How to get smoke from fireplaces and stoves outside, along with damp from clothes, for example, was a problem for pioneers. There was no ducting, no fans, no air filters, or other ventilation and indoor air quality products back in the 19th Century, or even early in the 20th Century. Today you take these appliances for granted, hidden away in walls and ceilings. These 63 items show evolving ventilation that helped solved those problems.


Panel wall fan

Ventilation Equipment and Systems – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.085

The second half of the 20th century brought with it new realisations of the importance of air quality and the need for proper ventilation of working spaces. This elemental, 16″, 3 blade, panel wall fan, in knock-down form, for assembly on-the-job, equipped with automatic wall damper was a response to the growing market of the late 1950’s, Waugh and McKewen, London Ont., Supplier to the trade, 1957.



Item: Panel wall fan
Manufacturer: Unknown
Make: Unknown

Ducted fan assembly

Ventilation Equipment and Systems – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.086

A special application ducted fan assembly, with rubber mounted, centrifugal, high static pressure fan, hub mounted, shaded pole electric motor and high temperature, thermal disk limit control, in custom formed housing with baked, brown wrinkled enamel, complete with 110 volt line cord and plug, illustrating the sophistication of the small application, air handling equipment available by the mid 1950’s, with a well developed network of OEM parts suppliers feeding the industry. 1957.



Item: Ducted fan assembly
Manufacturer: unknown
Make: Unknown

Single phase, 25 cycle motor motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.169

A rare, early 20th century, commutating, single phase, 25 cycle, alternating current motor, likely of the repulsion type, an early marker of vastly changing times to come, following the first wave of home electrification. It would herald the coming invasion of the Canadian home by electro-motive technology, manufacturer’s name partially obliterated, date unknown. [se also ID# 304]



Item: Single phase, 25 cycle motor motor
Make: Manufacturer’s name partially obliterated
Features:
– Oiler cap marked “The OK Mfg Co. Dayton O.”
– 6 inch pig tail leads illustrating electrical wiring practice of the times

Technical Significance:
– A rare example of an early communtating, alternating current motor design, engineering and manufacture, likely of the repulsion motor genre. See references 1, 2 and 5 for discussion of design and operation of early 20th century communtating AC motors.
– An early marker of vastly changing times to come, following the first wave of home electrification technology. An icon, it would herald the coming invasion of the Canadian home by electro-motive technology, starting in central Canada in the 1920’s.


Repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.170

Classic mid 20th century, heavy duty, repulsion induction, brush lifting motor, dual voltage and mechanically reversible. Canadian made, it would characterize much of the Canadian experience through middle and latter years of the century, a period which saw massive growth in the demand for such high torque motors following W.W.II and frequency standardization. Yet, paradoxically, the period also witnessed the progressive demise of the technology, Leland [new and unused], Circa 1960. [See also ID# 308]



Item: Repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric Canada Limited, Guelph Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: Form AKWJH, Type R
Features:
– Built-in well for the possible installation of “Klixon” motor overload protector with automatic reset.
– Shop tag in Howard Oliver’s hand writing, “checks OK, Jan 1975”

Technical Significance:
– With a built-in “well” making provision for “Klixon” inherent motor overload protector technology, this artifact is a marker of the advances made by mid century in personal and property protection for the FHP motor owners. By then, the inherent, automatic overload projector with automatic reset had become a mainstream technology, for which provisions were being built into the motor body, whether the particular application required it or not. Inherent, automatic overload motor protection was a universal truth for FHP motor design by the middle of the 20th century. It was yet another indicator of the new world of advances made through automation – as it existed in the mid 20th century.
– Canadian made, this motor would characterize much of the Canadian experience through middle and later years of the century, in high torque, FHP motor development. A period which saw massive growth in the demand for such high starting torque motors, typically for use on refrigeration equipment, which flooded the market in those years, following W.W.II and frequency standardization.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology,throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– For the Canadian household and commercial refrigeration industry, pioneered by Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it would be a “just-in-time” technology, as well as an immensely enabling one – and what it enabled was considerable. Sir William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, had just set out the theoretical principles of the compression refrigeration, Carnot cycle [see Note #1]. But there existed no electro-motive devices with sufficient starting torque able to drive the compressor, making mechanical cooling practical for household and commercial uses – even for those who were otherwise able to enjoy the benefits of electrification. The push was on to develop such a device, the repulsion induction, single-phase motor would quickly follow.
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Well recognized for their performance, reliability and maitainability, the repulsion induction engineering designs employed by Leland Electric, Guelph Ontario, along with Wagner Electric Leaside would in many ways serve to characterizing best Canadian practice through middle and later years of the century.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


Variable speed repulsion motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.171

A rarity, a variable speed repulsion motor, with mechanical speed, forward and reverse control lever. A classic, mid 20th century piece of speciality, repulsion induction technology, marking the apogee of the genre – in a period when the genre was still the wonder-boy of single phase, electric motor engineering. Canadian made, it would stand as a special time piece, marking the achievements and sophistication of the Canadian electric motor engineering and manufacturing, part of the “golden years” of the industry in Canada, Leland, 1948.



Item: Variable speed repulsion motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric Canada Limited, Guelph Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: Form BOWJH, Type RV
Features:
– 6 inch pressed steel V pulley for B and C-section belts. The pulley, now badly out of alignment, and showing the signs of rusting, as a result of normal ware and tar, marks these pulleys, fabricated in pressed steel, as best for light duty applications

Technical Significance:
– Variable speed repulsion motor with mechanical speed, forward and reverse control lever.
– A classic, mid 20th century piece of speciality, repulsion induction technology, marking the apogee of the genre – in a period when the genre was still the wonder-boy of single phase, electric motor engineering. For it would be another half century before capacitor start, electronic, digital speed control would be popularly available.
– Canadian made, it would stand as a special time piece, marking the achievements and sophistication of the Canadian electric motor engineering and manufacturing, part of the “golden years” of the industry in Canada,
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Well recognized for their performance, reliability and maitainability, the repulsion induction engineering designs employed by Leland Electric, Guelph Ontario, along with Wagner Electric Leaside would in many ways serve to characterizing best Canadian practice through middle and later years of the century.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.172

An early 20th century, repulsion induction, brush lifting, 25 cycle motor, manufactured in Canada for Kelvinator’s pioneering generation of cabinet refrigerators for the home. With bronze bearings and short, snap cap oilers, open ventilated, cast iron frame, and slotted 4 bolt, rigid steel base, it stands as a rare time piece in the evolution of the Canadian FHP motor and refrigeration industries, Wagner, 1928.



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: Type 66XL7 RA
Features:
– 3 original manufacturers shipping tags

Technical Significance:
– A rare glimpse of the earliest years of Canadian commercial production of repulsion induction, FHP, single phase, motor technology. In spite of the engineering and manufacturing challenges faced, the development was spurred on by the promise of ever increasing market demand for high starting torque motors for home and commercial applications.
– The technology, complete with centrifugally operated brush lifters [to reduce wear and noise], and armature short circuiting mechanism [to convert from repulsion start to induction run operation] represented a truly astonishing level of research and development, and manufacturing know how, all in an era with little theory and practical experience to draw on.
– The bearing oiling system, engineered without extended oiler tubes, stands as an example of early consumer product development, with little regard for public safety. Many fingers would get caught in pulleys and fan blades before extension safety oiler tubes would become common place [see for example ID# 301 to 307]. With the ever-increasing range and sophistication of electro-motive devices for home use would come increasingly stringent safety requirements with the regulatory agencies needed to enforce them. By the end of the century substantial space in customer owning and operating manuals would be given over to safety precautions.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– For the Canadian household and commercial refrigeration industry, pioneered by Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it would be a “just-in-time” technology, as well as an immensely enabling one – and what it enabled was considerable. Sir William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, had just set out the theoretical principles of the compression refrigeration, Carnot cycle [see Note #1]. But there existed no electro-motive devices with sufficient starting torque able to drive the compressor, making mechanical cooling practical for household and commercial uses – even for those who were otherwise able to enjoy the benefits of electrification. The push was on to develop such a device, the repulsion induction, single-phase motor would quickly follow.
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Canadian made, this motor would stand as a marker of the earliest years of FHP, single phase, electric motor manufacturing in the country. It would be spurred on by the promise of new market opportunities for electro-mechanical home appliances,
– The oil soaked service tags, still attached to the motor after close to 80 years, tell a number of stories of their life and times:
1. Of constant oil spillage, typically running over the floor of a Canadian kitchen somewhere, the result of over oiling of motor bearings and leaking refrigeration compressor seals. The sealed motor compressor unit could not come too soon for many home owners.
2. Of the 20 some odd service centres across Canada, established to support the service of Wagner motors and Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, as early as 1928
3. Of the four-year replacement program, which Kelvinator maintained to promote the quality and reliability of the cabinet refrigerators they marketed to wary homeowners, as early as the 1920’s.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.173

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with historic innovative, first generation, vibration isolating motor mounts, a significant step in helping to reduce the noise level in the canadian kitchen, resulting from the introduction of motorized machinery, built in Canada for Kelvinator’s cabinet refrigerators introduced in the early 1930’s, Wagner, Circa 1932.



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL22B110K128, Type SAR
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– With original shop tag, T.H. Oliver, Refrigeration and Electric Service, marked “salvage …..”

