacture’s catalogues by the early 1930’s, although would be operational in the field until after WWII – requiring repair shops to rebuild an calibrate floats and needle seats.
To contrast the weight, size, seeming complexity, as well as materials and manufacturing costs with the technology reflected in inventory items 015 to 021 is instructive. The classic process of progressive simplification in technological innovation and change is well exemplified.

Industrial Significance:
With complex, demanding construction, the evaporator would make many demands on manufacturing and materials engineering in the early years of the 20th century.


6 tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.025
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Six tray, ice maker evaporator with low-side float, using an early form of modular construction, in tinned copper tube and brake formed copper sheet. Cooling unit with shiny tinned copper ice cube trays with gleaming polished chrome tray pulls, for large, commercial, ice maker, cabinet refrigerator, similar to the smaller items #022, #023, #024, Of the genre of the first commercial, North American ice making machine, Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: 6 tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division, General Motors Corp.,Dayton O
Make: Frigidaire
Features:
The early form of modular construction employed allowed the manufacturer to “grow” their evaporators using standard off the shelf components, with relatively predictable performance. The ice cube trays are believed to have been re-tinned and the fronts re-chromed, as part of the refurbishing of the icemaker in T. H. Oliver’s repair shop in Aurora Ontario prior to re application in the 1950’s.

Technical Significance:
See background notes on technological significance of early mechanical cooling units (evaporator), THOC-HVACR inventory item 011.This specimen is representative of the proliferation of models and sizes of low-side float operated evaporators of the period, largely by Kelvinator and Figidaire, as they attempted to stretch this ice making technology to its limit. Dinosaur like, costly, complicated and trouble prone by comparison with the evaporator technologies that would shortly follow, this genre would largely disappear from manufacture’s catalogues by the early 1930’s, although would be operational in the field until after WWII – requiring repair shops to rebuild an calibrate floats and needle seats.
To contrast the weight, size, seeming complexity, as well as materials and manufacturing costs with the technology reflected in inventory items 015 to 021 is instructive. The classic process of progressive simplification in technological innovation and change is well exemplified.
None-the-less this large, modular designed icemaker, “grown” using the same flooded evaporator technology as shown in #024. for example, feed the seemingly endless and ever growing North American market for iced beverages, deserts and product cooling of all sorts . This value set, a distinguishing mark of the North American culture of the times was not to be found to the same extent in urban European setting of the same period.
The stage had been set and the market established for the design and development of the automatic ice cube-making machine, to appear on the market in Canada by the early 1950’s. Icemakers of the general design shown here would prevail up to that time and beyond..

Industrial Significance:
With complex, demanding construction, the evaporator would make many demands on manufacturing and materials engineering in the early years of the 20th century.


Copper tube evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.026
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Early copper tube and aluminium fin, static evaporator for small commercial refrigerated fixture, representative of a new, mid-century, high conductivity, high heat transfer cooling unit equipped for thermostatic expansion valve, Circa 1945.



Item: Copper tube evaporator
Manufacturer: Unknown
Make: Unknown

Technical Significance:
The 1950’s brought with them a flood of demands for new small refrigeration fixture applications, for example, for reach-in refrigerators to display cases of all types. The application of secondary, finned surface and the development of a small thermal expansion valve with adjustable superheat provided the market with the first big steps, through vastly improved thermal heat transfer efficiency, as well as the efficient use of refrigerant passages by improved refrigerant flow control.


Heavy copper tube evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.027
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Early, heavy copper tube and fin static evaporator with double dip galvanised coating for large “walk-in” refrigerated room, equipped with low-side float and suction line chamber, for low pressure SO2 refrigerant, Frigidaire, Circa 1926.



Item: Heavy copper tube evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Likely model 56
Features:
Matching set of two coils typically used in multiples

Technical Significance:
Refrigerated storage rooms for perishable foods were designed predominantly for high pressure refrigerant, commonly ammonia, in the early years of the 20th century. With the successful entry of lower pressure refrigerants, notably SO2, into the market place, the market was significantly expanded, opening it up to smaller commercial installations, which did not require operating engineers. Food stores, dairies and refrigerated warehouses would welcome the trend. So to the public who would see on the market a whole new range of foods for their health and enjoyment.


Heavy copper tube evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.028
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Early, heavy copper tube and fin static evaporator with double dip galvanised coating for large “walk-in” refrigerated room, equipped with low-side float and suction line chamber, for low pressure SO2 refrigerant, Frigidaire, Circa 1926.



Item: Heavy copper tube evaporator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Likely model 56
Features:
Matching set of two coils typically used in tandem

Technical Significance:
Refrigerated storage rooms for perishable foods were designed predominantly for high pressure refrigerant, commonly ammonia, in the early years of the 20th century. With the successful entry of lower pressure refrigerants, notably SO2, into the market place, the market was significantly expanded, opening it up to smaller commercial installations, which did not require operating engineers. Food stores, dairies and refrigerated warehouses would welcome the trend. So to the public who would see on the market a whole new range of foods for their health and enjoyment.


Drop-in evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.029
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A mid 20th century, drop-in, evaporator for farm milk can cooler, with electric motor driven water agitator, built in stove pipe configuration, circa 1950.



Item: Drop-in evaporator
Manufacturer: Possibly Woods Co, Guelph Ontario, manufacturer a
Make: Believed to be Woods, Quelph OntarioDelco motor, St Catharines Ont.
Model: Delco motor, Mo

Technical Significance:
A special marker in time, the device represented a relatively low cost solution to simplify the farm milk can cooling process. Such innovations would be relatively short lived, however, with the introduction of farm bulk milk coolers in many areas in the early 1960’s


Refrigerant flow control ‘EB4885’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.059
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early low-side float, liquid refrigerant flow control, in deep draw copper header, with brass float valve assembly mounted on eight bolt brass flange, with heavy galvanised over coat, designed for four-pass fin coil cooling unit; Frigidaire, EB4885, circa 1929.



Item: Refrigerant flow control ‘EB4885’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio.
Make: Frigidaire
Model: EB4885, see Not

Technical Significance:
Following earlier experimentation with automatic expansion valves refrigeration engineers next turned to completely flooded systems for increased evaporator efficiency, using a float valve to meter liquid into the low side of the system.

Low side float metering devices, such as this, were widely employed by the industry in the late 1920’s through the 30’s in both household cabinet refrigerators and commercial applications.

Found in walk-in meat and vegetable coolers in food stores and ware-houses across Canada, these cooling units were to become the work-horses of the commercial refrigeration industry from the 1920’s often through to the 1940

With good maintenance these systems would have a remarkable service life, some in operation for 25 to 30 years, often well into the post WW II period, where they would be replaced by smaller more compact, more efficient systems using the new non-noxious fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, e.g., Freon 12

Costly, delicate, requiring regular service, they would be a short lived solution to refrigerant metering, awaiting the development and refinement of the thermostatic expansion valve

The first widely used, so-called low pressure refrigerant, for household and commercial applications in Canada was sulphur dioxide – highly noxious and corrosive. As a result the prevailing practice in the 1920’s and early 30’s was to make evaporators of copper with a heavy coat of galvanizing.

Industrial Significance:
Much of the Canadian commercial refrigeration service industry would cut its teeth on flooded evaporators and liquid level refrigerant metering float controls. A significant service industry grew up dedicated to maintaining flooded evaporators in good working condition; see extracts from Frigidaire and Kelvinator service manuals.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TS10’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.060
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve, housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with galvanised over coat; thermal power element and 4 ft. capillary tube; engineered for sulphur dioxide and a new generation of forced air cooling unit applications. It would appear much like the company’s earlier Model S automatic expansion valve, on which it was patterned; Model TS10, Frigidaire, circa 1932. [On of a set of two, see #ID 185]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TS10’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: TS 10
Features:
Original capillary bulb, tubing clamp

Technical Significance:
This valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

One of the earliest in production by Frigidaire, then the rapidly developing name brand supplier to the household and commercial refrigeration field.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
These valve would see service well into the 1950’s attesting to their robust construction and field serviceability, with an operating life of 20 to 30 years and more.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘FTS’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.061
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve, housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with galvanised over coat; thermal power element and 4 ft. capillary tube; engineered for the new Feon 12 refrigerant and a new generation of forced air cooling unit applications. It would appear much like the company’s earlier Model S automatic expansion valve, on which it was patterned; Model FTS, Frigidaire, circa 1932. [On of a set of two, see #ID 184]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘FTS’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: FTS
Features:
Original capillary bulb, tubing clamp

Technical Significance:
Adapted for the new generation of non-noxious, hydrocarbon refrigerants, this TX valve design by Frigidaire would find wide spread application in anew generation of refrigeration systems

The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

One of the earliest in production by Frigidaire, then the rapidly developing name brand supplier to the household and commercial refrigeration field.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
These valve would see service well into the 1950’s attesting to their robust construction and field serviceability, with an operating life of 20 to 30 years and more.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.062
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, compact, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve made by arguably the leader in expansion valve technology of the period; with brass body, “high tech.” Bakelite cover plate, power element and 4 ft. capillary tube, for methyl chloride refrigerant; patterned off the company’s earlier, Model 670, automatic expansion valve; Model 671- M, Series-2, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1936.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 671- M, Series

Technical Significance:
This valve, compact and elegant in design and construction, in contrast to similar valves produced by Frigidaire of the period [See ID # 184 and 185], was the work of a relative new comer in the refrigeration field, Detroit Lubricator. It would prove to be a significant marker of the changing times.

The age of the component parts, systems, specialty manufacturer had arrived, here as in the automotive field. In the future brand name system and equipment suppliers to the HVACR market would concentrate on system development, production and marketing. Increasingly, component technologies would be out sourced to specialty companies with the engineering know how and needed production capacities.

The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673-M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.063
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A mid 20th century, thermostatic expansion valve, a work horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry through much of the later part of the century, double bellows construction with wide range superheat adjustment, widely used by original refrigeration equipment manufacturer and for replacement work; made in a wide range of capacities for methyl chloride, Freon 12 and 22, power element and 5 ft. capillary tube, Model 673- M, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1946. [1 of a set of 2, seeID# 188]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673-M’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Mode: l673- M
Features:
Original superheat bulb clamp

Technical Significance:
This artifact of history, a workhorse of its times in the refrigeration, thermostatic expansion valve field tells the many stories of the explosion of commercial refrigeration applications and their wide adoption in Canada throughout the middle and later years of the 20th century.

Much of the success of this technology was due to the wide range of capacities and applications built into the design by Detroit Lubricator

Aware of the exploding market in commercial refrigeration applications, as well as the increasing diversity in system designs and engineering design requirements, the manufacturer built the valve around a basic platform that could be readily adapted with changes in orifice size and inlet and outlet connections to suit a wide range of refrigerants [methyl chloride, Freon 12, and Freon 22], temperature applications [low and commercial range] and refrigerating tonnage capacity ratings [1.2 to 4 tons]. It was a success story that led the industry.

The valve would be the darling of refrigeration wholesalers and original equipment manufacturers, because of the range of applications accommodated [see wholesalers catalogue]


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673-M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.064
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A mid 20th century, thermostatic expansion valve, a work horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry through much of the latter part of the century, double bellows construction with wide range superheat adjustment, widely used by original refrigeration equipment manufacturer and for replacement work; made in a wide range of capacities for methyl chloride, Freon 12 and 22, power element and 5 ft. capillary tube, Model 673- M, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1946. [1 of a set of 2, seeID# 187]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673-M’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 673- M
Features:
Original superheat bulb clamp

Technical Significance:
This artifact of history, a workhorse of its times in the refrigeration, thermostatic expansion valve field tells the many stories of the explosion of commercial refrigeration applications and their wide adoption in Canada throughout the middle and later years of the the 20th century.

Much of the success of this technology was due to the wide range of capacities and applications built into the design by Detroit Lubricator

Aware of the exploding market in commercial refrigeration applications, as well as the increasing diversity in system designs and engineering design requirements, the manufacturer built the valve around a basic platform that could be readily adapted with changes in orifice size and inlet and outlet connections to suit a wide range of refrigerants [methyl chloride, Freon 12, and Freon 22], temperature applications [low and commercial range] and refrigerating tonnage capacity ratings [1.2 to 4 tons]. It was a success story that led the industry.

The valve would be the darling of refrigeration wholesalers and original equipment manufacturers, because of the range of applications accommodated [see wholesalers catalogue]


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘Peerless’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.065
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A mid to late 20th century, high capacity thermostatic expansion valve, for methyl chloride refrigerant; a special marker of the time when this refrigerant was still being specified by commercial refrigeration system manufacturers, in advance of the wave of conversion to chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, Freon 12 and 22; in heavy, plated brass body with superheat adjustment, highly decorated it would represent an emerging new styling idiom for component part manufacturers, by a late 20th century newcomer to the field, Peerless, 1948.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘Peerless’
Manufacturer: Peerless of America, New York, Chicago, and Los An
Make: Peerless
Model: V
Features:
Original superheat bulb clamp

Technical Significance:
A mid to late 20th century, high capacity thermostatic expansion valve, for methyl chloride refrigerant; a special marker of the time when this refrigerant was still being specified by commercial refrigeration system manufacturers, in advance of the wave of conversion to chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, Freon 12 and 22.