Technical Significance:
– An artifact of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology for the Canadian home:
1. An early Canadian made FHP motor for an early Canadian refrigerator manufacturer, marking the optimism of the times, the capital investment made, in spite of a period of marked economic depression
2. A pioneering step in quieting the Canadian kitchen. The 4 point, rubber vibration insulating base would be an historic step of significant proportion in reducing noise in the kitchen, which followed the introduction of electro-motive powered machinery into the home. It would be the first step in an evolutionary sequence which would result, in the complete disappearance of the noisy, hazards, FHP motor, embedding it within the refrigeration system itself, the hermetic refrigeration motor compressor. [see examples classification code 4.01] [see also Note 1]
3. Part of the historic movement to unitize and package the mechanical refrigeration systems, to be marketed to the Canadian home owner – with all its piping, motor, compressor, valving and so forth. Manufactures understood that the popular acceptance of the technology by homeowners, would increasingly depend on making this mechanical wonder not only quieter, but more reliable and repairable, independent of local highly skilled tradesman. The packaged, factory ready refrigeration replacement system was seen as the answer, although not altogether successful in the earliest attempts of which this motor was part – See Reference 12.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.174

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with historic, innovative, first generation, vibration isolating, rubber motor mounts, a significant step in helping to reduce the noise level in the kitchen, resulting from the introduction of motorized machinery, Delco, Circa 1932. [see also ID# 299, 301, 302]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 5094
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts

Technical Significance:
– Stands as an exemplar of the dissemination of 4 point rubber insulating motor mounting technology in the early 1930’s adopted here by Delco, a division of Frigidaire – see also ID# 297
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.175

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with historic, innovative, two point cradle style, vibration isolating, rubber motor mounting, a significant step in helping to reduce the noise level in the kitchen, resulting from the introduction of motorized machinery, Delco, Circa 1932. [see also ID# 298, 301, 302]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 2144
Features:
– T. H. Oliver service tag in Mr. Oliver’s hand writing, “Mr Dryden, Danels and Dryden”, “25 cycle motor, defective winding”

Technical Significance:
– An example of the innovative engineering of the period working to quiet the cabinet refrigerator in the early 1930’s, adopted here by Frigidaire/Delco, – see also ID# 298
– The cradle mount provided Frigidaire with a dual function of motor quieting, as well as automatic belt tightening, afforded by a spring tension devices operating on the cradle to hold the belt in a taught position – see Reference 12
– The cradle motor mount by Frigidaire/Delco would be one more significant step in an evolutionary sequence which would result, in the complete disappearance of the noisy, hazards, FHP motor, embedding it within the refrigeration system itself, the hermetic refrigeration motor compressor. [see examples classification code 4.01]
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor, 1/4HP ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.176

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, 1/4 HP repulsion induction motor, equipped with rigid base for use on small commercial refrigeration applications, commonly found in Canada on Frigidaire condensing units in small food store and confectionery applications, throughout the pre W.W.II years and beyond to frequency standardization and the birth of the hermetic motor compressor, Delco, Circa 1936.



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor, 1/4HP ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 4394

Technical Significance:
– The physical size and crushing weight of this 1/4 HP motor of the period is a matter of note. The magnetic circuits required for 25 cycle applications, along with the all ferro-magnetic bodies, coupled with the relatively crude engineering designs of the period would lead to massive equipment by future standards. For examples of applications by Frigidaire see Reference No 12
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.177

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor for household cabinet refrigerator with vibration isolating motor mounts, and fusetron holder, two significant innovations, helping to reduce noise in the kitchen, and the risk of property and personal injury due to motor overheating, Delco, Circa 1934. [see also ID# 298, 302]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 4089
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– Fusetron holder now blanked off, early technology for motor overload protection

Technical Significance:
– Represented here are two major innovations in FHP motor technology for the Canadian home, associated with the early 1930’s. One for the reduction of noise [the four-point vibration, rubber mount], the second for reduction of risk of property and personal damage, due to an overheated motor [the fusetron]. Both were crude beginnings, soon to be replaced by more advanced forms of the technology.
– The fusetron [See item code 16.06-5], now removed and opening blanked off, tells important stories of technological evolution and advancement in personal and property protection. The fusetron was a slow blow fuse engineered to take the high starting current associated with inductive loads, but to open circuit in response to prolonged over load conditions. Lacking a recycling capability, it left the homeowner vulnerable. As a consequence many homeowners would find their refrigerator off, with resultant food spoilage. The inherent motor overload protector with an automatic recycling capability would still be another decade in the making. In the meantime many fusetrons were disabled by local refrigeration service technician, on the request of angry homeowners. [see ID#294 for example of “Klixon” inherent, automatic overload protection]
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.178

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor for household cabinet refrigerator with vibration isolating motor mounts, and fusetron holder, two significant innovations, helping to reduce noise in the kitchen, and the risk of property and personal injury due to motor overheating, Delco, Circa 1934. [see also ID# 298, 301]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 4093
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– Fusetron holder now blanked off, early technology for motor overload protection

Technical Significance:
– Represented here are two major innovations in FHP motor technology for the Canadian home, associated with the early 1930’s. One for the reduction of noise [the four-point vibration, rubber mount], the second for reduction of risk of property and personal damage, due to an overheated motor [the fusetron]. Both were crude beginnings, soon to be replaced by more advanced forms of the technology.
– The fusetron [See item code 16.06-5], now removed and opening blanked off, tells important stories of technological evolution and advancement in personal and property protection. The fusetron was a slow blow fuse engineered to take the high starting current associated with inductive loads, but to open circuit in response to prolonged over load conditions. Lacking a recycling capability, it left the homeowner vulnerable. As a consequence many homeowners would find their refrigerator off, with resultant food spoilage. The inherent motor overload protector with an automatic recycling capability would still be another decade in the making. In the meantime many fusetrons were disabled by local refrigeration service technician, on the request of angry homeowners. [see ID#294 for example of “Klixon” inherent, automatic overload protection, and ID# 303 for example of early protector by Wagner]
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.179

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with two historic innovations, a first generation, vibration isolating motor mount, and an inherent overload protector with automatic reset, helping to reduce both noise and the risk of personal and property injury in the Canadian kitchen, built in Canada for Kelvinator of Canada’s cabinet refrigerators introduced in the early 1930’s, Wagner, Circa 1936. [see also ID# 297]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL22B55, Type SAR
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset

Technical Significance:
– An artifact of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology for the Canadian home:
1. An early Canadian made FHP motor for an early Canadian refrigerator manufacturer, marking the optimism of the times, the capital investment made, in spite of a period of marked economic depression
2. A pioneering step in quieting the Canadian kitchen. The 4 point, rubber vibration insulating base would be an historic step of significant proportion in reducing noise in the kitchen, which followed the introduction of electro-motive powered machinery into the home. It would be the first step in an evolutionary sequence which would result, in the complete disappearance of the noisy, hazards, FHP motor, embedding it within the refrigeration system itself, the hermetic refrigeration motor compressor. [see examples classification code 4.01] [see also Note 1]
3. An early historic technology for reducing the risk of personal and property damage due to motor overload, the inherent automatic overload protector – See Note No. 1.
4. A combination compressor drive pulley with condenser fan, a technology widely used in the 1920’s and 30’s, here employed by Kelvinator on a Model J15 condensing unit for a home cabinet refrigerator. The pulley hub performs a dual function, acting also as the drive hub of a four blade, 9 inch propeller style condenser fan blade. Driven at 1440 RPM, the un-guarded blade would represent a significant hazard to the un-wary homeowner [see Reference No. 13, P. 66].
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Commutating, single phase, 25 cycle motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.180

A rare, early 20th century, commutating, single phase, 25 cycle, alternating current motor, likely of the repulsion induction type, but requires further study. An early marker of vastly changing times to come, following the first wave of home electrification. It would herald the coming invasion of the Canadian home by electro-motive technology, General Electric, date unknown. [see also ID# 293]



Item: Commutating, single phase, 25 cycle motor
Manufacturer: General Electric Co. Schenectady, NY.
Make: General Electric
Model: Type RSA

Technical Significance:
– A rare example of an early communtating, alternating current motor
– Requires further research to document technical significance.
– An early marker of vastly changing times to come, following the first wave of home electrification technology. A cultural icon, it would herald the coming invasion of the Canadian home by electro-motive technology, starting in central Canada in the 1920’s.


1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.181

A mid 20th century, classic 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor with inherent overload protection and automatic reset, part of a rare set of three 25 cycle motors escaping frequency standardization in 1948. They define new standards of practice, telling many stories of the explosion of small commercial refrigeration applications, which were enabled in the 1940’s through 50’s, changing the lives of Canadians forever, Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1947. [see also ID# 306, 307]



Item: 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL26BF1924N, Type RA
Features:
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset
– State of the art, light weight, non-ferro magnetic, alloy end bells

Technical Significance:
– An artifact [artifacts] of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive technology::
1. Marking the immense engineering achievement in the development and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology well before the mid 20th century, paradoxically on the eve of its gradual demise and replacement by capacitor start FHP technology [see code 16.02],
2. Representing a technological achievement that would define the standard of practice for small commercial refrigeration motor applications in the 1940’s through 50’s, prior to the popularization of capacitor start motor technology and the widespread adoption of embedded motor and compressor equipment for commercial applications, the hermetic refrigeration condensing unit,
3. The popularization of small commercial refrigeration applications, enabled by the Wagner Type KA, a growth market in Canada in the post W.W.II years through the 1960’s, including ice cream and frozen food cabinets and merchandizers, reach-in, unitary refrigerators, display cases and merchandizers for small food stores and confectioneries – enabling a veritable explosion of new food products and tastes for Canadians.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.182

A mid 20th century, classic 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor with inherent overload protection and automatic reset, part of a rare set of three 25 cycle motors escaping frequency standardization in 1948. They define new standards of practice, telling many stories of the explosion of small commercial refrigeration applications, which were enabled in the 1940’s through 50’s, changing the lives of Canadians forever, Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1947. [see also ID# 305, 307]



Item: 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL26BF1924N, Type RA
Features:
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset
– State of the art, light weight, non-ferro magnetic, alloy end bells

Technical Significance:
– An artifact [artifacts] of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive technology::
1. Marking the immense engineering achievement in the development and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology well before the mid 20th century, paradoxically on the eve of its gradual demise and replacement by capacitor start FHP technology [see code 16.02],
2. Representing a technological achievement that would define the standard of practice for small commercial refrigeration motor applications in the 1940’s through 50’s, prior to the popularization of capacitor start motor technology and the widespread adoption of embedded motor and compressor equipment for commercial applications, the hermetic refrigeration condensing unit,
3. The popularization of small commercial refrigeration applications, enabled by the Wagner Type KA, a growth market in Canada in the post W.W.II years through the 1960’s, including ice cream and frozen food cabinets and merchandizers, reach-in, unitary refrigerators, display cases and merchandizers for small food stores and confectioneries – enabling a veritable explosion of new food products and tastes for Canadians.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.183

A mid 20th century, classic 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor with inherent overload protection and automatic reset, part of a rare set of three 25 cycle motors escaping frequency standardization in 1948. They define new standards of practice, telling many stories of the explosion of small commercial refrigeration applications, which were enabled in the 1940’s through 50’s, changing the lives of Canadians forever, Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1947 [see also ID# 305, 306]



Item: 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL26BF1924N, Type RA
Features:
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset
– State of the art, light weight, non-ferro magnetic, alloy end bells

Technical Significance:
– An artifact [artifacts] of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive technology::
1. Marking the immense engineering achievement in the development and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology well before the mid 20th century, paradoxically on the eve of its gradual demise and replacement by capacitor start FHP technology [see code 16.02],
2. Representing a technological achievement that would define the standard of practice for small commercial refrigeration motor applications in the 1940’s through 50’s, prior to the popularization of capacitor start motor technology and the widespread adoption of embedded motor and compressor equipment for commercial applications, the hermetic refrigeration condensing unit,
3. The popularization of small commercial refrigeration applications, enabled by the Wagner Type KA, a growth market in Canada in the post W.W.II years through the 1960’s, including ice cream and frozen food cabinets and merchandizers, reach-in, unitary refrigerators, display cases and merchandizers for small food stores and confectioneries – enabling a veritable explosion of new food products and tastes for Canadians.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1/6 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.184

Classic mid 20th century, repulsion induction high starting torque, 1/6th HP, motor, with inherent automatic overload protection and vibration insulating torsion base, engineered for household cabinet refrigerators. Canadian made by an acknowledged market leader, it would be characteristic of the period of massive growth in the demand for such motors on following frequency standardization, Leland , Circa 1958. [See also ID# 294]



Item: 1/6 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric Canada Limited, Guelph Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: Form AKWIH, Type R

Technical Significance:
– Canadian made, this motor would characterize much of the Canadian experience through middle and later years of the century, in high torque, FHP motor development. It was a period which saw massive growth in the demand for such high starting torque motors, typically for use on refrigeration equipment, following W.W.II and frequency standardization, prior to the domination of the market by embedded motor compressor technology, the hermetic motor compressor.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– For the Canadian household and commercial refrigeration industry, pioneered by Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it would be a “just-in-time” technology, as well as an immensely enabling one – and what it enabled was considerable. Sir William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, had just set out the theoretical principles of the compression refrigeration, Carnot cycle [see Note #1]. But there existed no electro-motive devices with sufficient starting torque able to drive the compressor, making mechanical cooling practical for household and commercial uses – even for those who were otherwise able to enjoy the benefits of electrification. The push was on to develop such a device, the repulsion induction, single-phase motor would quickly follow.
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Well recognized for their performance, reliability and maitainability, the repulsion induction engineering designs employed by Leland Electric, Guelph Ontario, along with Wagner Electric Leaside would in many ways serve to characterizing best Canadian practice through middle and later years of the century.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


1 1/2 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.185

An early mid 20th century, classic 1 1/2 HP, 25 cycle, repulsion induction, single phase motor, employing FHP technology extended to cover motors in the integral HP range, making possible larger capacity refrigeration and air conditioning applications in areas not served by industrial three-phase power, Wagner, Circa 1942.



Item: 1 1/2 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: Name plate not included

Technical Significance:
– An artifact of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive and refrigeration technology, including:
1. Witnessing the engineering achievement and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology by the mid 20th century.
2. The successful adaptation of FHP, single phase, repulsion induction motor technology to integral HP applications, typically 1, 1 1/2, 2, 3, and 5 HP.
3. The installation of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment in areas not served by three-phase power. As a result low pressure refrigeration system applications grew rapidly in the pre W.W.II years and beyond, including small cold storage plants, large food stores, food processing applications and ice cream making, etc – See Reference 7, P. 7
4. The development of large diary farms, such as the one at Eaton Hall, made possible by mechanical refrigeration equipment for rapid milk cooling and storage, prior to shipment to the dairy for processing.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1 1/2 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.186

An early mid 20th century, classic 1 1/2 HP, 25 cycle, repulsion induction, single phase motor, escaping frequency standardization in 1948, employing FHP technology extended to cover motors in the integral HP range, making possible larger capacity refrigeration and air conditioning applications in areas not served by industrial three-phase power, Wagner, new and un-used, Circa 1947.



Item: 1 1/2 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: ZL44BF2346, Type RA
Features:
– Original manufacturers warranty card and instructions

Technical Significance:
– An artifact of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive and refrigeration technology, including:
1. Witnessing the engineering achievement and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology by the mid 20th century.
2. The successful adaptation of FHP, single phase, repulsion induction motor technology to integral HP applications, typically 1, 1 1/2, 2, 3, and 5 HP.
3. The installation of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment in areas not served by three-phase power. As a result low pressure refrigeration system applications grew rapidly in the pre W.W.II years and beyond, including small cold storage plants, large food stores, food processing applications and ice cream making, etc.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.156

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, an early design engineered for a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with fuse-style, overload protection, and designed for “V” belt drive applications, with pivoted motor mounting and automatic belt tension device, Delco, Circa 1945.



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: McKinnon Industries, St. Catherines Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M1035
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

With a toe crushing weight this 1/6th HP motor weighs in at 35 lbs., illustrating the greater weight of 25 cycle rotating equipment, over 60 cycle a factor in moving to a higher cycle, in order to help reduce equipment costs.

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, a rare example, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

1940’s style, high tech, capacitor-start motor, designed for top mounted electrolytic capacitor [not included]

Representative of a class of innovations introduced by Frigidaire, to provide automatic control of belt tension, using a simple, extension coil spring, with motor pivotally mounted on base plate. Maintaining proper belt tension, on refrigeration compressor drives was a perennial problem, due to close coupling of motor and compressor and large compressor fly wheel diameter.

Includes an early form of overload protector, the fusetron. Socket provided fusetron not included. Over load protection was an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate un-attended in the home – without the attention of skilled work force.

This type of overload operated much like a standard instant blow fuse, but calibrated to carry the high starting current characteristic of induction loads. Its disadvantage was that it was a non-recycling device, which means that the refrigeration system could be off without the homeowner knowing it. Later devices would be automatically recycling [see ID# 281].

Industrial Significance:
The production of FHP electric motors under the Delco name was a marker of the post W.W.II doom in Canada’s appliance industry. Delco was a brand name, held by General Motors, under which auto electric components were manufactured and marketed. McKinnon Industries was a feeder plant to GM, located in St Catherines

The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper and foil style capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.157

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, with light alloy end bells, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, Delco, Circa 1948. [see also 12.02-2B]



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: McKinnon Industries, St. Catherines, Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M1395
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

Oringinal T.H. Oliver shop tag, in Howard Oliver’s writing

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, this motor is a now rare example, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

A truly advanced piece of FHP induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with advanced engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Drive bearing extended, safety oilier; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; high tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset; light weight alloy end bells, taking advantage of new high tech metallurgy

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

This generation of FHP capacitor-start motor technology in many ways would stand as a consummate achievement, a kind of icon of “the art form”, made economically possible by the high market demand for FHP motors in the Post W.W.II period. It was a market, too, that was augmented by the prospects of frequency standardization, and the massive undertaking of replacing all 25 cycle motors with 60 cycle equipment.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount. Other mounting technologies were developed, but of less staying qualities, [See for example item 16.01-10 and 16.01-11].

The race was on, also, to produce an inherently safer motor, safe for the Canadian householder who was required to attend to routine maintenance tasks such as oiling. It was a period well in advance of sealed bearing technology with lifetime lubrication. Wick-oiled bronze bearings of the time required oiling quarterly. In belt driven refrigeration equipment this brought the householder in contact with a moving, compressor drive belt and whirring condenser fan blade. The design of the extended oilier tube would be a simple but significant safety feature, for householder and service man alike, allowing fingers to keep out of danger’s way.


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.158

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, with light weight alloy end bells, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, Delco, Circa 1948. [see also 12.02-2A]



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: McKinnon Industries, St. Catherines, Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M1395
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, this motor is a now rare example, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

A truly advanced piece of FHP induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with advanced engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Drive bearing extended, safety oilier; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; high tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset; Light weight alloy end bells, taking advantage of new hight tech metallurgy; The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely un-attended in the home.

This generation of FHP capacitor-start motor technology in many ways would stand as a consummate achievement, a kind of icon of “the art form”, made economically possible by the high market demand for FHP motors in the Post W.W.II period. It was a market, too, that was augmented by the prospects of frequency standardization, and the massive undertaking of replacing all 25 cycle motors with 60 cycle equipment.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It was the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technolgy that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount. Other mounting technologies were developed, but of less staying qualities, [See for example item 16.01-10 and 16.01-11].

The race was on, also, to produce an inherently safer motor, safe for the Canadian householder who was required to attend to routine maintenance tasks such as oiling. It was a period well in advance of sealed bearing technology with lifetime lubrication. Wick-oiled bronze bearings of the time required oiling quarterly. In belt driven refrigeration equipment this brought the householder in contact with a moving, compressor drive belt and whirring condenser fan blade. The design of the extended oilier tube would be a simple but significant safety feature, for householder and service man alike, allowing fingers to keep out of danger’s way.


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.159

A latter mid 20th century, high tech, 60cycle capacitor-start motor, a new lighter weight, compact generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by a market now standardized on 60cycle power; with electrolytic, chemical capacitor, inherent, heat overload protection, and automatic reset, light weight alloy end bells, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts, and adaptable base plate, Wagner, Circa 1955.



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Elecrtric, Div. of Sangamo Electric, Leasid
Make: Wagner
Model: UL14BF4723N; Ty

Technical Significance:
A truly advanced piece of FHP induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding , post W.W.II, 60 cycle, refrigeration equipment market, equipped with advanced engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Drive bearing extended, safety oilier; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; high tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset; Light weight alloy end bells, taking advantage of new high tech metallurgy

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely un-attended in the home.