In a heavy, plated brass body, an unusually robust, crisp and polished product for the times, when compared with other valves off the period, see for example #ID 184 and 185.

With colourful orange and black decal and imprinted red and black cover plate the valve would represent a new era in industrial, component, product design, bring with it a fresh new look and sales appeal.

Industrial Significance:
Manufactured by a late 20th century newcomer to the field, one bringing fresh new ideas about how an expansion valve should look and operate.

Highly decorated it would represent the values and interests of a new generation of mid 20th century industrial design.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.066
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An amazingly compact, mid capacity, mid to late 20th century, thermostatic expansion valve designed to meet the needs of an increasingly wide range of packaged, compact, commercial refrigeration applications, for methyl chloride and Freon 12 refrigerants, Model 207, Automatic Products Co., Mil., Circa 1945 [1 of a set of 2, see ID#191]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207’
Manufacturer: Automatic Products Co., Mil.
Make: Automatic Products [AP]
Model: AP207, type PF

Technical Significance:
Smaller than the Detroit Lubricator model 673 [see ID#187 and 188] in similar capacity range, this valve would set a new standard of compact, precision operation for the Canadian market place. Engineered by Automatic Products it would help to make possible a new generation of packaged, compact, commercial refrigeration appliances for confectioneries, food stores and similar applications.

In response to the buoyant market for TX valve technology a number of manufacturers, including Detroit Lubricator, Mayson, Automatic Products, Sporlan and Danfoss, among others entered the field in the late 1930’s and 40’s. They produced a remarkable range of design configurations and capacities for different refrigerants and cooling applications – in low temperature, commercial and air conditioning ranges.

The AP207, generally representative of the period, was engineered with a range of interchangeable orifices, variously for methyl chloride, F12 and sulfur dioxide refrigerants, for low, commercial and air conditioning applications, over the range of 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, and 1 ton capacities.

Industrial Significance:
With 60″ capillary line and 3/8″ bulb, wide range of orifice sizes, adjustable superheat feature and built in liquid line screen, this compact valve would help to make possible an explosion of refrigeration and air conditioning applications in the latter part of the 20th century.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.067
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An amazingly compact, mid capacity, mid to late 20th century, thermostatic expansion valve designed to meet the needs of an increasingly wide range of packaged, compact, commercial refrigeration applications, for methyl chloride and Freon 12 refrigerants, Model 207, Automatic Products Co., Mil., Circa 1945 [1 of a set of 2, see ID#190]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207’
Manufacturer: Automatic Products Co., Mil.
Make: Automatic Products [AP]
Model: AP207

Technical Significance:
Smaller than the Detroit Lubricator model 673 [see ID#187 and 188] in similar capacity range, this valve would set a new standard of compact, precision operation for the Canadian market place. Engineered by Automatic Products it would help to make possible a new generation of packaged, compact, commercial refrigeration appliances for confectioneries, food stores and similar applications.

In response to the buoyant market for TX valve technology a number of manufacturers, including Detroit Lubricator, Mayson, Automatic Products, Sporlan and Danfoss, among others entered the field in the late 1930’s and 40’s. They produced a remarkable range of design configurations and capacities for different refrigerants and cooling applications – in low temperature, commercial and air conditioning ranges.

The AP207, generally representative of the period, was engineered with a range of interchangeable orifices, variously for methyl chloride, F12 and sulfur dioxide refrigerants, for low, commercial and air conditioning applications, over the range of 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, and 1 ton capacities.

Industrial Significance:
With 60″ capillary line and 3/8″ bulb, wide range of orifice sizes, adjustable superheat feature and built in liquid line screen, this compact valve would help to make possible an explosion of refrigeration and air conditioning applications in the latter part of the 20th century.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.077
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, compact, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve made by arguably the leader in expansion valve technology of the period, beautifully crafted with brass body, “high tech.” Bakelite cover plate, similar to item ID #186 and #202, but differently fitted with 14 inch remote bulb power element, and flare connection; part of this company’s impressive stable of valves, patterned off its earlier, Model 670, automatic expansion valve; Model 671- M, Series-2, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1936.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 671- M, Series

Technical Significance:
This valve, compact and elegant in design and construction, in contrast to similar valves produced by Frigidaire of the period [See ID # 184 and 185], was the work of a relative new comer in the refrigeration field, Detroit Lubricator. It would prove to be a significant marker of the changing times.

The age of the component parts, systems, specialty manufacturer had arrived, here as in the automotive field. In the future brand name system and equipment suppliers to the HVACR market would concentrate on system development, production and marketing. Increasingly, component technologies would be out sourced to specialty companies with the engineering know how and needed production capacities.

The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
The range of configurations in which this valve was produced was a marker of an increasingly diverse market place for thermostatic expansion valve technology, with different fitments to meet the different requirements of original equipment manufacturers. It was an industry in its first period of rapid growth. See also ID # 186, 201, 202


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.078
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, compact, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve made by arguably the leader in expansion valve technology of the period, beautifully crafted with brass body, “high tech.” Bakelite cover plate, similar to item ID #186 and #201, but differently fitted, this model licensed under patent to Universal Cooler Corp.; part of an impressive stable of valves, patterned off Detroit Lubricator’s earlier, Model 670, automatic expansion valve; Manufacturer’s name given here as American Radiator, Model 671- M, Series-1, circa 1936.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘671-M’
Manufacturer: American Radiator Co., Detroit
Make: American Radiator
Model: 671- M, Series

Technical Significance:
This valve, compact and elegant in design and construction, in contrast to similar valves produced by Frigidaire of the period [See ID # 184 and 185], was the work of a relative new comer in the refrigeration field, Detroit Lubricator. It would prove to be a significant marker of the changing times.

The age of the component parts, systems, specialty manufacturer had arrived, here as in the automotive field. In the future brand name system and equipment suppliers to the HVACR market would concentrate on system development, production and marketing. Increasingly, component technologies would be out sourced to specialty companies with the engineering know how and needed production capacities.

The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
Carrying the name American Radiator, the exact genealogy of this device remains to be determined, including its relationship to Detroit Lubricator,

The range of configurations in which this valve was produced was a marker of an increasingly diverse market place for thermostatic expansion valve technology, with different fitments to meet the different requirements of original equipment manufacturers. It was an industry in its first period of rapid growth. See also ID # 186, 201, 202

The valve is also an industry marker of the early entry of Universal Cooler, destined to be a major new player in the growing commercial refrigeration field.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘Fedders’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.079
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, large, heavy body, adjustable thermostatic expansion by Fedders, marking the entrance of another national supplier to the commercial refrigeration field, during its first period of rapid expansion in the mid 1930’s; fitted with 4 foot remote bulb power element, with brown Bakelite shell and tinned brass body, with severe stress marks indicating something of its difficult life’s journey, Fedders, circa 1934.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘Fedders’
Manufacturer: Fedders ???
Make: Fedders
Model: 33???
Features:
Heavily stressed body, telling stories of the difficult life’s journey of this valve, its use and abuse in a period of little industry maturity.

Original shop tag telling stories of the life and times of the valve

Technical Significance:
The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
This valve was the work of a relative new comer in the refrigeration field in the mid 1930’s, Fedders. It would prove to be a significant marker of the changing times, with new markets and new suppliers with national aspirations.

The valve, heavy and clumsy by comparison with the work of more mature suppliers to the market place of the period, notably Detroit Lubricator [see ID # 186, 201 and 202], would suggest a less well developed engineering and manufacturing capability.

The heavy stress marks also tell something of the times in which this valve lived out its life. It was a period in which service and installation workers in the refrigeration field were not well trained in this area of speciality, moving into the field from other areas of mechanical work. It was a period too in which few specialized tools where available. The marks on the body suggest the use of brut force without the tools and experience appropriate for the job.

The original stock tag in Howard Oliver’s hand writing tells much of the life and times in matters of trade practice. In the mid 1930’s parts where not expendable commodities except in rare circumstances. It was a period much more disposed to a “repair and recycle” philosophy, an essential part of the post depression period of “waste not want not”. New parts were not considered an option, if they could be replaced on an exchange basis, so as to ensure continued operation, at the lesser of costs. This meant that a repaired part was also available for a future, potential user.

The frequency of the service and repair rate of the period also reflected the much less sophisticated engineering design, materials and manufacturing methods of the times.

It was a period, too, in which inventorying methods and transportation made new parts much less readily available, which again gave preference to more expedient solutions, when breakdown occurred and perishable foods were likely to be lost.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘small-body’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.080
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, small body, adjustable thermostatic expansion fitted with 4-foot remote bulb power element, with brown Bakelite shell and brass body, with stylish, partially obliterated, decal in red and gold, manufacturer yet to be determined based on existing body markings, circa 1936.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘small-body’
Make: Unknown
Model: A37

Technical Significance:
The valve would stand as a wonderful icon of the early years in TX valve development, as the industry searched for an alternative to the costly and often troublesome, liquid refrigerant, float valve technology of the mid 1920, and 30’s.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
This valve was more than likely the work of another relative new comer in the refrigeration field in the mid 1930’s. Similar in configuration to the Fedder’s valves of the period, it genealogy remains to be determined from partially obliterated body markings.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.081
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early version of the 20th century, classic 673, Detroit Lubricator thermostatic expansion, made in a wide range of capacities for sulphur dioxide, methyl chloride, Freon 12 and 22; the work horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry through much of the m, latter part of the 1900’s; with classic brass body and brown Bakalite shell, power element, 5 ft. capillary tube, and adjustable superheat, widely used by original refrigeration equipment manufacturer and for replacement work, Model 673 – Series 5A 34, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1935. [See also ID# 187, 188]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘673’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: Model 673 – Ser

Technical Significance:
This artifact of history, a workhorse of its times in the thermostatic expansion valve field, tells the many stories of the explosion of commercial refrigeration applications and their wide adoption in Canada throughout the middle and latter years of the 20th century.

Much of the success of this technology was due to the wide range of capacities and applications built into the design by Detroit Lubricator

Aware of the exploding market in commercial refrigeration applications, as well as the increasing diversity in system and engineering design requirements, the manufacturer built the valve around a basic platform that could be readily adapted with changes in orifice size and inlet and outlet connections to suit a wide range of refrigerants [methyl chloride, Freon 12, and Freon 22], temperature applications [low and commercial range] and refrigerating tonnage capacity ratings [1.2 to 4 tons]. It was a success story that led the industry.

Industrial Significance:
The valve would be the darling of refrigeration wholesalers and original equipment manufacturers, because of the range of applications accommodated [see wholesalers catalogue]


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TEV’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.082
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early mid 20th century, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve, housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with galvinized overcoat and classic brown Bakelite casing; thermal power element and 4 ft. capillary tube; the TEF series, engineered for the new Freon 12 as well as SO2 applications, superseded the TS series, being more compact and better sealed against moisture; recommended for multiplexed applications popular in the period; Model TEV, Frigidaire, circa 1936. [1 of a set of 2, see ID# 207]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TEV’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division General Motors Corporation, Da
Make: Frigidaire
Model: TEV, Series 18

Technical Significance:
Adapted for the new generation of non-noxious, hydrocarbon refrigerants, this early mid 20th century TX valve by Frigidaire was more compact and better protected from moisture than its earlier TS series [see ID# 185 & 186]. It was promoted by Frigdaire for multiplexed systems and would find wide spread application in a new generation of small , commercial refrigeration to be found in a new generation of food stores and confectioneries.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of technological diffusion and wide spread adoption of TX refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
Of special significance is the appearance of General Motors name on the valve, marking the period in which large manufactures, having built significant engineering and manufacturing know-how, as well as cash reserves would move into new fields. Horizontal integration would soon become a bus word in the industrial world.

These valve would see service well into the 1950’s attesting to their robust construction and field serviceability, with an operating life of 20 to 30 years and more.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TEV’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.083
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early mid 20th century, adjustable thermostatic expansion valve, housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with galvinized overcoat and classic brown Bakelite casing; thermal power element and 4 ft. capillary tube; the TEF series, engineered for the new Freon 12 as well as SO2 applications, superseded the TS series, being more compact and better sealed against moisture; recommended for multiplexed applications popular in the period; Model TEV, Frigidaire, circa 1936. [Similar to ID# 206, but with higher range and mounting bracket]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘TEV’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Division General Motors Corporation, Da
Make: Frigidaire
Model: TEV, Series 21
Features:
Heavy steel mounting bracket with galvinized overcoat

Technical Significance:
Adapted for the new generation of non-noxious, hydrocarbon refrigerants, this early mid 20th century TX valve by Frigidaire was more compact and better protected from moisture than its earlier TS series [see ID# 185 & 186]. It was promoted by Frigdaire for multiplexed systems and would find wide spread application in a new generation of small, commercial refrigeration to be found in a new generation of food stores and confectioneries.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of technological diffusion and wide spread adoption of TX refrigerant flow control technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But for many medium and larger applications the automatic expansion valve would give way to the more elegant and efficient thermostatic valve for use in a new generation of “dry evaporator” applications.