This generation of FHP capacitor-start motor technology in many ways would stand as a consummate achievement, a kind of icon of “the art form”, made economically possible by the high market demand for FHP motors in the Post W.W.II period. It was now a North American market, largely standardization, on 60 cycle power.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It was the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The capacitor-start, refrigeration motor, and the advanced 20th century electrical technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would soon disappear withnthe advance of hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Industrial Significance:
With the early 1950’s came the opportunity for FHP electric motor manufactures to move too a new generation of designs and styling, as exemplified here. The FHP motor would be smaller and lighter weight technology, made possible by standardisation on 60 cycle power, the development of new more sophisticated engineering design methodologies, new materials and metallurgy, coupled with the economic incentive for development, fostered by a now larger electrically standardized, consumer market place, as well as by a rapidly expanding post W.W.II economy.

The expanding market opportunities of the early 1950’s would attract a new cohort of suppliers to the field. The number of manufactures, working with this basic technology shown here, would increase dramatically throughout the 1950’s, in addition to Delco and Wagner, among many others were: GE [see item 12.06-4], Tamper [see item 12.06-6], Century [see item 12.06-7] and Leland.

This motor stands as a marker of the rapidly expanding, mid 20th century market for FHP motor technology, serving to attract Canadian manufactures. Wagner, a well established US manufacture, like Delco, would find a Canadian manufacturing partner, here the Sangamo Company, Leaside Ontario

Part of the times was also the emergence of a new look and feel for the FHP motor, sleeker more eye appealing, as demonstrated here – less a piece of mere machinery than a mid 20th century, sophisticated piece of electrical apparatus. The new emphasis on styling and eye appeal, along with functionality and performance would reflect the influence of the industrial designer and a new body of industrial styling practice, a development, new, for the mid 20th century.

The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race was on, also, to produce an inherently safer motor, safe for the Canadian householder who was required to attend to routine maintenance tasks such as oiling. It was a period well in advance of sealed bearing technology with lifetime lubrication. Wick-oiled bronze bearings of the time required oiling quarterly. In belt driven refrigeration equipment this brought the householder in contact with a moving, compressor drive belt and whirring condenser fan blade. The design of the extended oilier tube would be a simple but significant safety feature, for householder and service man alike, allowing fingers to keep out of danger’s way.


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.160

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, all steel body, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, GE, Circa 1948. [see also 12.02-5, for similar 60 cycle design]



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: Canadian General Electric co., Toronto
Make: GE
Model: 11F111BX
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, this motor is a now rare example, representative of Canadian General Electric’s motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s. See ID #285, Item 16.02-5 for similar motor in 6o cycle. The latter with 1/4 HP rating, has a laminated stack length of 3inches and weights 30 lbs. compared with the former, with only a 1/6th HP rating, with a 4 inch laminated stack length and weighing 35 lbs.

Representative of FHP, capacitor start, induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; High tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset.

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount [see ID # 281]. GE followed Delco’s lead.

The configuration employed by GE lacks some of the advanced features used by Delco in the the same period, including light weight alloy end bells and extended drive end safety oiler [see ID # 281]


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.161

A mid 20th century, high tech, 60 cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, all steel body, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, GE, Circa 1955. [see also 12.02-4, for similar 25 cycle design]



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: Canadian General Electric co., Toronto
Make: GE
Model: 11F122B
Features:
Original cable connector illustrating trade practices of the time

Technical Significance:
Provides a graphic contrast between 25 and 60 cycle design practice by GE. See ID #284, Item 16.02-4 for similar motor in 25 cycle. The latter with 1/6th HP rating, has a laminated stack length of 4 inches and weights 35 lbs. compared with the former, with a 1/4 HP rating, with only a 3 inch laminated stack length and a weight of 30 lbs.

Representative of FHP, capacitor start, induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; High tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset.

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount [see ID # 281]. GE followed Delco’s lead.

The configuration employed by GE lacks some of the advanced features used by Delco in the the same period, including light weight alloy end bells and extended drive end safety oiler [see ID # 281]


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Tamper’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.162

A mid 20th century, high tech, 60 cycle capacitor-start motor, made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor and inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount, engineered by a small, start-up Canadian Company, it tells many stories of the exceptionalities of its life and times. Tamper, Circa 1955.



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Tamper’
Manufacturer: Tamper Electric, Montreal
Make: Tamper
Model: MPR-1451-15BK
Features:
Carries Ontario Hydro brass identification plate: HEPC Stock NO. P56-02-22-12-308-0002

Technical Significance:
An historical artifact of the post W.W.II years in the evolution of FHP motor technology in Canada, which although un-remarkable in matters of innovation and excellence, tells important stories of the exceptionalities of its times:

Of one of the largest and most sophisticated engineering mega-projects in Canadian history, frequency standardization in Ontario

The remarkable, although short lived period of expansion of the Canadian FHP motor manufacturing industry,

The manner in which the industry attracted new entrance, as small start-up companies, such as Tamper, as well as large manufactures with almost un-limited economic and engineering resources to draw on, such as GE [see ID#285 and 284]

Representative of FHP, capacitor start, induction motor technology, built for the post W.W.II rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; High tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset.

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

The motor exemplifies increasingly sophisticated developments in the field of electrolytic condensers, on which the capacitor start motor depended for its performance. Capacitors were getting smaller and more reliable, as well as appearing in more sophisticated, high tensile strength plastic enclosures sealed against moisture and with built-in, easy release, snap mounting brackets

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Century’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.163

A mid 20th century, high tech, 60 cycle capacitor-start motor, made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with ball bearings, totally enclosed, all steel body with slotted, rigid base for general utility applications in damp environments , Century, Circa 1958.



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Century’
Manufacturer: Century Electric St Louis Mo.
Make: Century
Model: CSH-65L-DHC3-3F
Features:
Original electrical connector illustrating trade practices of the period

Technical Significance:
The motor exemplifies increasingly sophisticated developments in the field of electrolytic condensers, on which the capacitor start motor depended for its performance. Capacitors were getting smaller and more reliable, through the 1950’s.

Exemplifies the design and engineering of general utility, totally enclosed, ball bearing applications engineered for damp locations.

Industrial Significance:
Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]


Single phase, AC induction motor ‘Apex’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.164

A very early 20th century, single phase, alternating current induction motor, to be found in commercial production, uses the resistance phase splitting principle to produce self-starting, equipped with bronze sleeve bearings with external oil reservoirs and spring loaded wick oilers with snap caps, drip proof steel housing and external electric wiring junction box, for use in Canadian homes of the period on cloths washing machines, Apex, date unknown.



Item: Single phase, AC induction motor ‘Apex’
Manufacturer: The Apex Electric Mfg Co., Cleveland and Toronto
Make: Apex
Model: Type WG
Features:
With original service tag in Howard Oliver’s hand writing “Troyers, Oakridges”, Troyers operated a farm on the Oak Ridges Moraine, an hour north of Toronto in the early years of the 20th century

Technical Significance:
An exemplar of a rare, early 25 cycle, split phase, induction motor production, for home applications, typically in an early electric washing machine

Industrial Significance:
An icon of the earliest years of commercial electric motor design and production for use in the homes, of those that could afford labour saving electric appliances, and living in homes that enjoyed the recognized benefits of home electrification


Split phase, induction motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.165

An early mid 20th century split phase, induction motor with sealed [now pierced] bearings, built for the then rapidly expanding home appliance industry in post WW2 Canada, used on an early cloths drier, it is equipped a twin belt, single piece pulley, part of a drive technology of the period developed by Kenmore and sold by the Robert Simpson Co. one of Canada’s historic department stores of note. GE, Circa 1955.



Item: Split phase, induction motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: Canadian General Electric Co. Toronto
Make: GE
Model: 11F281
Features:
Equipped with an early version of so called “sealed bearings”, which were promoted as life time bearing requiring no oiling

Equipped a twin belt, single piece pulley, part of a drive technology of the period developed by Kenmore

Technical Significance:
Defines the engineering design idiom for split-phase, motor technology employed throughout the middle years of the 20th century, moving through the mature years of this genre towards the end of the century, when a new genre would progressively emerge, smaller, lighter and more energy efficient.

Marked an early attempt by manufacturers to produce a motor with “lifetime” sealed bearings requiring no oiling in the normal course of a lifetime of use. In fact electro-motorized appliance were becoming increasingly compacted, enclosed in high style cabinets which made service all but impossible, except by the trained appliance repair worker. As a result the sealed cap on the bearing became as much a recognition of the fact that the motor would never get oiled, then a marker of any special provisions made for prolonged bearing life. Whether motors made for such applications were equipped with oil caps or not was irrelevant. It would be several decades before a truly lifetime sealed, sleeve bearing would appear on the consumer appliance market.

Representative of a period of increasing innovation in the development of electro- motor enabled, home appliance technology, it is equipped with a twin belt, single piece pulley, part of a cloths drier drive technology for the period developed by Kenmore and sold by the Robert Simpson Co., one of Canada’s historic department stores of note. GE, Circa 1955.

Industrial Significance:
A marker of split phase electric motor production in Canada and the US, in the latter years of the 20th century. Manufactured in the hundreds of thousands, by GE and other manufacturers, it stands as an icon of its times, marking the first great period mass production and marketing of electric, motorized household appliances, now made possible by wide spread home electrification.


Split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.166

An early mid 20th century split phase, induction motor with ball bearings, built for the then rapidly expanding home workshop equipment industry in post W.W.II Canada, equipped with hefty 1/2 horsepower rating and manual reset over load protection, it would be a marker of a significant cultural shift in male leisure time pursuits, Delco, Circa 1958.



Item: Split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Mckinnon Industries St Catherines Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M253901
Features:
Shop service tag in Howard Olivers hand writing “Checks OK Jan, 75

Technical Significance:
Exemplifies the evolution of inherent, automatic overload protection devices with manual reset, a prerequisite requirement for home hobby shop equipment:

Such applications typically rewired low starting torque [as on circular saws, but moderate horse power, current ratings, which could readily lead to burn out under high load conditions

Motors were built for an affordable market and were built inexpensively, with little tolerance for prolonged loading [over loading],

While automatic overload protection was considered an essential safety precaution, both for personal and property reasons, automatic reset would constitute a safety hazard, allowing the equipment to come back on out of control of operator,

Defines the engineering design idiom for split-phase, low starting torque, motor technology employed throughout the middle years of the 20th century in home appliances and hobby shop equipment, moving through the mature years of this genre towards the end of the century, when a new genre would progressively emerge, smaller, lighter and more energy efficient.