Industrial Significance:
Of special significance is the appearance of General Motors name on the valve, marking the period in which large manufactures, having built significant engineering and manufacturing know-how, as well as cash reserves would move into new fields. Horizontal integration would soon become a bus word in the industrial world.

Made in a wide range of capacities the TEV would mark a major, costly engineering commitment by Frigidaire to TX valve technology in the period, confident of its market potential.

These valve would see service well into the 1950’s attesting to their robust construction and field serviceability, with an operating life of 20 to 30 years and more.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘893’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.084
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

By the middle of the 20th century, the pressure was on for a new generation of compact thermostatic expansion valves to meet the growing market for small commercial refrigeration appliances. The 893, designed for this market, would raise eyebrows, with high style nameplate in bright chrome with blue highlighting. A sign of the times, Detroit would soon replace it with the even more compact design, the 777, Model 893, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1952.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘893’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 893
Features:
High style chrome name plate and logo, a new slick look for the expansion valve

Technical Significance:
The 893 compact thermostatic expansion valve, although short lived, was a significant marker of the times, as the industry, responding and at the same time shaping the market place, moved to ever more compact, more sophisticated engineering designs based on cumulative know how. A sign of the now rapidly changing times, Detroit would soon replace the 893 with the even more compact design, the 777.

Industrial Significance:
High style chrome name plate and logo, a new slick look for expansion valves in the early post W.W.II years, reflecting the new interest of manufacturers in the emerging field of industrial design

The now rapidly changing market place would trigger substantial investments in R and D by companies like Detroit. The life of this product would be a short one, soon to be replaced with an even more compact design, the 777. A sign of things to come.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207C’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.085
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Representing AP’s new generation of further compacted thermostatic expansion valves designed to meet the needs of a new generation of small commercial refrigerated appliances, for methyl chloride and Freon 12 refrigerants, Model 207C, Automatic Products Co., Mil., Circa 1950 [see also ID#189,190 and 208]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘207C’
Manufacturer: Automatic Products Co., Mil.
Make: Automatic Products [AP]
Model: AP207C

Technical Significance:
In response to the buoyant market for compact TX valve technology a number of manufacturers, including Detroit Lubricator, Mayson, Automatic Products, Sporlan and Danfoss, among others entered the field in the late 1930’s and 40’s. They produced a remarkable range of design configurations and capacities for different refrigerants and cooling applications – in low temperature, commercial and air conditioning ranges.

The AP207C was AP’s contribution of the times to super compact, 1/2 ton valves.

Industrial Significance:
The AP207CWith 60″ capillary line and 3/8″ bulb, adjustable superheat feature and built in liquid line screen would help to make possible an explosion of refrigeration and air conditioning applications in the latter part of the 20th century.


Commercial refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.040
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, commercial application, air-cooled, refrigeration machine [condensing unit] by Kelvinator of Canada designed for use with anhydrous, sulphur dioxide. an early refrigerant that made possible, for the first time, small commercial refrigeration applications in food stores etc. The use of low pressure refrigerants, rather than high pressure anhydrous ammonia, opened up a vast commercial market for refrigeration equipment and, in turn, set new expectations by Canadian consumers of what was available at their local grocer and butcher shop, Kelvinator, circa 1932.



Item: Commercial refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Unknown, Compre

Pop cooler refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.041
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

In characteristic red, an early, commercial application, air-cooled, refrigeration machine [condensing unit] designed and built by Kelvinator of Canada for Coca Cola pop coolers. The marketing of fresh new taste sensations was central to the creation of new consumer demands by the food and entertainment industries in the 1930’s, as well as by Canadian refrigeration equipment manufacturers, Kelvinator, circa 1938.



Item: Pop cooler refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: 4975

Open system refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.042
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Engineered by Kelvinator, an acknowledged leader of the field, for the new generation of chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, this new generation of quiet, belt driven, open system refrigeration machines for small commercial applications was equipped with medium speed, precision made, high efficiency, extended life compressors. In retrospect the series would be seen as part of the Kelvinator of Canada legacy of its mature corporate years in Canada, Kelvinator circa 1945.



Item: Open system refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: CB325

Open system refrigation machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.043
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Like Item #042, this series refrigeration machines, designed for the new generation of chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, was developed by Kelvinator in the post WWII years, for small and medium sized commercial refrigeration applications. The Kelvinator SB medium speed, precision made, high efficiency, open system compressor would become a standard of engineering quality for the times . The machine, like #042, would in retrospect, be seen as part of the Kelvinator of Canada legacy of its mature corporate years in Canada, Kelvinator circa 1945.



Item: Open system refrigation machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Part No. 708907

Low-pressure refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.044
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

With the availability of chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, in the post WWII years, the demand quickly developed for larger and larger low-pressure refrigeration machines, as an alternative to ammonia systems, in this HP range. This 2 HP, water cooled, open-system machine by Kelvinator is a fine example of the genre. Like #042, and #043, it would come to be seen as part of the Kelvinator of Canada legacy of its mature corporate years in Canada, Kelvinator circa 1948.



Item: Low-pressure refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Part No. 07285
Features:
– Tube-in-tube water cooled condenser.- 1 1/2 HP 25 cycle Wagner electric single phase type RA motor with original motor warranty- Heavy rubber vibration insulators- Smoothly streamlined modern frame construction- Copland 2 cyl, V belt driven compressor

Industrial Significance:
Somewhat paradoxically, while the market for larger and larger low-pressure refrigeration machines grew, well beyond the expectations of many after WWII, the diversity of equipment feeding the market diminishedIt was a period of increasing competitive pressure for manufacturers, with more of them bargaining for a slice of the market. Equipment development costs were also increasing due, among other things, to increased performance expectations, reliability and the life expectancy of systems.
Manufacturers moved into areas of specialisation and new partnerships were established, as exemplified here by Kelvinator’s use of Copland compressors. Kelvinator had by now dropped out of the manufacture large compressors, although their efforts in earlier years were impressive ( see section 5.02)


Refrigeration machine ‘H’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.045
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

The Frigidaire’s “H” series condensing unit for small commercial applications was an essential part of the industry’s “golden years” of early innovative refrigeration engineering. With a new series of compact compressors; a high tech, fully integrated condenser receiver assembly; a floating motor mount and automatic belt tightener, it was a truly innovative contribution to a new generation of quiet, more maintenance free and more user friendly refrigeration machines for the mid 1930’s, letting loose a new wave of consumer expectations of what their local grocer or dairy bar might have in store for them, Frigidaire, Circa 1935.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘H’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: H203


Refrigeration machine ‘S’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.046
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A refrigeration condensing unit, with rolled and formed steel frame, massive in appearance, given its modest capacity, the Frigdaire Model S served to perpetuate the “machinery look” of the 1920’s well in to the next decade. With oval coil, static air condenser it would be recognised as a kind of icon of the engineering culture of the times, with its ideas of what a proper refrigeration machine should look like. A real time piece of the era in which it was conceived, many would still be in service 30 years later, servicing Canada’s food and hospitality industries, Frigidaire, 1929.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘S’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Model S
Features:
– Original decorative Frigidaire sticker and logo- Original wiring harness in steel sheathed BX, 2/14 cable and Square D disconnect switch Cat No 98251, with original 15 amp. cartridge fuses

Refrigeration machine ‘S’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.047
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A refrigeration condensing unit, with rolled and formed steel frame, massive in appearance, given its modest capacity, the Frigdaire Model S served to perpetuate the “machinery look” of the 1920’s well in to the next decade. Unlike similar Artifact #046, this machine is equipped with a 25 cycle, pre WWII, high torque, repulsion induction motor by Sangamo Electric Toronto Ont., allowing it to appear much the way it did in its early operating years, Frigidaire, 1929.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘S’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Model S

Refrigeration machine ‘G’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.048
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

The oval, copper tube, static air condenser, along with the hefty, solid look of a no-nonsense refrigeration machine seemed to be a winning formula for Frigidaire in the late 1930’s, one that would be reflected and perpetuated through several years of design and production. The higher capacity Model G, with an added oval tube condenser stack, was similarly endowed to the Model S [See #046 and #047]. Also using sulphur dioxide refrigerant, the Model G would be seen in Canadian estate homes, institutions, food stores, diary bars and hospitality applications well into the 1950’s, when the clear preference of the industry and its publics swung heavily to the use of non-noxious refrigerants, leaving this recognised time piece well behind, Frigidaire, 1929.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘G’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Model G

Technical Significance:
Frigidaire’s commitment to the oval tube, stacked condensing medium in the period was substantial [See Frigidaire manual for the nature and scope of its application]. A simple engineering response, using the materials and know-how of the times, it seemed to perform passably well. The idea of adding additional stacks was a reasonable one, in order to add machine capacity. For a number of reasons the technology would prove to be limited to small capacity, fractional horsepower machines and Frigidaire would need to rethink the form and structure of their condensers, as the inevitable demand for larger and larger machines continued.For Frigidaire an important point of inflection in their design and development curve was at hand. There would be a transition to the more efficient, higher performance, forced air, fin and tube condenser, already in popular use by other manufactures, The oval stacked condenser, a hall mark of Frigidaire’s refrigeration machines was about to disappear, see item #049 and #045.
With the recognised need to move with the times came the commitment to upgrading and the retrofit of existing machines, as a hedge against their obsolescence – in may ways an uncharacteristic market response. Retrofit kits were engineered, packaged and marketed by Frigidaire for a wide range of earlier static air condenser equipped condensing units – see items Group 6.00, 6.02-5 and 6.02-6. These kits were an early example of technological up-grading and retrofitting by a manufacturer moving with the market opportunities of the times.


Refrigeration machine ‘AW’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.049
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Frigidaire’s model AW refrigeration machine exemplifies their engineering approach to what was referred to as “radiator type” condensing, as it was employed by the company on larger capacity condensing units [See also Model S and G, #046 – #048]. Using sulphur dioxide refrigerant, the Model AW would be seen in Canadian estate homes, institutions, food stores, diary bars and hospitality applications in higher capacity, fractional horsepower applications, well into the 1950’s. Then the clear preference of the industry and its publics swung heavily to the use of non-noxious refrigerants, Frigidaire, 1932.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘AW’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton, Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: AW
Features:
The machine is equipped with Frigidaire’s floating motor mounting system, a distinctive contribution to the engineering of the period, now by-passed with a rigid mount. The modification stands as historic marker of frequency standardisation in Ontario, circa 1948, when all 25 cycle motors were removed to be replaced by 60 cycle.

Refrigeration machine ‘F12’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.050
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early refrigeration machine, by Frigidaire designed and built for the new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerant of the times, “F12”. A significant, transitional and transformational piece technology, moving from the use of noxious to non-noxious refrigerants, it would serve to vastly increase the market for refrigeration machines and, in turn, their impact on Canadian society and culture. It also serves as a vehicle for telling the stories of the unintended environmental consequences of the move, Frigidaire, circa 1937.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘F12’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire
Model: Frigidaire Corp

Refrigeration machine ‘GM’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.051
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An innovative adaptation of an air-cooled refrigeration machine of the mid 1930’s, attempting to make it more user friendly, less machine like, by fully enclosing it in its own ventilated cabinet. The identification plate carries the name “Frigidaire Electric Refrigerator, Product of General Motors”, marking a significant, somewhat ominous step, in the maturation and pre WWII restructuring of the North American refrigeration industry. The plate also carries the corporate address of Toronto, clearly establishing the company’s residency in Canada, Frigidaire, 1937.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘GM’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Electric Refrigeration Products, Genera
Make: Frigidaire
Model: K

Industrial Significance:
The restructuring of the North American refrigeration industry prior to WWII, was a sign of the times, as markets mushroomed, market competition ballooned and the costs of engineering, development, production and marketing increased many fold. The result was the need for increased capital and stable operating funding for research and development, which were seen as available from big business. Big business was also getting bigger and where anxious to move into developing markets and defining new profit centres for themselves.


Refrigeration machine ‘iron frame’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.052
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A truly remarkable statement of its social and cultural times, as well as the evolutionary stage of refrigeration machine technology in Canada, in the second decade of the 20th century. Crafted as the embodiment, and the ultimate statement of the early 20th century “machine”, it was a mechanical wonder in every respect. From its massive 200lbs, to its crude 1 1/4 inch angle iron frame, its lumbering 370 RPM compressor, its hefty, automatic pressure control with leavers, weights and springs, fashioned in cast iron, steel and brass, and the constant odour of sulphur dioxide, it would be a nightmare for the mechanics of the time, as they struggled to learn new trade, Frigidaire, circa 1928.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘iron frame’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: N
Features:
– Heavily pitted from years of use and misuse in damp and highly acidic, atmosphere produced by leaking sulphur dioxide refrigerant vapour.

Commercial refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.053
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A smoothly sculptured, quiet operating, fractional horsepower, commercial application refrigeration machine, part of the mid 20th century experience of Canadian grocers, butchers and confectioners, in a period when the “hermetic” motor compressor was still 20 years in the future for most such equipment owners. The machine represents the work three leading Canadian manufactures [Universal Cooler, Brampton Ont. and Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont., and McKinnon Industries, St Catherines Ont. ] and the best Canadian trade practice of the 1950’s, Universal Cooler, 1955.



Item: Commercial refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Universal Cooler, Brantford Ont.
Make: Universal Cooler
Model: A15F6I-2

Technical Significance:
The 1950’s and on into the 60’s was the “golden age” of the open-system refrigeration machine. Behind the industry were its crude beginnings in Canada. Machines were now operating on non-noxious refrigerants [principally F12], were smaller, lighter, quieter, more efficient and reliable.As important was the fact that they were readily field serviceable, allowing major components to be removed for repair or replacement. Too, major component replacement was facilitated, even with parts of a different manufacture, because of the level of universality and flexibility, which was an inherent part of the open-system design, a feature which would soon be lost, as the industry moved to higher efficiency, less costly sealed system design.


Refrigeration machine ‘UC’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.054
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A typical, 1/4 HP, open-system refrigeration machine by Universal Cooler Brantford Ont., a recognised, prominent leader during the Canadian industry’s, historic, golden age of refrigeration equipment manufacturing, It admirably represents the increasingly ubiquitous, yet unobtrusive, and largely unsung, commercial refrigeration applications of the 1950’s and 60’s. Stuffed in cubby holes, dark basements, under counters and other wise unseen, it went about, non-the-less, contributing to a new world of Canadian health, safety and hygiene, while providing new taste delights in the food markets of the nation, Universal Cooler, 1958.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘UC’
Manufacturer: Universal Cooler, Brantford Ont.
Make: Universal Cooler
Model: TA25MS1
Features:
Rubber mounting feet

Refrigeration machine ‘Tecumseh’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.055
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

In the middle years of the 20th century Tecumseh and their related Chieftain products were leaders in “unbranded” Canadian refrigeration machines appearing in the Canadian market place, as represented here by this 1/3 HP, 2 cylinder, air-cooled, open-system machine. Tucked away, out of public view, in food stores restaurants and similar applications across the nation, such machines would quietly go about contributing to historic changes in the daily lives of Canadians throughout those defining, middle years, Tecumseh Products, 1956.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Tecumseh’
Manufacturer: Tecumseh Products
Make: Chieftain
Model: F13U2LE

Industrial Significance:
The post WWII growth years of the Canadian refrigeration industry saw a proliferation of new manufactures of small, commercial, open-system, refrigeration machines, each bargaining for a share of the growing market. Unlike Kelvinator and Frigidaire, they were essentially “unbranded” machines and readily available through an increasingly wide network of wholesalers and jobbers servicing the Canadian industry. The proliferation of manufactures, branded and unbranded, vastly increased competitive forces which, along with changes in the technology itself [closed-system, hermetic machines] would, in turn, lead to a re-alignment and restructuring of the field, as part of its new maturity.
The traditional brands of the early years of the century would soon all but vanish. With in 5 years the open-system refrigeration machine would be seriously challenged by a new generation of fractional horsepower hermetic condensing units- a vast and far reaching point of inflection and transition had arrived.
The traditional brands, would themselves be seen as starting to market unbranded, competitive lines. Kelvinator of Canada’s, London Ont. Catalogue of 1948 would market their own machines, by 1951 they had established the Refrigeration Supplies Co. in London [RESCO], which market Tecumseh products, among others


Refrigeration machine ‘Gilson’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.056
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Among the proliferation of refrigeration machine manufacturer in the explosive market years of the mid 20th century, a few uniquely Ontario, entrepreneurial, family companies stood out, including the Gilson and Woods companies of Quelph and Robert Elder of Toronto. This I/4 HP, unsophisticatedly engineered machine by Gilson would help establish them as a kind of venerated cultural icon of the period, in rural and small town Ontario, Gilson, 1954.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Gilson’
Manufacturer: Gilson Manufacturing Co, Quelph, Ont
Make: Gilson
Model: SC4-M

Industrial Significance:
The mid 20th century, prior to the advent of increasingly complex closed-system, hermetic machines, was characterised by relatively simple system technology. It was a period that saw many new manufacturers who were largely assemblers of components provided by other OEM’s. This allowed small family companies many the offshoot of Canada’s early years of industrialisation, often with modest engineering resources, to move into the refrigeration machine and equipment business.


Refrigeration machine ‘Brunner’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.057
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A classic piece of mid 20th century, Toronto built, heavy duty, no nonsense, open-system, refrigeration machinery by a Canadian manufacture, well recognised for its unique Canadian engineering solutions and contributions to commercial and industrial refrigeration process applications, Brunner, 1952.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Brunner’
Manufacturer: Brunner Corporation, Canada, Ltd.
Make: Brunner
Model: A18FC
Features:
Unique system of belt tightening designed and built by Brunner

Industrial Significance:
Canada had many small companies spring up in the middle years of the 20th century to participate in the boom years of the industry. Most had modest ambitions and resources, and were satisfied by building a modest range of equipment. Brunner was an exception, building small fractional horsepower, open-system machines, as demonstrated here, as well as engineering and building large systems up to 100 HP or more.


Refrigeration machine ‘Silver King’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.058
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A refrigeration machine by a small, long-gone, Toronto manufacturer, hoping to get a share of the developing market for such machines in the industry’s golden growth years of 20th century. The appeal was typically to a small niche market, likely here to the rural Ontario market for, milk can, cooling equipment, Silver King, 1953.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Silver King’
Manufacturer: Silver King Cooler Co, Toronto
Make: Silver King
Model: SK6

Industrial Significance:
The market open to such small, start-up companies would be short lived, for with the advent of more sophisticated, hermetic system design, would come considerable increase in the engineering and capital resources needed.Most such successful ventures by small start-up companies were predicated on the co-operation of OEM component suppliers, here Brunner, as well as on good working partnership arrangements with other manufactures interested in pursuing the same markets and sharing the work, here likely the Woods Company of Quelph ,Ont, see item #029


Refrigeration machine ‘Elder’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.059
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Applications engineering, like the science and technology it depend on for inspiration, is moved from time to time by creative new ideas, ones that fundamentally alter traditional approaches. The idea of engineering a refrigeration machine in which the compressor is placed on top of the motor, instead of beside it, in order to better fit the space available in a self-contained refrigerated fixture, is just such an inspirational idea, here by a small Ontario company in its distinctive orange, Robert Elder Ltd. Toronto, 1956.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Elder’
Manufacturer: Robert Elder Ltd., Toronto
Make: Frost Master
Model: DC25P

Industrial Significance:
Robert Elder, like Gilson [see item #056], both small Ontario niche manufactures, sought to differentiate themselves with unique, colours, daring to be different, separating themselves from the pack. The effect was to create quite a different corporate culture and image.


Fractional HP compressor ‘C1’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.104
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, FRIGIDAIRE, MODEL C1 – With integral service valves, it would be representative of a new, early/mid 20th century, generation of smaller higher speed compressor design by Frigidaire for F12 refigerant. It would have a ubiquitous presence, although hidden away from view, in the then rapidly expanding chain of food stores and confectioneries across Canada.



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘C1’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Div. General Motors Corp
Make: Frigidaire
Model: C1

Twin cylinder compressor ‘SB’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.105
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP, TWIN CYLINDER COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, KELVINATOR, MODEL SB, CIRCA 1948 – Now in its sunset years, as a result of substantial restructuring within the industry, this superb piece of design would in some ways represent the peak of the company’s engineering and manufacturing expertise, developed in over 40 years, by an acknowledged pioneer of the field. A moderate high speed machine designed for F12 refrigerant, it too would have a presence, hidden away from view, in the rapidly expanding network of food stores and confectioneries across Canada, starting in the 1940’s.



Item: Twin cylinder compressor ‘SB’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont.
Make: Kelvinator
Model: SB

Fractional HP compressor ‘A1001-5’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.106
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, TECUMSEH/CHIEFTAIN, MODEL A1001-5 – A mid 20th century, open market, twin cylinder compressor, available from wholesalers acoss the country, it would be found in a myriad of applications, as a popular replacement compressor, servicing Canada’s now growing after-market requirements for the maintenance of its increasing network refrigeration machine applications.



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘A1001-5’
Manufacturer: Tecumseh Products
Make: Tecumseh/ Chieftain
Model: A1001-5

Fractional HP compressor ‘DD’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.107
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP, TWIN CYLINDER COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, Universal Cooler, Type DD, CIRCA 1952 – engineered and manufactured by a principal, original equipment manufacturer [OEM] of refrigeration machines during Canada’s “golden”, growth years of the industry. Representative of a new, mid 20th century, generation of smaller higher speed, open system compressor design for F12 refrigerant, it too would appear ubiquitously in the then rapidly expanding network of food stores and confectionery applications across Canada.



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘DD’
Manufacturer: Universal Cooler, Brantford Ontario
Make: Universal Cooler
Model: DD

High capacity compressor ‘FFN’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.108
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP, HIGH CAPACITY COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, TECUMSEH, MODEL FFN, CIRCA 1955 – In an unusual gray/green finish, intended to suggest something new was afoot, this new generation of “high speed” compressors was equipped with 8 inch flywheel and twin V belt drive. It would turn the heads of experienced refrigeration mechanics in amazement, and herald the coming of high speed, direct drive hermetic motor compressors and the new precision and know-how required to engineer and manufacture them.



Item: High capacity compressor ‘FFN’
Manufacturer: Tecumseh Products, Tecumseh, Mich., District Offic
Make: Tecumseh
Model: FFN

Fractional HP compressor ‘SL’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.109
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP, COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, PAR, MODEL SL,CIRCA 1949 – This compressor, with distinctive configuration, was to be found on the company’s open market refrigeration condensing units, widely available through refrigeration wholesalers in the middle years of the 20th century. Unremarkable in many ways, it would find its way in a number of small “designer built”, trade, applications, including farm milk coolers.



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘SL’
Manufacturer: Par Compressor Div. Lynch Corporation, Toledo, Ohi
Make: Par
Model: SL

Industrial Significance:
The open market manufacturers of refrigeration machinery of the period [such as Tecumseh Par and Bruner] would be a critical component of the Canadian refrigeration industry. They would be the direct line of equipment supply to the network of small, independent refrigeration mechanics that emerged by mid century. Their products, not tied to dealerships or franchises, would be found in a myriad of small applications such as farm milk cooling, in what was then a largely rural population of small, independent milk producers across Canada.
During this period Par equipment was marketed in Canada through R and E Thermal controls [Railway and Engineering], through their net work of operations across Canada
The Lynch Corporation, would go on to build a serviceable hermetic motor compressor, with much appeal to the trade, for its serviceability


Fractional HP compressor ‘SM’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.110
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP, COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, PAR, MODEL SM,CIRCA 1949 – This compressor, similar in outwards appearance to the Par SL [see #3109], was also to be found on the company’s open market refrigeration condensing units, widely available through refrigeration wholesalers in the middle years of the 20th century. Unremarkable in many ways, it would find its way in a number of small “designer built”, trade, applications, including farm milk coolers.



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘SM’
Manufacturer: Par Compressor Div. Lynch Corporation, Toledo, Ohi
Make: Par
Model: SM

Industrial Significance:
The open market manufacturers of refrigeration machinery of the period [such as Tecumseh Par and Bruner] would be a critical component of the Canadian refrigeration industry. They would be the direct line of equipment supply to the network of small, independent refrigeration mechanics that emerged by mid century. Their products, not tied to dealerships or franchises, would be found in a myriad of small applications such as farm milk cooling, in what was then a largely rural population of small, independent milk producers across Canada.
During this period Par equipment was marketed in Canada through R and E Thermal controls [Railway and Engineering], through their net work of operations across Canada
The Lynch Corporation, would go on to build a serviceable hermetic motor compressor, with much appeal to the trade, for its serviceability


Fractional HP compressor ‘SM’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.111
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP, COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, PAR, MODEL SM,CIRCA 1949 – This compressor [like #110], similar in outwards appearance to the Par SL [see #109], was also to be found on the company’s open market refrigeration condensing units, widely available through refrigeration wholesalers in the middle years of the 20th century. Unremarkable in many ways, it would find its way in a number of small “designer built”, trade, applications, including farm milk coolers.