Industrial Significance:
The motor stands as a relatively rare marker of a breed of home hobby shop motor which would soon disappear. The stand alone, home hobby shop motor as a product of the post W.W.II market place, would be a relatively short lived phenomena. Early power tools of the period were, designed for the home work shop were of the conventional belt drive type, through the 1950’s to 80’s, but the trend was increasingly to much more integrated designs in which the motor was built into the equipment, itself, as an inherent design component.

A marker of split phase electric motor production in Canada and the US, in the latter years of the 20th century. Manufactured in the hundreds of thousands, by Delco, GE and other manufacturers, it stands as an icon of its times, marking the first great period mass production and marketing of electric, motorized household appliances and hobby shop equipment, now made possible by wide spread home electrification.


Affordable split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.167

An early mid 20th century, split phase, affordable, induction motor, for general utility applications, built for an open, FHP electric motor market for use on light duty power equipment around the house, shop and farm. With hefty 1/3 horsepower rating, it serves as a marker of the vast in roads made by electro motive technology on every nook and cranny of popular Canadian life style by the 1950’s, Delco, Circa 1956.



Item: Affordable split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Mckinnon Industries St Catherines Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M2480A1
Features:
Shop service tag in Howard Olivers hand writing “Checks OK Jan, 75; Original wiring harness illustrating electrical wiring practices of the period

Technical Significance:
A remarkable, yet un- remarkable piece of electro motive technology of its time. It would be remarkable in the state of motive technology it represented, a level of remarkable achievement in engineering, mass production, and marketing as popular consumer product, all achieved in less then two decades [see ID#280]. Yet built for a low cost market, it would be quite un-remarkable in its lack of function and feature characterizing special purpose motors of the same period, including high starting torque, automatic over heat protection.

It defines the engineering design idiom for split-phase, low starting torque, motor technology employed throughout the middle years of the 20th century, in general utility applications for home, shop and farm, moving through the mature years of this genre towards the end of the century, when a new genre would progressively emerge, smaller, lighter and more energy efficient.


Split phase, induction motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.168

An early mid 20th century, split phase, induction motor, speciality engineered, Canadian built for the automatic oil burning, winter air conditioner market, equipped with torsion, vibration rubber insulating mountings, bronze sleeve bearings and characteristic extended oiler tubes with snap caps, it would serve as a marker of best practice in motor production for belted fan applications for the winter air conditioner, heating market during its period of rapid expansion following W.W.II, Leland, Circa 1956.



Item: Split phase, induction motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric, Canada Ltd, Guelph. Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: KS209
Features:
– Original shop repair service tag in Howard Oliver’s hand writing “for sale or service, $20.00”
– Original manufactures instructions.

Technical Significance:
– The Leland KS would model the best in FHP motor engineering design for belted fan duty operations on centrifugal fan applications for winter air conditioners, throughout the 1950’s and 60’s, in Canada. Typically mounted on top of the fan in a floating harass, the motor would be in the cool return air stream, serving to prevent over heating, and allowing relatively compact, heat emitting body designs
– The belted fan configuration with variable speed pulley [see Group 12.11 artifacts] would give way to direct drive, axial mounted motors with electrical speed control for use on centrifugal fans by the end of the century


1/40 HP shaded pole induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.187

An early mid 20th century, 25 cycle, 1/40 th HP shaded pole, single phase induction motor, equipped with rigid base engineered for use on Kelvinator commercial refrigeration fan-coil cooling unit applications, commonly found in walk-in coolers in food stores and small cold storage plants throughout the pre W.W.II years and beyond to frequency standardization. It would help to change the expectations of Canadians about what was at the their local food store Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1948.



Item: 1/40 HP shaded pole induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Corporation, Saint Louis Mo.
Make: Wagner
Model: BY115A1992
Features:
– With original shop tag, T. H. Oliver Engineering Sales and Service, “New 25 cycle…..Kelv. coil……”

Technical Significance:
– Exemplifying the relative weight and bulk expected of 25 cycle motor technology of the times, compared with 60 cycle motors which followed frequency standardisation in Canada in the latter 1940’s – see for example ID#312
– A new and unused 25 cycle motor left behind at the time of frequency standardisation, it tells the story of one of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario – a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A one-of-a-kind, just-in-time technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


1/60 HP, 60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.188

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, 1/36 th HP, Canadian made, shaded pole, single phase induction motor, engineered for use on small commercial refrigeration fan-coil cooling unit applications, commonly found in walk-in coolers in food stores throughout the early post W.W.II years and beyond. It would help to change the expectations of Canadians about what was at the their local food store, Robins Myers, Circa 1952.



Item: 1/60 HP, 60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor
Manufacturer: Robins Myers of Canada Limited, Brantford
Make: Robins Myers
Model: Type T1-AEZ1, Frame C32

Technical Significance:
– Small, light weight and efficient, it is an example of the elegant and sophisticated, shaded pole motor technology that quickly emerged in Canada in the post W.W.II years, as a response to the market opportunities following frequency standardization and the rapid growth of the commercial refrigeration industry.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which encouraged US electric motor manufactures, like Robins Myers, to establish facilities in Canada, as well as Canadian manufactures to enter the field – see ID#313.
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics make the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A one-of-a-kind, just-in-time technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.189

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, Canadian made, shaded pole induction motor, engineered for use on small commercial refrigeration fan-coil cooling unit applications, commonly found on walk-in coolers in food stores throughout the early post W.W.II years and beyond. It would help to change the expectations of Canadians about what their local merchant had in store for them, Electrohome, Circa 1956.



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor
Manufacturer: Electrohome, Kitchener, Ont
Make: Electrohome
Model: 2828-53-12-03

Technical Significance:
– Small, light weight and efficient, it is an example of the elegant and sophisticated, shaded pole motor technology that quickly emerged in Canada in the post W.W.II years, as a response to the market opportunities following frequency standardization and the rapid growth of the commercial refrigeration industry.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which encouraged electric appliance and equipment manufacturers to enter the small motor’s – see also ID#312.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would rigger a movement in the commercial refrigeration industry solidly towards more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, in preference to natural or gravity systems [i.e., fan coil units replaced much static fin coils].


60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.190

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, Canadian made, shaded pole, induction motor, with custom fan hub, engineered for use on small commercial refrigeration fan-coil cooling unit applications, commonly found in food display cases throughout the 1950’s through 70’s, helping to change the face of Canadian food merchandising in Canada, with greater range of fresh vegetables and meat products, often held in refrigerated self-service display cases, Electrohome, Circa 1965. [see also ID#315 to 317]



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor
Manufacturer: Electrohome, Kitchener, Ont
Make: Electrohome
Model: 2828-53-12-03

Technical Significance:
– With custom fan hub, the motor would mark the increasing customization of shaded pole induction motor technology, matching it physically, as well as electrically and mechanically to the unique needs of equipment manufactures [See ID# 315 to 317]
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would trigger a movement in the commercial refrigeration industry solidly towards more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, in preference to natural or gravity systems [i.e., fan coil units replaced much static fin coils].
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which encouraged electric appliance and equipment manufacturers to enter the small motor’s – see also ID#312.
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics make it ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A one-of-a-kind, just-in-time technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.191

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, Canadian made, shaded pole, induction motor, with custom three point, vibration isolating, vertical mount, engineered for fan coil applications on refrigerated self-service display cases, used throughout the 1960’s and beyond, helping to change the face of Canadian food merchandising in Canada, with greater range of fresh vegetables and meat products as well as frozen foods, all now available self-service, Electrohome, Circa 1963. [one of a matched set of 3, new and unused, see also ID#316 and 317]



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor
Manufacturer: Electrohome, Kitchener, Ont
Make: Electrohome
Model: 18-53-05-07

Technical Significance:
– Representative of a new generation of sleek, compact, more electrically efficient and customized shaded pole motor technology for the 1960’s
– Designed for vertical mounting these motors, would typically be found in multiples of two, three, four or more arranged along the length of the refrigerated display case.
– New for the times, as a protection against personal and property damage due to over heating, these motors are equipped with “lock rotor protection”, ensuring that motor exciting current would not exceed safe levels even if the motor stalled.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would help move the Canadian commercial refrigeration industry solidly into a new generation of more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, making possible a wide range of new refrigeration appliances and fresh and frozen food merchandizers.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– One of a matched set of three motors, all of the same serial number, suggests that they came from the same production run in Electrohome’s Kitchener Ontario plant in 1963.
– The set of three identical motors represents the mode of application in which multiple motors where used together in a single refrigerated self service case
– All new, unused and pristine the set provides an authentic reflection of the engineering, production, materials and manufacturing processes of the period
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which among other things would encourage electric appliance and equipment manufacturers, like Electrohome, to enter the small motor’s [see also ID#312].
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.192

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, Canadian made, shaded pole, induction motor, with custom three point, vibration isolating, vertical mount, engineered for fan coil applications on refrigerated self-service display cases, used throughout the 1960’s and beyond, helping to change the face of Canadian food merchandising in Canada, with greater range of fresh vegetables and meat products as well as frozen foods, all now available self-service, Electrohome, Circa 1963. [two of a matched set of 3, all new and unused, see also ID#315 and 317]



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor
Manufacturer: Electrohome, Kitchener, Ont
Make: Electrohome
Model: 18-53-05-07

Technical Significance:
– Representative of a new generation of sleek, compact, more electrically efficient and customized shaded pole motor technology for the 1960’s
– Designed for vertical mounting these motors, would typically be found in multiples of two, three, four or more arranged along the length of the refrigerated display case.
– New for the times, as a protection against personal and property damage due to over heating, these motors are equipped with “lock rotor protection”, ensuring that motor exciting current would not exceed safe levels even if the motor stalled.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would help move the Canadian commercial refrigeration industry solidly into a new generation of more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, making possible a wide range of new refrigeration appliances and fresh and frozen food merchandizers.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– One of a matched set of three motors, all of the same serial number, suggests that they came from the same production run in Electrohome’s Kitchener Ontario plant in 1963.
– The set of three identical motors represents the mode of application in which multiple motors where used together in a single refrigerated self service case
– All new, unused and pristine the set provides an authentic reflection of the engineering, production, materials and manufacturing processes of the period
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which among other things would encourage electric appliance and equipment manufacturers, like Electrohome, to enter the small motor’s [see also ID#312].
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.193

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, Canadian made, shaded pole, induction motor, with custom three point, vibration isolating, vertical mount, engineered for fan coil applications on refrigerated self-service display cases, used throughout the 1960’s and beyond, helping to change the face of Canadian food merchandising in Canada, with greater range of fresh vegetables and meat products as well as frozen foods, all now available self-service, Electrohome, Circa 1963. [two of a matched set of 3, all new and unused, see also ID#315 and 316]



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor
Manufacturer: Electrohome, Kitchener, Ont
Make: Electrohome
Model: 18-53-05-07

Technical Significance:
– Representative of a new generation of sleek, compact, more electrically efficient and customized shaded pole motor technology for the 1960’s
– Designed for vertical mounting these motors, would typically be found in multiples of two, three, four or more arranged along the length of the refrigerated display case.
– New for the times, as a protection against personal and property damage due to over heating, these motors are equipped with “lock rotor protection”, ensuring that motor exciting current would not exceed safe levels even if the motor stalled.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would help move the Canadian commercial refrigeration industry solidly into a new generation of more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, making possible a wide range of new refrigeration appliances and fresh and frozen food merchandizers.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– One of a matched set of three motors, all of the same serial number, suggests that they came from the same production run in Electrohome’s Kitchener Ontario plant in 1963.
– The set of three identical motors represents the mode of application in which multiple motors where used together in a single refrigerated self service case
– All new, unused and pristine the set provides an authentic reflection of the engineering, production, materials and manufacturing processes of the period
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which among other things would encourage electric appliance and equipment manufacturers, like Electrohome, to enter the small motor’s [see also ID#312].
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.194

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor, suspended on three point rubber vibration isolating mount, from two legged pedestal, with 10 inch 4 blade fan, engineered for condenser fan coil applications on hermetic refrigeration units. Used throughout the 1960’s and beyond, it helped to make possible a new generation of quieter more efficient commercial refrigeration equipment and appliances, Delco Circa 1964.



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products, General Motors Corp, Dayton
Make: Delco
Model: A7839, Type SST, Universal No. 506035

Technical Significance:
– Representative of a new generation of sleek, compact, more electrically efficient, and customized shaded pole motor technology, for the mid 1960’s.
– With a totally sealed body and bearings, it was a marker of the now rapidly emerging body of engineering and manufacturing practice, moving to a “parts replacement” culture, from the traditional “parts repair” mode of operation.
– The small shaded pole condenser fan motor was a key development in the evolution of the hermetically sealed, commercial refrigeration condensing unit. The refrigeration compressor and drive motor had all of a sudden disappeared, what emerged in its place was a new configuration, with no drive belts, pulleys or drive motor to be seen. The new “hermetically sealed” configuration would be more efficient, quieter, reliable and maintainable. The drive motor was now “unobtrusive” [the motor had disappeared], and “inherent” [part of the compressor], as well as having become “embedded” [in a single envelope} in matters of engineering concept and design. But this new, innovative design concept left behind no compressor motor drive hub on which to mount a fan blade for condenser cooling. Shaded pole motor technology would arrive
– “just-in-time” to take its place and enable a new future for commercial refrigerated appliances and equipment.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would help move the Canadian commercial refrigeration industry solidly into a new generation of more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, making possible a wide range of new refrigeration appliances and fresh and frozen food merchandizers.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.
– A highly innovative shaded pole motor application by Delco, this configuration would become a classic of the commercial refrigeration industry, found on many refrigeration manufacture’s condensing units, here marked specifically for Universal Cooler Co.


60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.195

A heavy duty, mid 20th century, 60 cycle, 1/20 HP, shaded pole, induction fan motor, custom designed for GE window air conditioner, evaporator and condenser application. Equipped with rubber, torsion 2 point mounting and inherent, automatic overload protection, it helped to make possible a new generation of affordable, larger capacity, quieter more efficient “through-the-wall” [window] air conditioners which changed for ever the expectations of Canadians about what to do about the summer’s heat, GE, Circa 1964. [1 of a set of 3, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, see also ID#320 and 321]



Item: 60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: General Electric, Fort Wayne Ind.
Make: GE
Model: 5KSP21DG1834AS

Technical Significance:
– 1 of a set of 3, shaded pole, custom designed motors, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, in order to fit the specialized requirements of different air conditioner manufacturers, models, and model years, for example in matters of horsepower, starting torque, rotation, inherent automatic thermal protection, etc [see also ID#320 and 321].
– Equipped with torsion, rubber vibration mountings, and automatic, recycling, inherent overload protection, It would be representative of an 1960’s, generation of heavy, fan-duty, customized shaded pole motor technology, for the now rapidly maturing through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market.
– With a totally sealed body and bearings, it was a marker of the now rapidly emerging body of engineering and manufacturing practice, moving to a “parts replacement” culture, from the traditional “parts repair” mode of operation.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation, air conditioning and ventilation where imperatives.
– By the mid 1960’s the through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market was rapidly maturing, providing the Canadian public an affordable solution to spikes in summer heat that her-to-for could not have been imagined. The innovative, unitary engineering concept with cooling and heat rejection equipment all in the same cabinet made it readily installed by the do-it-yourself’s, without special tools and equipment. Air conditioners had become the newest home appliance.


60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.196

A heavy duty, mid 20th century, 60 cycle, 1/20 HP, shaded pole, induction fan motor, custom designed for GE window air conditioner, evaporator and condenser application. Equipped with rubber, torsion 2 point vibration isolating mounting, it helped to make possible a new generation of affordable, larger capacity, quieter more efficient “through-the-wall” [window] air conditioners which changed for ever the expectations of Canadians about what to do about the summer’s heat, GE, Circa 1964. [2 of a set of 3, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, see also ID#319 and 321]



Item: 60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: General Electric, Fort Wayne Ind.
Make: GE
Model: 5KSP21DG941B

Technical Significance:
– 1 of a set of 3, shaded pole, custom designed motors, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, in order to fit the specialized requirements of different air conditioner manufacturers, models, and model years, for example in matters of horsepower, starting torque, rotation, inherent automatic thermal protection, etc [see also ID#319 and 321].
– Equipped with torsion, rubber vibration mountings, and automatic, recycling, inherent overload protection, It would be representative of an 1960’s, generation of heavy, fan-duty, customized shaded pole motor technology, for the now rapidly maturing through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market.
– With a totally sealed body and bearings, it was a marker of the now rapidly emerging body of engineering and manufacturing practice, moving to a “parts replacement” culture, from the traditional “parts repair” mode of operation.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation, air conditioning and ventilation where imperatives.
– By the mid 1960’s the through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market was rapidly maturing, providing the Canadian public an affordable solution to spikes in summer heat that her-to-for could not have been imagined. The innovative, unitary engineering concept with cooling and heat rejection equipment all in the same cabinet made it readily installed by the do-it-yourself’s, without special tools and equipment. Air conditioners had become the newest home appliance.


60 cycle, 1/15HP induction fan motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.197

A heavy duty, mid 20th century, 60 cycle, 1/15 HP, shaded pole, induction fan motor, custom designed for GE window air conditioner, evaporator and condenser application. Equipped with rubber, torsion 2 point vibration isolating mounting, it helped to make possible a new generation of affordable, larger capacity, quieter more efficient “through-the-wall” [window] air conditioners which changed for ever the expectations of Canadians about what to do about the summer’s heat, GE, Circa 1964 [2 of a set of 3, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, see also ID#319 and 320].



Item: 60 cycle, 1/15HP induction fan motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: General Electric, Fort Wayne Ind.
Make: GE
Model: 5KSP21FG1579A

Technical Significance:
– 1 of a set of 3, shaded pole, custom designed motors, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, in order to fit the specialized requirements of different air conditioner manufacturers, models, and model years, for example in matters of horsepower, starting torque, rotation, inherent automatic thermal protection, etc [see also ID#319 and 320].
– Equipped with torsion, rubber vibration mountings, and automatic, recycling, inherent overload protection, It would be representative of an 1960’s, generation of heavy, fan-duty, customized shaded pole motor technology, for the now rapidly maturing through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market.
– With a totally sealed body and bearings, it was a marker of the now rapidly emerging body of engineering and manufacturing practice, moving to a “parts replacement” culture, from the traditional “parts repair” mode of operation.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation, air conditioning and ventilation where imperatives.
– By the mid 1960’s the through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market was rapidly maturing, providing the Canadian public an affordable solution to spikes in summer heat that her-to-for could not have been imagined. The innovative, unitary engineering concept with cooling and heat rejection equipment all in the same cabinet made it readily installed by the do-it-yourself’s, without special tools and equipment. Air conditioners had become the newest home appliance.


“embedded” shaded pole induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.198

An early “embedded” application of shaded pole induction motor technology, as an “inherent” component of a small, direct drive, water circulating pump assembly. With plastic pump housing and impeller blade, and its own 8 blade cooling fan, it would be a marker of a new, trend setting, much more integrated approach to the engineering of electro-motive devices for the 1950 and beyond, in which the motor itself has become “unobtrusive” part of a larger whole, Gorman-Rupp, circa 1955.



Item: “embedded” shaded pole induction motor
Manufacturer: Gorman-Rupp Industries, Bellville, Ohio
Make: Gorman-Rupp

Technical Significance:
– An example of an early, trend setting, “embedded” application of shaded pole induction motor technology, as an “inherent” component of a small, direct drive, water circulating pump assembly, marking the movement to more integrated and holistic approach to the engineering of electro-motive devices for the 1950 and beyond, in which the motor itself has become “unobtrusive” part of a larger whole.
– A rare view of an early embedded shaded pole motor application, engineered as an inherent component of a small direct drive, water circulating pump assembly. Seen as cost saving measure, such assemblies, also made more economical on 60 cycle, would become increasingly popular, following frequency standardization in the late 1940’s in Canada on household appliances – for example on automatic dish washers and laundry equipment.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan and pump applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air and water circulation, air conditioning and ventilation where imperatives.