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘SM’
Manufacturer: Par Compressor Div. Lynch Corporation, Toledo, Ohi
Make: Par
Model: SM

Industrial Significance:
The open market manufacturers of refrigeration machinery of the period [such as Tecumseh Par and Bruner] would be a critical component of the Canadian refrigeration industry. They would be the direct line of equipment supply to the network of small, independent refrigeration mechanics that emerged by mid century. Their products, not tied to dealerships or franchises, would be found in a myriad of small applications such as farm milk cooling, in what was then a largely rural population of small, independent milk producers across Canada.
During this period Par equipment was marketed in Canada through R and E Thermal controls [Railway and Engineering], through their net work of operations across Canada
The Lynch Corporation, would go on to build a serviceable hermetic motor compressor, with much appeal to the trade, for its serviceability


Fractional HP compressor ‘5997’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.112
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP, RELATIVELY CRUDELY FASHIONED COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, Bruner, MODEL 5997, CIRCA 1947 – A Bruner compressor with unique head plate markings, it would be part of a genre, which while less sophisticated in its engineering than many others of the period, would be widely marketed to the trade and become a work-horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry – to be found in food stores, confectionery and farm milk cooling applications, during the middle years of the 20th century. [see also #113, 114, 115]



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘5997’
Manufacturer: Bruner Manufacturing Co., Utica N.Y.
Make: Bruner
Model: 5997
Features:
Equipped with Detroit Lubricator, bracket mounted Low pressure control, Model 250 , with original wiring harness.

Fractional HP farm compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.113
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP COMPRESSOR EMPLOYED FOR FARM MILK CAN COOLING, BRUNER, MODEL UNMARKED, CIRCA 1948 – This unique compressor, with clearly documented genealogy, was employed on a farm milk cooler application, where, its eccentric mechanism having failed, was replaced by a Kelvinator model SB [see #105]. Part of a larger genre, Bruner was widely marketed to the trade to become a work-horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry, in its time. [see also #113, 114, 115]



Item: Fractional HP farm compressor
Manufacturer: Unmarked
Make: Bruner
Model: Unmarked

Fractional HP compressor ‘5893’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.114
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, BRUNER, MODEL 5893, CIRCA 1947 – Part of the long line of compressors and condensing units, it would exemplify the company’s engineering and manufacturing through much of the middle years of the 20th century, where it would become a work-horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry – its products to be found in food stores, confectionery and farm milk cooling applications across the country [see also #113, 114, 115]



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘5893’
Manufacturer: Unmarked
Make: Bruner
Model: 5893

Fractional HP compressor ‘4491’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.115
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRACTIONAL HP COMPRESSOR FOR SMALL COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS, BRUNER, MODEL 4491, CIRCA 1947 – Similar to #114, it would be part of the long line of compressors and condensing units. It would exemplify the company’s engineering and manufacturing through much of the middle years of the 20th century, where it would become a work-horse of the Canadian refrigeration industry – its products to be found in food stores, confectionery and farm milk cooling applications across the country [see also #113, 114, 115]



Item: Fractional HP compressor ‘4491’
Manufacturer: Unknown
Make: Bruner
Model: 4491

3-5 HP compressor ‘T6-53’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.116
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (3 TO 5 HP), BRUNER CORPORATION, MODEL T6-53, Circa 1953 – A weighty and relatively crude, open system compressor, widely employed in food store applications, prior to the adoption of sealed hermetic refrigeration machines in this capacity range. Following the development of the large food chains throughout Canada in the 1950’s and 60’s, these machines would be found hidden away in machine rooms across the country, helping to provide Canadian’s with their first large food store shopping experience.



Item: 3-5 HP compressor ‘T6-53’
Manufacturer: Bruner Corporation, Port Hope Ontario
Make: Bruner
Model: T6-53

2-3 HP compressor ‘R?’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.117
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (2 TO 3 HP), BY FRIGIDAIRE, possibly MODEL R, CIRCA 1942 – it would be representative of a new generation of open system refrigeration compressors for F12 refrigerant, which began to emerge in the late 1930’s. With a whopping 17 inch, twin V belt fly wheel, in formed and riveted steel plate, it followed the slow speed, high displacement compressor design idiom preferred by Frigidaire in the period. It would come to stand as an historic marker of the end of an epic era in refrigeration machinery engineering.



Item: 2-3 HP compressor ‘R?’
Manufacturer: Frigidair Div. General Motors Corporation
Make: Frigidaire
Model: R [see note]

1-3 HP compressor ‘6R?’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.118
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (1 TO 3 HP), FOR SULPHUR DIOXIDE REFRIGERANT BY FRIGIDAIRE, POSSIBLY MODEL 6R, CIRCA 1936- with 16 inch flywheel, it would be come to represent the company’s last years of design and production of slow speed, high displacement, open system refrigeration compressors for S02 refrigerant.



Item: 1-3 HP compressor ‘6R?’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Div. General Motors Corporation
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Possibly 6R (se


2-3 HP compressor ‘R?’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.119
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (2 TO 3 HP), BY FRIGIDAIRE, POSSIBLY PART OF THEIR MODEL R SERIES, CIRCA 1942 – it would also be part of the company’s new generation of open system refrigeration compressors for F12 refrigerant, which began to emerge in the late 1930’s [see also #117]. With a 17 inch, twin V belt fly wheel, in formed and riveted steel plate, it also followed the slow speed, high displacement compressor design preferred by Frigidaire in the period, and would come to stand as an historic marker of the end of an epic era in refrigeration machinery engineering.



Item: 2-3 HP compressor ‘R?’
Manufacturer: Frigidair Div. General Motors Corporation
Make: Frigidaire
Model: 6R (see note)

1 1/2-3 HP compressor ‘5208’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.120
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (1 1/2 TO 3 HP), BY KELVINATOR, MARKED # 5208, CIRCA 1928 – With water cooled head and 17 inch, 25 lb. flywheel, in Kelvinator red [possibly not the original], it would be representative of the company’s early years, as well as those of the industry, in the design and production of such refrigeration machines, opening up an new epic period, providing for the first time automatic, mechanically cooled, commercial food storage for Canadians.



Item: 1 1/2-3 HP compressor ‘5208’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator
Features:
– water cooled head- attachment bracket for low pressure control

1 1/2-3 HP compressor ‘5208’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.121
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (1 1/2 TO 3 HP), BY KELVINATOR, MARKED # 5208, CIRCA 1928 – With water cooled head it would be representative of the company’s early years, as well as those of the industry, in the design and production of such refrigeration machines, opening up an new epic period, providing for the first time automatic, mechanically cooled commercial food storage for Canadians.



Item: 1 1/2-3 HP compressor ‘5208’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator

1-2 HP compressor ‘T’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.122
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (1 TO 2 HP), BY INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER, MODEL T, CIRCA 1948 – A distinctive compressor in design and styling, marketed by a “come-lately” company to the field of refrigeration machinery, a well known supplier to the Canadian agricultural sector, hoping to secure a market share in the then rapidly expanding, specialised niche market for farm milk can cooling.



Item: 1-2 HP compressor ‘T’
Manufacturer: International Harvester Co. , likely a stencil lin
Make: International Harvester
Model: T

Industrial Significance:
In the 1940’s through early 60’s the farm milk cooler trade in Canada, was a strong market for refrigeration equipment. With many small milk producers scattered over the country side, prior to the dramatic changes starting in the 1960’s which would consolidate the industry, weeding the small farm production unit.


2-3 HP compressor ‘A’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.123
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

AN INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (2 TO 3 HP), BY UNIVERSAL COOLER, TYPE A, CIRCA 1952 – With 12 inch flywheel, designed for twin V belt drive, this twin cylinder, open system compressor, among the last of a breed, would mark the movement to increasingly higher compression speeds, a precursor of the then imminent move to direct drive, high speed hermetic motor compressor engineering.



Item: 2-3 HP compressor ‘A’
Manufacturer: Universal cooler
Make: Universal Cooler
Model: A

Massive 3-5 HP compressor ‘G’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.124
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A MASSIVE, INTEGRAL HP COMPRESSOR (3 TO 5 HP), BY KELVINATOR, Model G, CIRCA 1955 – This 150 lb, compressor [refrigeration by the ton], with water cooled head, would be representative of the company’s last years in the engineering and production of refrigeration compressors, as the market for refrigeration machinery was dramatically restructured both by changes in the technology and new comers to the field of refrigeration engineering and manufacture.



Item: Massive 3-5 HP compressor ‘G’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, UK
Make: Kelvinator
Model: G

Condenser assembly ‘SO2’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.060
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An historic, elemental, coiled tube, static refrigerant condenser assembly, by Frigidaire, from the early years of the low pressure, commercial refrigeration industry in Canada – originally used on Frigidaire model K, cabinet style, condensing unit, using SO2 refrigerant, see Item #051, code 4.02-13. The company later produced a modernisation kits to convert these S02 machines to forced air, tube and fin, radiator style condensing, See code 6.02-5, Frigidaire 1929.



Item: Condenser assembly ‘SO2’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Electric Refrigeration Products, Genera
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Model K condens

SO2 refrigerant receiver

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.061
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A vertical refrigerant receiver for low-pressure refrigeration machines, as found in Canadian food stores, restaurants and institutional applications in the early years of the 20th century. Painted in machinery black of the period, and holding 20 lbs. of noxious, anhydrous sulphur dioxide, it was fabricated in heavy, rolled steel plate with brazed steel end plates, and equipped with half inch brass inlet and quarter inch liquid outlet shut off valves for SAE flare connections, Frigidaire, 1929.



Item: SO2 refrigerant receiver
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire

Technical Significance:
An example of the significant over design that characterised much of the engineering of early refrigeration machines, following the introduction of low-pressure refrigerants such as SO2. While the pressures were substantially lower than with ammonia refrigerants, manufactures, with little engineering data to draw on, still used similar high-pressure designed vestals. This practice would quickly change, however, to light rolled steel construction. Containing enough noxious SO2 to clear the house and the neighbourhood, the manufacturer, for now, wished to take no chances.


Water-cooled condenser and receiver

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.062
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A vertical water-cooled condenser and receiver for low-pressure refrigeration machines, as found in Canadian food stores, restaurants and institutional applications in the early years of the 20th century. Painted in machinery black of the period, and holding 20 lbs. of noxious, anhydrous sulphur dioxide, it was fabricated in heavy, rolled steel plate with brazed steel end plates, and equipped with 3/8″ IPS water inlet with 1/2 union, 3/8″ SAE flare water outlet, and refrigerant valves – including 1/2″ SAE flare, hot gas inlet and 1/4″ SAE flare, liquid outlet, Frigidaire, 1929.



Item: Water-cooled condenser and receiver
Manufacturer: Frigidaire, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire

Technical Significance:
An example of the significant over design that characterised much of the engineering of early refrigeration machines, following the introduction of low-pressure refrigerants such as SO2. While the pressures were substantially lower than with ammonia refrigerants, manufactures, with little engineering data to draw on, still used similar high-pressure designed vestals. This practice would quickly change, however, to light rolled steel construction. Containing enough noxious SO2 to clear the house and the neighbourhood, the manufacturer, for now, wished to take no chances.


Horizontal refrigerant receiver

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.063
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An horizontal refrigerant receiver for low-pressure refrigeration machines, as found in Canadian food stores, restaurants and institutional applications in the early years of the 20th century. Painted in machinery black of the period, and holding 25 lbs. of noxious, anhydrous sulphur dioxide, it was fabricated in heavy, rolled steel plate with brazed steel bellied end plates, and equipped with 3/8 inch brass inlet and quarter inch liquid outlet shut off valves for SAE flare connections, as well as welded mounting brackets for four point bolt mount, Frigidaire, 1929.



Item: Horizontal refrigerant receiver
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire

Technical Significance:
The use of steel, bellied end plates is a mark of increasing sophistication in strength of materials engineering and manufacturing methods, contrasted with the flat end plates in items 061 and 062. An example of the significant over design that characterised much of the engineering of early refrigeration machines, following the introduction of low-pressure refrigerants such as SO2.
While the pressures were substantially lower than with ammonia refrigerants, manufactures, with little engineering data to draw on, still used similar high-pressure designed vestals. This practice would quickly change, however, to light rolled steel construction. Containing enough noxious SO2 to clear the house and the neighbourhood, the manufacturer, for now, wished to take no chances.