Electric motor sleeve bearings

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.202

Early mid 20th century, bronze alloy, FHP electric motor sleeve bearings, split bearing design, with spiral oil grooves, adapted for automatic wick oiling. A “state-of-the-art”, self oiling bearing developed for electric motors for use in Canadian homes, where long life and reliable performance would be expected, without the constant attention of an “operating engineer” with oil can in hand [set of two], manufacturer unknown, Circa 1948.


Short circuiting ring

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.203

A rare view of an early 1930’s, short circuiting ring [necklace], constructed of copper, stamped and formed, segments, hand strung on fine wire, approximately 40 to the inch, part of the centrifugally operated, automatic short circuiting mechanism, used to convert a high torque, repulsion start, induction run, single phase motors from repulsion start to induction run operation, representative of the complex, innovative engineering, manufacturing and craftsmanship represented in this early technology, [See ID# 296, item 16.01-5], Wagner, Circa 1932].


Electric brush lifter carton

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.204

A Canadian made, mid 20th century, classic Leland Electric brush lifter, carton only, for repulsion induction, single phase motor. A stencilled carton with graphics in blue and yellow, it would be representative of the newly emerging field of industrial graphic design of the times. As well as it would be a marker of the ever increasing importance of the “technology after-market”, supplying Canadian consumers of the new popular technologies invading their homes [post WWII electric and electronic appliances] with the replacement parts needed to help ensure satisfaction, Leland, Circa 1948. [See ID# 308, item 16.01-14]


Rubber equipment mountings

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.205

A collection of rubber mountings for vibration isolating, and quieting of electro-motive equipment. The 13 varieties included are representative of the proliferation and diversity of innovative solutions devised by the middle of the 20th century. Vibration and sound control quickly emerged as a critical engineering requirement for the wide spread acceptance of electro-motive technology by Canadian homes and places of business, manufacturers unknown, Circa 1948.


‘Slow blow’ fuse

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.206

The “fusetat’ [later fusetron] was an early step in the evolution of personal and property damage protection resulting from electric motor overload , on the way to fully automatic, inherent, overload protection for FHP motors used in Canadian homes and commercial establishments. Conceived as a special kind of “slow-blow”, throw-away fuse, it lacked the ability to re-close. As a consequence many owners would find their refrigerator off, with resultant food spoilage. The fully automatic, re-closing overload protector [See ID#331] would still be close to a decade away, before it saw wide spread application, Buss Fusetat, 1934.


Overload protector

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.207

Thermal disk, snap action, automatic re-closing, overload protector mounted on original motor manufacturer’s mounting plate, A key step in the evolution of personal and property damage protection resulting from FHP electric motor overload [over heating]. Overload, safety devices that re-closed automatically after cooling, built into the compressor motor itself, would be the final step in the development of refrigeration equipment that would operate un-attended, fully protected, while cycling automatically to maintain a set refrigerated temperature.


Miniature motor armature

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.208

Miniature armature for universal, AC – DC electric motor, equipped with wound rotor, commutator, inherent cooling fan and splined shaft, engineered for custom application, possibly and electric fan, electric drill, vacuum cleaner, or food processor. An engineering and manufacturing wonder of the early to mid 20th century, such technology would help to trigger a “sea change” in Canadian consumer expectations of the good things that the electric appliance industry had in store, manufacturer unknown, circa 1948.


Electric motor test block

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.209

An improvised, FHP, electric motor test block, locally made using standard home electrification hardware components found in the Canadian home of the 1920s to 40’s. Reflecting the ingenuity of HVACR mechanics of the times, the device when connected in series with a potentially faulty motor, limited the current flow, thus protecting the motor and the operator, locally made, circa 1946.


Refrigerator test analyser

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.210

A portable, household refrigerator, electrical test analyser in handsome wooden carrying case, locally made using an assembly of old electrical and radio test gear. Reflecting the ingenuity of an early HVACR mechanic, the device provided for fused fault protection, current limiting load protection and continuity testing, as well as providing for the measurement of applied voltage and load current, locally made, circa 1946.


Run time recorder

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.211

An improvised, cumulative running time operations recorder, making use of an electric, bedroom alarm clock, wiring harness, spring clips and rubber insulating sleeves. Reflecting the ingenuity of HVACR mechanics of the times the device, when connected in parallel with an automatic heating or refrigeration system, effectively measured the total time of operation within a 24 hour period, locally made, circa 1946.


Analogue ammeter

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.212

A portable, induction type, clamp-on, analogue ammeter and voltmeter in hansom, now well used, black leather case with spring clip. Reflecting a new generation of HVACR test equipment emerging in the 1950’s, it measured current on 6 scales from 6 to 300 amps, and voltage on three scales from 150 to 600 volts, Amprobe, circa 1955.


Rotary tachometer

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.213

A portable, hand-held, rotary, tachometer, calibrated from 400 to 4,000 RPM, equipped with rubber friction drive. Among other things the device would be a marker of the increasingly sophisticated test and measurement equipment used by HVACR technicians involved in system applications and equipment re-engineering, as the mid 20th century emerged, Corbin Screw Corp. New Britain, Conn.. Circa 1945.


Set of inside diameter gauges

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.214

Set of 4 telescoping inside gauges, range ? inch to 2 1/8 inches, varying in thousands of an inch. Each is beautifully crafted in machine steel with spring loaded plunger, knurled handle and knurled locking screw embedded in the handle, an example of the precision tools available to Canadian machinists and HVACR mechanics by the 1940’s – on which they would depend. Used, among other things, to measure the inside diameter of electric motor bearings, compressor cylinder displacement etc. In hansom, slide-top, wooden box, Model 229, Starrett, Circa 1942.


Two inch Micrometer calliper

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.215

Two inch Micrometer calliper for measuring by thousandths from one inch to two inches, with ratchet stop, knurled handle, and fraction/decimal equivalent chart engraved on yoke in 32nds and 64ths. An example of the precision tools available to Canadian machinists and HVACR mechanics by the 1940’s – on which they would be dependent. Used, among other things, to measure the diameter of electric motor bearings, compressor pistons, etc. Beranta, Circa 1942.


Bearing scraper

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.216

An 11 inch, narrow, bearing scraper, with 3 inch blade, designed for “modern bearings”, with black, turned, wooden handle and steel furl, an early 20th century tool for hand fitting journal bearings, “VLC4BK” CLEV’D.O., Circa 1930.


4 blade small bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.217

Set of 4 blade, small bearing reamers in sizes from ? to 7/16 inches, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of small, FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1940’s through 1960’s. Set of 7 enclosed in original blue, heavy card, custom case, with Beard logo and name plate stencilled in gold and blue, Circa 1945.


6 blade bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.218

Set of 6 blade, bearing reamers in sizes from 7/16 to 1 1/8 inches, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1930’s through 1960’s. Set of 9 enclosed in original heavy oak, clear varnished, custom case with manufacturer’s label, insignia and specifications in gold and black, Circa 1939.


Long 6 blade bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.219

Set of 6 blade, extra long, alignment bearing reamers, six in Snap-On, Blue Point case, sizes from ? to 1 1/16; with four supplementary reamers to extend range from 9/16 to 15/16, all with tapered self-alignment pilots, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1950’s through 1960’s, Variously made by Snap-On, Joborn and Webco, Circa 1958.


Single phase, 25 cycle motor motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.169

A rare, early 20th century, commutating, single phase, 25 cycle, alternating current motor, likely of the repulsion type, an early marker of vastly changing times to come, following the first wave of home electrification. It would herald the coming invasion of the Canadian home by electro-motive technology, manufacturer’s name partially obliterated, date unknown. [se also ID# 304]



Item: Single phase, 25 cycle motor motor
Make: Manufacturer’s name partially obliterated
Features:
– Oiler cap marked “The OK Mfg Co. Dayton O.”
– 6 inch pig tail leads illustrating electrical wiring practice of the times

Technical Significance:
– A rare example of an early communtating, alternating current motor design, engineering and manufacture, likely of the repulsion motor genre. See references 1, 2 and 5 for discussion of design and operation of early 20th century communtating AC motors.
– An early marker of vastly changing times to come, following the first wave of home electrification technology. An icon, it would herald the coming invasion of the Canadian home by electro-motive technology, starting in central Canada in the 1920’s.


Repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.170

Classic mid 20th century, heavy duty, repulsion induction, brush lifting motor, dual voltage and mechanically reversible. Canadian made, it would characterize much of the Canadian experience through middle and latter years of the century, a period which saw massive growth in the demand for such high torque motors following W.W.II and frequency standardization. Yet, paradoxically, the period also witnessed the progressive demise of the technology, Leland [new and unused], Circa 1960. [See also ID# 308]



Item: Repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric Canada Limited, Guelph Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: Form AKWJH, Type R
Features:
– Built-in well for the possible installation of “Klixon” motor overload protector with automatic reset.
– Shop tag in Howard Oliver’s hand writing, “checks OK, Jan 1975”

Technical Significance:
– With a built-in “well” making provision for “Klixon” inherent motor overload protector technology, this artifact is a marker of the advances made by mid century in personal and property protection for the FHP motor owners. By then, the inherent, automatic overload projector with automatic reset had become a mainstream technology, for which provisions were being built into the motor body, whether the particular application required it or not. Inherent, automatic overload motor protection was a universal truth for FHP motor design by the middle of the 20th century. It was yet another indicator of the new world of advances made through automation – as it existed in the mid 20th century.
– Canadian made, this motor would characterize much of the Canadian experience through middle and later years of the century, in high torque, FHP motor development. A period which saw massive growth in the demand for such high starting torque motors, typically for use on refrigeration equipment, which flooded the market in those years, following W.W.II and frequency standardization.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology,throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– For the Canadian household and commercial refrigeration industry, pioneered by Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it would be a “just-in-time” technology, as well as an immensely enabling one – and what it enabled was considerable. Sir William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, had just set out the theoretical principles of the compression refrigeration, Carnot cycle [see Note #1]. But there existed no electro-motive devices with sufficient starting torque able to drive the compressor, making mechanical cooling practical for household and commercial uses – even for those who were otherwise able to enjoy the benefits of electrification. The push was on to develop such a device, the repulsion induction, single-phase motor would quickly follow.
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Well recognized for their performance, reliability and maitainability, the repulsion induction engineering designs employed by Leland Electric, Guelph Ontario, along with Wagner Electric Leaside would in many ways serve to characterizing best Canadian practice through middle and later years of the century.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


Variable speed repulsion motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.171

A rarity, a variable speed repulsion motor, with mechanical speed, forward and reverse control lever. A classic, mid 20th century piece of speciality, repulsion induction technology, marking the apogee of the genre – in a period when the genre was still the wonder-boy of single phase, electric motor engineering. Canadian made, it would stand as a special time piece, marking the achievements and sophistication of the Canadian electric motor engineering and manufacturing, part of the “golden years” of the industry in Canada, Leland, 1948.