Condenser modernization kit

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.064
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A “modernization” kit, by Frigidaire for replacing the copper tube, coiled, static air condensers on their Model O refrigeration machine with a forces air, fin and tube, radiator style, high efficiency condenser. Constructed of heavily tinned copper tubing, for use with corrosive, noxious anhydrous SO2, it used heavy steel fins, coated with gloss black enamel, a truly remarkable piece of re-engineering for the “after market” of the 1940′, Frigidaire, 1941.



Item: Condenser modernization kit
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Frigidaire, Uni

Technical Significance:
A remarkable snap shot in time, demonstrating manufacturing and engineering practices for operation in the corrosive atmosphere of anhydrous sulphur dioxide, including the use of costly, heavy, tinned, coated copper and an enamelled steel case and fins. The enamelling of fins would represent a significant bow to the issue of corrosion resistance at the cost of lower heat transfer.The streamlined air shroud is an indication of the increasingly engineering sophistication in airflow design, as well as manufacturing methods.
The high gloss sprayed finish is also a significant marker of the times, in contrast to the crude machine black finishes of items 061, 062, and 063, for example. Duco enamels and the spray techniques for applying them industrially was a significant technological advancement of the period.

Industrial Significance:
Of significance also is the commitment of Frigidaire to the continued use of anhydrous Sulphur dioxide well into the 1940’s. It was a period in which much of the industry looked to system upgrades adapting then for use with the new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, non-corrosive and non-noxious.


Condenser modernization kit

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.065
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A “modernization” kit, by Frigidaire for replacing the copper tube, coil, static air condensers on their Model K, enclosed, cabinet model, refrigeration machine [See 1tem 051]with a forces air, fin and tube, radiator style, high efficiency condenser. Constructed of heavily tinned copper tubing, for use with corrosive, noxious anhydrous SO2, it used heavy steel fins, coated with gloss black enamel, a truly remarkable piece of re-engineering for the “after market” of the 1940′, Frigidaire, 1941.



Item: Condenser modernization kit
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Frigidaire Unit

Technical Significance:
A remarkable snap shot in time, demonstrating manufacturing and engineering practices for operation in the corrosive atmosphere of anhydrous sulphur dioxide, including the use of costly, heavy, tinned, coated copper and an enamelled steel case and fins. The enamelling of fins would represent a significant bow to the issue of corrosion resistance at the cost of lower heat transfer.The streamlined air shroud is an indication of the increasingly engineering sophistication in airflow design, as well as manufacturing methods.
The high gloss sprayed finish is also a significant marker of the times, in contrast to the crude machine black finishes of items 061, 062, and 063, for example. Duco enamels and the spray techniques for applying them industrially was a significant technological advancement of the period.

Industrial Significance:
Of significance also is the commitment of Frigidaire to the continued use of anhydrous sulphur dioxide well into the 1940’s. It was a period in which much of the industry looked to system upgrades adapting then for use with the new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, non-corrosive and non-noxious.


Two pass replacement condenser

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.069
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A handsome, staggered, two pass, after-market, replacement air-cooled condenser manufactured for small, FHP commercial application refrigeration machines, employing chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants [methyl chloride or Freon 12]. Fabricated with tin plated steel frame, 3/8 inch copper tube with aluminised return bends and heavily swaged copper, plate fins, it was likely supplied by Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario to their dealers, circa 1940.



Item: Two pass replacement condenser

Technical Significance:
See also items 6.01-1, 6.01-2, 6.01-3, 6.02-7, 6.02-8, together they profile the evolution of the tube and fin, air-cooled condenser for FHP refrigeration machines in Canada


Condenser & receiver assembly

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.070
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An all steel, mid 20th century, forced air, refrigerant condenser and receiver assembly, representing a world change and an epic period of transition in the engineering design and construction of refrigeration machines, making possible a new range of offerings by Canadian grocers, bakeries and restaurateurs. It was engineered for a new generation of non-noxious, non-corrosive refrigerants, the chlorinated hydrocarbons, by a new generation of equipment manufacturers, Chieftain, Tecumseh Products, 1951.



Item: Condenser & receiver assembly
Manufacturer: Tecumseh Products, Tecumseh, Mich, USA
Make: Chieftain
Model: FS16-1L

Technical Significance:
By the 1940’s times had changed and changed greatly, as a result of the introduction of hydrocarbon refrigerants, largely at the time, methyl chloride and Freon 12. The new refrigerants were non-noxious and non-corrosive, allowing the use of less expensive steel tubing for condensers. The thermodynamic properties of the refrigerants required less volume of liquid in circulation, leading to smaller refrigerant receivers. The design of pressure vessels was also better understood allowing for safe, lighter weight, more economic and environmentally safe construction.By way of contrast see item 061, classification code 6.02-2, for a receiver for sulphur dioxide, in rolled steel plate, 7 inches dia, 16 inches high, weighing 25 lbs, compare, 3 inches in dia, 7 inches high, in pressed steel, weighing 3 lbs for F12, both of similar horsepower.
Hard on the heals of this epic change in the nature of refrigeration machines, based on the development of hydrocarbon refrigerants, was another engineering revolution now well on the way and gathering momentum. So called “conventional” refrigeration machines, open systems with separate motor and belt driven compressor would soon largely disappear, in FHP capacities. They would be replaced by the end of the 1950’s by “hermetic” units and compressors, in which the motor and compressor were sealed in a single enclosure, making possible yet another generation of lighter weight, more efficient refrigeration machines [see item 039, classification group 4.01-10]


Refrigeration pressure/temperature control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.028
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, commercial application, hydraulic bellows actuated, dual function, automatic pressure and temperature control, for refrigeration systems requiring extended capillary tube temperature sensing; equipped with tilting mercury tube, line voltage switching and heavy, press formed, galvanised, steel enclosure, Mercoid, 1930.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers, profiling a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing various design modifications made to same basic configuration. [See items ID # 153- 155]



Item: Refrigeration pressure/temperature control
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Company Mercoid Control No.848-
Make: Mercoid, Detroit Lubricator
Model: Detroit Lubrica
Features:
Of special interest is the glass enclosed, mercury bulb switch, still in tact and operable. These are immensely fragile devices by definition and seldom have a long life, particularly after being taken out of service.

Note large electrical junction box with 4 electrical connector knock-outs, representative of the wiring practice approved for commercial equipment of the period, which required heavy steel shielded twin conductor cable referred to as BX.

Technical Significance:
An exemplar of what is likely the first generation of wide spread, commercially manufactured and marketed pressure and temperature refrigeration controllers, popularly found in Canada.

Connected by a small copper tube to the refrigeration compressor, this dual bellows controller provided high pressure cut-out protection. As well as it provided low side, refrigerator temperature control by means of a thermal bulb on the end of long coiled capillary tube attached to a second hydraulic bellows. The bulb would likely have been attached to the refrigeration-cooling unit [evaporator]. A simple ingenious mechanical mechanism allowed the mercury switch to be operated by either bellows, turning the refrigeration on or off in response to both high pressure and refrigerator temperature

The electrical switching properties of mercury had been discovered and the tilting mercury bulb would become the switching method of choice for much of the early 20th century for fractional HP applications. It was a period in which little empirical design data was available on alternating current switching. With an induction motor rating of up to 1 HP, and a split-phase rating of 1/4 HP this controller and most like it of the period was limited to fractional HP applications.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers, profiling a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing design modifications made to this basic configuration. This economic, robust configuration provided a platform readily adaptable to a wide range of commercial refrigeration field requirements [See items ID # 153- 155].

Industrial Significance:
A range of corporate names appear on the controls in the series, suggesting a range of corporate partnerships between Mercoid and other early players in the refrigeration control field: American Radiator Company; The Federal Gauge Company; Detroit Lubricator Company. The genre would give way within the decade to smaller, more sophisticated engineering approaches, yielding increasingly more precise refrigeration system control [See ID # 163 to 165].


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘Mercoid’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.029
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, commercial application, hydraulic bellows actuated, ambient temperature sensing, automatic temperature control; equipped with line voltage, tilting mercury tube switch and unusual rotary quick-make-and-break, manual on-off switch, for use in small food store, walk-in-refrigerators, Mercoid, 1930.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers, profiling a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing various design modifications made to same basic configuration. [See items ID # 153- 155]



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘Mercoid’
Manufacturer: Mercoid Control, American Radiator Company, USA [S
Make: Mercoid, American Radiator Company
Model: Un-marked
Features:
Of special interest is the glass enclosed, mercury bulb switch, still in tact and operable. These are immensely fragile devices by definition and seldom have a long life, particularly after being taken out of service.

Unusual Danfield rotary quick-make-and-break, snop action, manual on-off switch, HEPC approved, with white porcelain base and black Bakelite cover and control knob,with handsome corporate logo.

Smith and Stone, with facilities in George town Ontario, 5 amp conduit fitting base for rotary switch

Large electrical junction box with 4 electrical connector knock-outs, representative of the wiring practice approved for commercial equipment of the period, which required heavy steel shielded twin conductor cable referred to as BX.

Technical Significance:
An exemplar of what is likely the first generation of wide spread, commercially manufactured and marketed pressure and temperature refrigeration controllers, popularly found in Canada.

The control, designed to mounted inside the refrigerated space, sensed the temperature through a copper sheathed bellows mechanism. A line voltage, manual on-off switch was attached for convenience. The rotary quick-make-and-break style was popular in the period, being extensively used on electrical stoves

The electrical switching properties of mercury had been discovered and the tilting mercury bulb would become the switching method of choice for much of the early 20th century for fractional HP applications. It was a period in which little empirical design data was available on alternating current switching. With an induction motor rating of up to 1 HP, and a split-phase rating of 1/4 HP this controller and most like it of the period was limited to fractional HP applications.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers, profiling a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing design modifications made to this basic configuration. This economic, robust configuration provided a platform readily adaptable to a wide range of commercial refrigeration field requirements [See items ID # 153- 155].

Industrial Significance:
A range of corporate names appear on the controls in the series, suggesting a range of corporate partnerships between Mercoid and other early players in the refrigeration control field: American Radiator Company; The Federal Gauge Company; Detroit Lubricator Company. The genre would give way within the decade to smaller, more sophisticated engineering approaches, yielding increasingly more precise refrigeration system control [See ID # 163 to 165].


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘Mercoid’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.030
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, commercial application, hydraulic bellows actuated, dual function, automatic pressure and temperature control, for refrigeration systems requiring extended capillary tube temperature sensing; similar to ID # 152, except with tilting mercury tube not included, Mercoid, 1930.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers. The set profiles a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing various design modifications made to the same basic configuration [See items ID # 153- 155].



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘Mercoid’
Manufacturer: Mercoid Control, The Federal Gauge Co. USA [See no
Make: Mercoid, The Federal Gauge Co.
Model: unknown see ID
Features:
Note large electrical junction box with 4 electrical connector knock-outs, representative of the wiring practice approved for commercial equipment of the period, which required heavy steel shielded twin conductor cable referred to as BX.

Technical Significance:
An exemplar of what is likely the first generation of wide spread, commercially manufactured and marketed pressure and temperature refrigeration controllers, popularly found in Canada.

Connected by a small copper tube to the refrigeration compressor, this dual bellows controller provided high pressure cut-out protection. As well, it provided low side, refrigerator temperature control by means of a thermal bulb on the end of long coiled capillary tube attached to a second hydraulic bellows. The bulb would likely have been attached to the refrigeration-cooling unit [evaporator]. A simple ingenious mechanical mechanism allowed the mercury switch to be operated by either bellows, turning the refrigeration on or off in response to both high pressure and refrigerator temperature

The electrical switching properties of mercury had been discovered and the tilting mercury bulb would become the switching method of choice for much of the early 20th century for fractional HP applications. It was a period in which little empirical design data was available on alternating current switching. With an induction motor rating of up to 1 HP, and a split-phase rating of 1/4 HP this controller and most like it of the period was limited to fractional HP applications.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers, profiling a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing design modifications made to this basic configuration. This economic, robust configuration provided a platform readily adaptable to a wide range of commercial refrigeration field requirements [See items ID # 153- 155].

Industrial Significance:
A range of corporate names appear on the controls in the series, suggesting a range of corporate partnerships between Mercoid and other early players in the refrigeration control field: American Radiator Company; The Federal Gauge Company; Detroit Lubricator Company. The genre would give way within the decade to smaller, more sophisticated engineering approaches, yielding increasingly more precise refrigeration system control [See ID # 163 to 165].


Refrigeration pressure/temperature control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.031
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, commercial application, hydraulic bellows actuated, dual function, automatic pressure and temperature control, for refrigeration systems requiring extended capillary tube temperature sensing; similar to ID # 154, with tilting mercury tube and pressure bellows not included, Mercoid, 1930.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers. The set profiles a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing various design modifications made to the same basic configuration. [See items ID # 153- 155]



Item: Refrigeration pressure/temperature control
Manufacturer: Mercoid Control, American Radiator Company [See no
Make: Mercoid, American Radiator Company
Model: unknown see ID
Features:
Note large electrical junction box with 4 electrical connector knock-outs, representative of the wiring practice approved for commercial equipment of the period, which required heavy steel shielded twin conductor cable referred to as BX.

Technical Significance:
An exemplar of what is likely the first generation of wide spread, commercially manufactured and marketed pressure and temperature refrigeration controllers, popularly found in Canada.

Connected by a small copper tube to the refrigeration compressor, this dual bellows controller provided high pressure cut-out protection. As well, it provided low side, refrigerator temperature control by means of a thermal bulb on the end of long coiled capillary tube attached to a second hydraulic bellows. The bulb would likely have been attached to the refrigeration-cooling unit [evaporator]. A simple ingenious mechanical mechanism allowed the mercury switch to be operated by either bellows, turning the refrigeration on or off in response to both high pressure and refrigerator temperature

The electrical switching properties of mercury had been discovered and the tilting mercury bulb would become the switching method of choice for much of the early 20th century for fractional HP applications. It was a period in which little empirical design data was available on alternating current switching. With an induction motor rating of up to 1 HP, and a split-phase rating of 1/4 HP this controller and most like it of the period was limited to fractional HP applications.

One of a matched set of similar Mercoid, early refrigeration system controllers, profiling a range of temperature/pressure control applications met by this pioneering manufacture, employing design modifications made to this basic configuration. This economic, robust configuration provided a platform readily adaptable to a wide range of commercial refrigeration field requirements [See items ID # 153- 155].

Industrial Significance:
A range of corporate names appear on the controls in the series, suggesting a range of corporate partnerships between Mercoid and other early players in the refrigeration control field: American Radiator Company; The Federal Gauge Company; Detroit Lubricator Company. The genre would give way within the decade to smaller, more sophisticated engineering approaches, yielding increasingly more precise refrigeration system control [See ID # 163 to 165].


Refrigeration pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.032
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early automatic low side pressure control for commercial refrigeration\r\napplications, made in the form of the then familiar Bourdon tube actuated pressure gauge; equipped with line-voltage, tilting mercury bulb switch, with glass viewing window, Mercoid Switch, Federal Gauge Chicago, Ill., Circa 1928.



Item: Refrigeration pressure control
Manufacturer: Mercoid Switch, Chicago, Federal Gauge Chicago, Il
Make: Mercoid Switch
Model: Type H, Reset
Features:
rear mounted manual adjustments, executed in brass see below; Beautifully etched name plate in sheet broass

Technical Significance:
An example of early pressure gauge design and construction based on the use of a relatively crude Bourdon tube-actuating device, found prior to the wide spread introduction of hydraulic bellows and extended capillary line actuators – See ID # 151-154

See also notes on significance, ID # 151

Mercoid Division , Dwyer Instruments Inc, Michican City Ind. Currently show in their catalogue listings a range of Bourdon tube pressure switches of very similar construction and operation, indicating something of the precision and reliability to be expected of this genre of commercial and industrial controller technology. See note 1

Industrial Significance:
The development of early automatic pressure controls started with the materials and understandings of the day. In the early 1920’s these included the Bourdon pressure tube and the mercury bulb switch.

The circular Bourdon tube is designed to responds to changes in internal pressure by changing its curvature, used here to move a mercury bulb switch through a simple and elegant brass linkage.

The control has a manual set knob on the back, as well as a means of repositioning the bulb, so as to re-set its control point.

The control is designed to operate over the commercial, So2 pressure/temperature range of 7-1/2 lbs. pressure to 5 inch of vacuum, requiring a large tube to respond to these low pressures.

A crude device, when compared with even mid-20th century practices, it provided the essential beginnings for the development of fully automated refrigeration equipment.


Refrigeration ‘silver dollar’ thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.033
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early automatic temperature control for commercial refrigeration\r\napplications, employing a “silver dollar” style hydraulic power element and extended capillary tube sensor; with line-voltage, four pole open contact switch, mounted in heavy two-piece, screw assembled, cast enclosure with rubber sealing gasket, Tag Snapon, Circa 1928

One of a set of two controllers, demonstrating variations in design and engineering by the manufacturer, as well as the various effects of natural ageing in use, disuse, abuse and abandonment.



Item: Refrigeration ‘silver dollar’ thermostat
Manufacturer: C. J. Tagliabue Mfg Co, Brooklyn N. Y.
Make: Tag Snapon Controller
Model: Type C-1
Features:
“Silver dollar” style hydraulic power element; original porcelain electrical box connector representative of practice in the period; original wiring harness, using an early form of twin, stranded wire, SJ cable; original two wire black backbite attachment cap; Cast enclosure overcoated with aluminium paint, employing a dispersion of aluminium particles in petroleum-based paint vehicle, new for the period.

Technical Significance:
Representative of one of the broad range of approaches to the engineering, design and construction of temperature controllers being experimented with by “me too manufactures”. It was a period of rapid growth in what appeared to be an expanding, economically attractive market place

The heavy, open style, four pole switching marked the controller as able to handle larger HP applications than the mainstream of tilting mercury bulb controllers of the time – although current and HP ratings are not shown

The unusual attention given here to robust ,water proof [drip proof] construction and other design attributes is symptomatic of the period. It was one in which, in the absence of field-based experience and codified engineering data, manufactures tended, in many ways, to over design. The effects of progressive simplification can be seen in other controllers in the 7.02 series.

Other significant aspects of the controller include: “Silver dollar” style hydraulic power element; original porcelain electrical box connector representative of practice in the period; original wiring harness, using an early form of twin, stranded wire, SJ cable; original two wire black backbite attachment cap

Industrial Significance:
See above


Refrigeration ‘silver dollar’ thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.034
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early automatic temperature control for commercial refrigeration\r\napplications, employing a “silver dollar” style hydraulic power element, capillary tube sensor and bulb with liquid tight dealing gland; line-voltage, four pole open contact switch, mounted in heavy two-piece, screw assembled, cast enclosure with rubber sealing gasket, Tag Snapon, Circa 1928

One of a set of two controllers, demonstrating variations in design, engineering and application by the manufacturer, as well as the various effects of natural ageing in use, disuse, abuse and abandonment.



Item: Refrigeration ‘silver dollar’ thermostat
Manufacturer: C. J. Tagliabue Mfg Co, Brooklyn N. Y.
Make: Tag Snapon Controller
Model: Un marked
Features:
Brass, screw threaded, water tight sealing gland allowing immersion of temperature sensing bulb in liquid bath; “Silver dollar” style hydraulic power element; Cast enclosure overcoated with black paint

Technical Significance:
Representative of one of the broad range of approaches to the engineering, design and construction of temperature controllers being experimented with by “me too manufactures”. It was a period of rapid growth in what appeared to be an expanding, economically attractive market place

The heavy, open style, four pole switching marked the controller as able to handle larger HP applications than the mainstream of tilting mercury bulb controllers of the time – although current and HP ratings are not shown

The unusual attention given here to robust, waterproof [drip proof] construction and other design attributes is symptomatic of the period. It was one in which, in the absence of field-based experience and codified engineering data, manufactures tended, in many ways, to over design. The effects of progressive simplification can be seen in other controllers in the 7.02 series.

Industrial Significance:
See above


Refrigeration ‘pancake’ thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.035
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, crude, mechanically refrigerated cabinet temperature control, engineered with large “pan-cake” style hydraulic power element with large, built-in, thermal sensing bulb; open, single pole heavy copper switch contacts, mounted on steel plate base with press formed sheet steel cover, handsomely decorated in gold and black, Frigidaire, circa 1926.



Item: Refrigeration ‘pancake’ thermostat
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Un-marked
Features:
Cover decorated in black with gold lettering, detailing monthly oiling instructions for condensing unit; Visual pleasing, unusual, oval, pressed steel cover with twin knurled brass hold-down nuts; Unusually rugged mechanical switch construction, with larger copper contact surfaces, a construction style which would soon disappear with the advent of increasingly smaller more finely engineered control technology, see for example ID # 165, code 7.02-10

Technical Significance:
An unusually crude, weighty and rugged, automated, mechanical switching device in iron plate and steel bolted construction, a quintessential product of Canada’s early period of industrialization. In its design and execution it appears, in many ways, much more like the product of a local blacksmith or iron monger than that of an industrial manufacturing process.

It stands as a classic marker and supreme accomplishments of its industrial times. Its significance is as an embryonic product of engineering and manufacturing know-how in the field of automated, electrical switching devices. It represented a know-how that would shortly be seen as the end of a genre. The genre would give way to a new generation of much more sophisticated engineering design concepts, made possible by a new generation of engineering theory building and practice, materials and manufacturing methods. See for example ID # 161 to 164.

Of special interest, in benchmarking and appreciating the technology represented here, is in contrasting it with micro-switch technology in common use in automated controllers in Canada by the 1950’s. The contrast in precision engineering, manufacture and performance represents a vast step ahead. See for example ID # 165, code 7.02-10

Industrial Significance:
See above


Refrigeration hydraulic pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.036
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic pressure control for mid 20th century, commercial refrigeration applications, with dual high-low pressure functions, for control of low-side temperature and high pressure cut-out, a new generation thermal motor overload protection and manual reset, Frigidaire, Circa 1937.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic pressure control
Manufacturer: Frigidaire, Div of General Motors Corp, Dayton Ohi
Make: Frigidaire
Model: type YD, Model

Technical Significance:
It was the mid 1930’s and the refrigeration and air conditioning industry was a buss with the promise of a post depression and pre WWW II period. As a marker, a new generation of well-integrated and carefully engineered refrigeration condensing units, readily adapted to a wide range of field applications was in production at Frigidaire – reflecting the market optimism of the period.

According to Frigidaire’s installation and service manual No. SER,-405, for products manufactured prior to 1937, the YD series of controls had just been put on the market.

With new engineering and manufacturing know-how, the control was designed and built to performs the 3 functions of low side operating temperature/pressure, high side pressure protection and motor overload cut-out, using spring compensated bellows and overload heater coil with manual reset.

With the market optimism of the time, the control series was produced in a wide range of models, covering various functional combinations for installation on all Frigidaire condensing units. Included were low and high pressure, as well as temperature sensing bulbs, all with various lengths of capillary line, plus a range of motor overload, trip, heater coils from 1 to 15 amperes.

Industrial Significance:
The control stands as a marker of significantly changing times in the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry and the consumer market place that motivated and sustained it

Creating and responding to market forces for automated refrigeration and air conditioning systems, pressure control technology evolved rapidly in the late 1930’s. Better engineering data, new materials and new more precise manufacturing methods all helped the industry to respond to thye now vastly changing times.

Engineers were learning how to combine multiple functions within the same control device – low side operating pressure, high side safety cut-out and automatic motor over load protection.


Refrigeration hydraulic pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.037
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic refrigeration cabinet temperature control for mid 20th century, commercial refrigeration appliances, with user friendly temperature adjustment control knob, extended capillary line temperature sensor and new generation thermal motor overload protection with manual reset, in attractive gloss black Bakelite enclosure, Frigidaire, Circa 1938.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic pressure control
Manufacturer: Frigidaire, Div of General Motors Corp, Dayton Ohi
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Model T00, Type
Features:
Gloss black Bakelite temperature control knob, user friendly, calibrated 0-5, warm and cold; Original cable connector demonstrating installation trade practices of the times; Original motor overload heater selection table.; Tightly coiled, extendable capillary line, with 4in. bulb

Technical Significance:
An extended capillary tube temperature control standing a quintessential product of the engineering designer’s and manufacture’s art form of the mid 1930’s.

To understand the nature and scope of the advances made by the industry, in matters of engineering design, performance precision, materials applications and utilization, as well as manufacturing and production prowess, it must be contrasted with the technology offered by the industry a decade or so earlier [See ID # 157-160]

The device demonstrates the growing interest by equipment manufacturers of the time in producing increasingly, visually attractive, as well as increasingly functional and efficient product lines. The era of the industrial designer was close at hand. [for comparison , see for example ID # 157 to 160]

The appearance of such automated controllers, made possible by a new generation of engineering precision and know-how, as well by new industrial mass production methods, was a response to, as well as a driver of, an astonishingly broad range of new refrigerated appliances to be found on main street Canada. Included were: ice cream cabinets, water coolers, small food merchandisers, reach-in and packaged walk-in coolers, and packaged, self contained air conditioners. Frigidaire’s and Kelvinator’s product and service manuals of the late 1930’s and 40.s tell this remarkable story of sector achievement and profound market shifts.

Industrial Significance:
The artifact is symptomatic of the vast changes taking place in the manner in which the refrigeration and air conditioning industry was re-organizing itself, in order to take advantage of post-depression market expectations. The industrial giants of the period were eyeing the sector as a potentially expanding and profitable one. The General Motors Corp. would purchase Frigidaire, and with its engineering and capital reserves, quickly turn it in to a dominant player in the field, with a comprhensive product line which would dwarf other players in the industry .

Frigidaire’s market profile was a remarkable one through to the 1960’s in the range of products produced, from controls of the variety shown here to stylish household cabinet refrigerators and commercial refrigerated appliances and large central station installations, employing low-pressure refrigerants of the period.


Refrigeration hydraulic pressure control ‘FHP’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.038
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, crude, hydraulic bellows actuated, FHP, single pole, snap action, refrigeration system, low-side pressure/temperature controller, in black cast iron enclosure, configured and levered much like a door lock of the period, appearing much more like the product of a locksmith than a new generation of early 20th century, automatic electric control engineers [incomplete assembly], Penn, circa 1929.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic pressure control ‘FHP’
Manufacturer: Penn Electric Switch Co. Des Moines Ida.
Make: Penn Electric
Model: Type E
Features:
Handsome, etched brass name plate decorated in black enamel; Full operating instructions and diagram on inside of cover plate

Technical Significance:
The controller, although itself an incomplete assembly, when seen in the context of the offerings by other suppliers to the field [see the range of other artifacts of the period held by HHCC in the 7.02 series], helps to demonstrate the wide range of engineering design concepts being offered by the industry, as it experimented with the materials and know-how of the times to respond to potential market needs, and to grow the industry.

This controller, much like the door lock, which seems to have inspired it, is a quintessential statement of serviceability. The cover plate, removable by means of a single wing nut, reveals the simplest of mechanical actions with levers and springs in door lock style.

To further reinforce the strongly held value of maintainablility and serviceability the inside of the cover plate carries a still very readable account of the control and its operation, along with a full drawing of the control showing all operating components.

Industrial Significance:
The control admirably demonstrates the lengths original equipment manufactures of the times went to assist, often ill trained field installation and service personnel to understand and maintain the equipment.


Refrigeration hydraulic low pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.039
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Automatic, hydraulic bellows actuated, low pressure control for commercial and industrial refrigeration equipment applications, with fully adjustable, user friendly range and differential settings, and tilting mercury bulb switching, in attractive, streamlined heavy, plated steel enclosure and handsome cover plate in stylish green, Minneapolis-Honeywell, Circa 1945.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic low pressure control
Manufacturer: Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co. Minneapolis, M
Make: Minneapolis-Honeywell
Model: Type L414-1
Features:
Attractive, simple elegant styling with plated steel, bright enclosure, long radius streamlined corners and decorated nameplate cover in green.

A mercury bulb controller, with precision mechanism, it includes calibrated scales for cut-out and differential field adjustment and out-board replaceable and interchangeable bellows. Beautifully engineered, it is enclosed in 3 1/2″ x 4 “x 2″deep 1/16” formed steel box with full, front, access cover,

With miniature, built-in pendulum to help ensure plumb mounting needed for the precise operation of the mercury bulb at designated control point.

Technical Significance:
A sophisticated state of the art automated refrigerant low-side pressure controller of the mid 20th century. Representative of the 1940’s and the new generation of commercial and industrial, refrigeration pressure and temperature controls that came with it – compact, precisely engineered by earlier standards,

They were well supported with installation instructions and service personnel, new for the period

The L series, in its many variations, is well documented in company catalogues and in field instruction sheets, variously dated through the latter 1940’s and 50’s.

The control was made in a number of versions for industrial, as well as commercial refrigeration applications, including farm milk coolers, refrigerated display cases, walk-in coolers and freezer cabinets.

Industrial Significance:
Models with snap action switching, replacing the mercury bulb, were available for applications where vibration and tilting were concerned.

The Minneapolis-Honeywell L control series represented well the mid-century control technology of the times, enabling the development of a vast range of new refrigeration applications by the Canadian refrigeration industry.


Refrigeration pressure/temperature control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.040
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Automatic, hydraulic bellows actuated, dual function, high pressure and low-side temperature control with extended capillary tube, for commercial and industrial refrigeration equipment applications, equipped with fully adjustable, user friendly range and differential settings, and tilting mercury bulb switching, in attractive, streamlined heavy, plated steel enclosure, now telling the many stories of natural use on a farm milk cooler in York Region, Minneapolis-Honeywell, Circa 1945.



Item: Refrigeration pressure/temperature control
Manufacturer: Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co. Minneapolis, M
Make: Minneapolis-Honeywell
Model: Type L413-1
Features:
Attractive, simple elegant styling with plated steel, bright enclosure, long radius streamlined corners and decorated nameplate cover in green.

A mercury bulb controller, with precision mechanism, it includes calibrated scales for cut-out and differential field adjustment and out-board replaceable and interchangeable bellows.

With miniature, built-in pendulum to help ensure plumb mounting needed for the precise operation of the mercury bulb at designated control point.

Once beautifully engineered, it is enclosed in stream lined, formed steel, bright plated enclosure with, full front, access cover: but now stained and spotted with white paint telling the stories of many years of use on Ontario farm near Aurora, on a typical, early, mechanically refrigerated, water bath milk cooler

Technical Significance:
Representative of leading practice in the engineering of sophisticated state of the art, dual function, automated refrigerant high pressure cut-out and low-side temperature controllers of the mid 20th century.

Built on a platform that was readily adaptable to a wide range of functions and applications it represented a significant advance in the field, enabling an ever widening range of functionality, and equipment manufacture’s needs. [See also ID # 163, 7.02-8]

New also for the period was the attention given by leading control manufacturers to product support. The L series, in its many variations, is well documented in company catalogues and in field instruction sheets, variously dated through the latter 1940’s and 50’s.

The control was made in a number of versions for industrial, as well as commercial refrigeration applications, including farm milk coolers, refrigerated display cases, walk-in coolers and freezer cabinets.

Industrial Significance:
The Minneapolis-Honeywell L control series represented well the mid-century control technology of the times, enabling the development of a vast range of new refrigeration applications by the Canadian refrigeration industry.


Refrigerated meat sales counter

Other Refrigerating and Air conditioning Components and Parts – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.010
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Meat sales counter for mechanical refrigeration, display section, in 1/4 inch plate glass and solid oak cabinet with clear, light golden varnished finish, 1930.



Item: Refrigerated meat sales counter
Manufacturer Believed to be Sherer-Gillet Co. Ltd, Quelph Ontar
Make: Unknown, believed to be Sherer-Gillet Co. Ltd, Quelph Ontario, See Note #1
Model: Unknown
Features:
Sliding oak framed, 1/4 “, plate glass access doors, fitted to oil impregnated, oak runners, with top plate glass lights, plate glass end panels and sloping front, with top plate glass customer viewing window.

Technical Significance:
This classic, refrigerated, commercial meat display case from the early years of the 20th century reflects well the state of refrigeration, application engineering of the period. Here refrigeration equipment manufacturers are seen reaching out for new innovated applications for their technology, making the technology a part of indispensable, everyday experience in the life of the nation. Here, too, we see the evolution of the new food industry and culture, mechanically refrigerated foods from producer, to neighbourhood merchant to the household refrigerator. The new industry would provide new foods never experienced before by the consumer, as well as traditional ones but fresher safer and longer lasting. The embryoniuc years of the modern food retailer are to be found in this early, refrigerated, meat display fixture
The design idiom, construction techniques, available for cabinet technology, as well as materials of social preference are also well illustrated here, plate glass and solid oak in natural finish. What is illustrated is an early offering of the refrigeration industry. A product of the “wooden ice box culture”, this idiom was about to change dramatically, however, as customer preference moved to a more modern look for a new time.
Henceforth, refrigeration fixtures would appear with cabinetry executed in gleaming white porcelain steel panels, brake formed using the increasingly sophisticated manufacturing techniques and machinery, much of it developed in Ontario for Ontarians, by a new innovated generation of designers, engineers and production line craftsman. 1) The refrigeration fixture catalogues of the period tell many interesting stories of social and cultural change, as well as the massive technological and social values driven changes, driving a new Ontario economy.

Industrial Significance:
A classic example of a “transitional” or “sandwich” technology, one caught on the fly. Here the snapshot is between two cooling technologies, cooling with ice and mechanical refrigeration – often a little of both in the early yearsSocio-economic Significance


Compressor parts

Other Refrigerating and Air conditioning Components and Parts – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.072
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An assembly of historic, open system, reciprocating, refrigeration compressor parts, for commercial refrigeration applications, many parts in their original cartons. Including refrigerant shaft seals, valves and fittings demonstrating what they are; what they do; and how they worked in the groceries, bakeshops, confectioneries, restaurants and institutions, as well as in industrial applications in Canada in the 1920’s to 1940’s Various manufacturers, circa 1948.
[For additional compressor parts see also items 8.02-1, 8.01-1 and 8.02-3]



Item: Compressor parts
Manufacturer: Various manufacturers, including Kelvinator, Frigi

Compressor parts

Other Refrigerating and Air conditioning Components and Parts – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.073
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An assembly of historic, open system, reciprocating, refrigeration compressor parts, for commercial refrigeration applications, many parts in their original cartons. Including refrigerant shaft seals, valves and fittings demonstrating what they are; what they do; and how they worked in the groceries, bakeshops, confectioneries, restaurants and institutions, as well as in industrial applications in Canada in the 1920’s to 1940’s Various manufacturers, circa 1948.
[For additional compressor parts see also items 8.02-1, 8.01-1 and 8.02-3]



Item: Compressor parts
Manufacturer: Various manufacturers, including Kelvinator, Frigi

Compressor parts

Other Refrigerating and Air conditioning Components and Parts – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.074
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An assembly of historic, open system, reciprocating, refrigeration compressor parts, for small, commercial refrigeration applications, many parts in their original cartons. Including valve plates and valves, demonstrating what they are; what they do; and how they worked in grocery stores, bakeshops, confectioneries and institutions in Canada in the 1920’s to 1940’s Various manufacturers, circa 1948.
[For additional compressor parts see also items 8.02-1, 8.01-1 and 2]



Item: Compressor parts
Manufacturer: Various manufacturers, including Kelvinator, Frigi

Refrigeration water regulator ’68A’

Other Refrigerating and Air conditioning Components and Parts – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.086
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A modulating, water flow, regulating valve for use on water cooled refrigerant condensers, equipped with brass body and 2 ply copper bellows, operates on refrigerant system head pressure to minimize water consumption, adjusting water flow to meet the needs of the system without overrun and wastage, Model 68A, Automatic Products, 1948.



Item: Refrigeration water regulator ’68A’
Manufacturer: Automatic Products, Milwaukee, Wis.
Make: Automatic Products [AP]
Model: 68A
Features:
Brass casing with aluminium sleeve

Technical Significance:
It was the mid 20th century, a period before water conservation was a matter of wide spread public interest and concern. Yet water costs were escalating in many urban centres, where water metering had been introduced – thus making water conservation much more a matter of economics than an essential and mandatory conservation practice.

Industrial Significance:
Many early commercial refrigeration applications in dairies, food stores and confectioneries, were water-cooled systems. More efficient than air cooling the practice prevailed through out much of the 20th century, where the cost of water made it an affordable condensing medium.

In larger and multiple installations involving a number of condensing units a water tower would be used allowing the water to be evaporatively cooled and recycled.

Air cooling became increasingly popular in the latter part of the 20th century, with water conservation an ever increasing public issue, and with the development of large remote, multiple pass air condensers and head pressure control devices [See item ID # 195]


Water flow regulating valve

Other Refrigerating and Air conditioning Components and Parts – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2006.087
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A compact, modulating, water flow, regulating valve for use on water cooled refrigerant condensers, equipped with brass body, external power element and 2 foot capillary line, calibrated for Freon 12 and 22, operates on refrigerant system head pressure to minimize water consumption, adjusting water flow to meet the needs of the system without overrun and wastage, Model 2300, Penn Controls, 1955.



Item: Water flow regulating valve
Manufacturer: Penn Controls Inc. Goshen, Ind.
Make: Penn Controls
Model: 2300, Type 246P03AR
Features:
– Eexternal, replaceable power element and capillary line

Technical Significance:
– It was the mid 20th century, a period before water conservation was a matter of wide spread public interest and concern. Yet water costs were escalating in many urban centres, where water metering had been introduced – thus making water conservation much more a matter of economics than an essential and mandatory conservation practice.

Industrial Significance:
– Many early commercial refrigeration applications in dairies, food stores and confectioneries, were water-cooled systems. More efficient than air cooling the practice prevailed through out much of the 20th century, where the cost of water made it an affordable condensing medium.
– In larger and multiple installations involving a number of condensing units a water tower would be used allowing the water to be evaporatively cooled and recycled.
– Air cooling became increasingly popular in the latter part of the 20th century, with water conservation an ever increasing public issue, and with the development of large remote, multiple pass air condensers and head pressure control devices [See item ID # 195]