Item: Variable speed repulsion motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric Canada Limited, Guelph Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: Form BOWJH, Type RV
Features:
– 6 inch pressed steel V pulley for B and C-section belts. The pulley, now badly out of alignment, and showing the signs of rusting, as a result of normal ware and tar, marks these pulleys, fabricated in pressed steel, as best for light duty applications

Technical Significance:
– Variable speed repulsion motor with mechanical speed, forward and reverse control lever.
– A classic, mid 20th century piece of speciality, repulsion induction technology, marking the apogee of the genre – in a period when the genre was still the wonder-boy of single phase, electric motor engineering. For it would be another half century before capacitor start, electronic, digital speed control would be popularly available.
– Canadian made, it would stand as a special time piece, marking the achievements and sophistication of the Canadian electric motor engineering and manufacturing, part of the “golden years” of the industry in Canada,
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Well recognized for their performance, reliability and maitainability, the repulsion induction engineering designs employed by Leland Electric, Guelph Ontario, along with Wagner Electric Leaside would in many ways serve to characterizing best Canadian practice through middle and later years of the century.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.172

An early 20th century, repulsion induction, brush lifting, 25 cycle motor, manufactured in Canada for Kelvinator’s pioneering generation of cabinet refrigerators for the home. With bronze bearings and short, snap cap oilers, open ventilated, cast iron frame, and slotted 4 bolt, rigid steel base, it stands as a rare time piece in the evolution of the Canadian FHP motor and refrigeration industries, Wagner, 1928.



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: Type 66XL7 RA
Features:
– 3 original manufacturers shipping tags

Technical Significance:
– A rare glimpse of the earliest years of Canadian commercial production of repulsion induction, FHP, single phase, motor technology. In spite of the engineering and manufacturing challenges faced, the development was spurred on by the promise of ever increasing market demand for high starting torque motors for home and commercial applications.
– The technology, complete with centrifugally operated brush lifters [to reduce wear and noise], and armature short circuiting mechanism [to convert from repulsion start to induction run operation] represented a truly astonishing level of research and development, and manufacturing know how, all in an era with little theory and practical experience to draw on.
– The bearing oiling system, engineered without extended oiler tubes, stands as an example of early consumer product development, with little regard for public safety. Many fingers would get caught in pulleys and fan blades before extension safety oiler tubes would become common place [see for example ID# 301 to 307]. With the ever-increasing range and sophistication of electro-motive devices for home use would come increasingly stringent safety requirements with the regulatory agencies needed to enforce them. By the end of the century substantial space in customer owning and operating manuals would be given over to safety precautions.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– For the Canadian household and commercial refrigeration industry, pioneered by Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it would be a “just-in-time” technology, as well as an immensely enabling one – and what it enabled was considerable. Sir William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, had just set out the theoretical principles of the compression refrigeration, Carnot cycle [see Note #1]. But there existed no electro-motive devices with sufficient starting torque able to drive the compressor, making mechanical cooling practical for household and commercial uses – even for those who were otherwise able to enjoy the benefits of electrification. The push was on to develop such a device, the repulsion induction, single-phase motor would quickly follow.
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Canadian made, this motor would stand as a marker of the earliest years of FHP, single phase, electric motor manufacturing in the country. It would be spurred on by the promise of new market opportunities for electro-mechanical home appliances,
– The oil soaked service tags, still attached to the motor after close to 80 years, tell a number of stories of their life and times:
1. Of constant oil spillage, typically running over the floor of a Canadian kitchen somewhere, the result of over oiling of motor bearings and leaking refrigeration compressor seals. The sealed motor compressor unit could not come too soon for many home owners.
2. Of the 20 some odd service centres across Canada, established to support the service of Wagner motors and Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, as early as 1928
3. Of the four-year replacement program, which Kelvinator maintained to promote the quality and reliability of the cabinet refrigerators they marketed to wary homeowners, as early as the 1920’s.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.173

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with historic innovative, first generation, vibration isolating motor mounts, a significant step in helping to reduce the noise level in the canadian kitchen, resulting from the introduction of motorized machinery, built in Canada for Kelvinator’s cabinet refrigerators introduced in the early 1930’s, Wagner, Circa 1932.



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL22B110K128, Type SAR
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– With original shop tag, T.H. Oliver, Refrigeration and Electric Service, marked “salvage …..”

Technical Significance:
– An artifact of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology for the Canadian home:
1. An early Canadian made FHP motor for an early Canadian refrigerator manufacturer, marking the optimism of the times, the capital investment made, in spite of a period of marked economic depression
2. A pioneering step in quieting the Canadian kitchen. The 4 point, rubber vibration insulating base would be an historic step of significant proportion in reducing noise in the kitchen, which followed the introduction of electro-motive powered machinery into the home. It would be the first step in an evolutionary sequence which would result, in the complete disappearance of the noisy, hazards, FHP motor, embedding it within the refrigeration system itself, the hermetic refrigeration motor compressor. [see examples classification code 4.01] [see also Note 1]
3. Part of the historic movement to unitize and package the mechanical refrigeration systems, to be marketed to the Canadian home owner – with all its piping, motor, compressor, valving and so forth. Manufactures understood that the popular acceptance of the technology by homeowners, would increasingly depend on making this mechanical wonder not only quieter, but more reliable and repairable, independent of local highly skilled tradesman. The packaged, factory ready refrigeration replacement system was seen as the answer, although not altogether successful in the earliest attempts of which this motor was part – See Reference 12.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.174

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with historic, innovative, first generation, vibration isolating, rubber motor mounts, a significant step in helping to reduce the noise level in the kitchen, resulting from the introduction of motorized machinery, Delco, Circa 1932. [see also ID# 299, 301, 302]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 5094
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts

Technical Significance:
– Stands as an exemplar of the dissemination of 4 point rubber insulating motor mounting technology in the early 1930’s adopted here by Delco, a division of Frigidaire – see also ID# 297
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.175

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with historic, innovative, two point cradle style, vibration isolating, rubber motor mounting, a significant step in helping to reduce the noise level in the kitchen, resulting from the introduction of motorized machinery, Delco, Circa 1932. [see also ID# 298, 301, 302]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 2144
Features:
– T. H. Oliver service tag in Mr. Oliver’s hand writing, “Mr Dryden, Danels and Dryden”, “25 cycle motor, defective winding”

Technical Significance:
– An example of the innovative engineering of the period working to quiet the cabinet refrigerator in the early 1930’s, adopted here by Frigidaire/Delco, – see also ID# 298
– The cradle mount provided Frigidaire with a dual function of motor quieting, as well as automatic belt tightening, afforded by a spring tension devices operating on the cradle to hold the belt in a taught position – see Reference 12
– The cradle motor mount by Frigidaire/Delco would be one more significant step in an evolutionary sequence which would result, in the complete disappearance of the noisy, hazards, FHP motor, embedding it within the refrigeration system itself, the hermetic refrigeration motor compressor. [see examples classification code 4.01]
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor, 1/4HP ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.176

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, 1/4 HP repulsion induction motor, equipped with rigid base for use on small commercial refrigeration applications, commonly found in Canada on Frigidaire condensing units in small food store and confectionery applications, throughout the pre W.W.II years and beyond to frequency standardization and the birth of the hermetic motor compressor, Delco, Circa 1936.



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor, 1/4HP ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 4394

Technical Significance:
– The physical size and crushing weight of this 1/4 HP motor of the period is a matter of note. The magnetic circuits required for 25 cycle applications, along with the all ferro-magnetic bodies, coupled with the relatively crude engineering designs of the period would lead to massive equipment by future standards. For examples of applications by Frigidaire see Reference No 12
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.177

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor for household cabinet refrigerator with vibration isolating motor mounts, and fusetron holder, two significant innovations, helping to reduce noise in the kitchen, and the risk of property and personal injury due to motor overheating, Delco, Circa 1934. [see also ID# 298, 302]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 4089
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– Fusetron holder now blanked off, early technology for motor overload protection

Technical Significance:
– Represented here are two major innovations in FHP motor technology for the Canadian home, associated with the early 1930’s. One for the reduction of noise [the four-point vibration, rubber mount], the second for reduction of risk of property and personal damage, due to an overheated motor [the fusetron]. Both were crude beginnings, soon to be replaced by more advanced forms of the technology.
– The fusetron [See item code 16.06-5], now removed and opening blanked off, tells important stories of technological evolution and advancement in personal and property protection. The fusetron was a slow blow fuse engineered to take the high starting current associated with inductive loads, but to open circuit in response to prolonged over load conditions. Lacking a recycling capability, it left the homeowner vulnerable. As a consequence many homeowners would find their refrigerator off, with resultant food spoilage. The inherent motor overload protector with an automatic recycling capability would still be another decade in the making. In the meantime many fusetrons were disabled by local refrigeration service technician, on the request of angry homeowners. [see ID#294 for example of “Klixon” inherent, automatic overload protection]
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.178

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor for household cabinet refrigerator with vibration isolating motor mounts, and fusetron holder, two significant innovations, helping to reduce noise in the kitchen, and the risk of property and personal injury due to motor overheating, Delco, Circa 1934. [see also ID# 298, 301]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 4093
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– Fusetron holder now blanked off, early technology for motor overload protection

Technical Significance:
– Represented here are two major innovations in FHP motor technology for the Canadian home, associated with the early 1930’s. One for the reduction of noise [the four-point vibration, rubber mount], the second for reduction of risk of property and personal damage, due to an overheated motor [the fusetron]. Both were crude beginnings, soon to be replaced by more advanced forms of the technology.
– The fusetron [See item code 16.06-5], now removed and opening blanked off, tells important stories of technological evolution and advancement in personal and property protection. The fusetron was a slow blow fuse engineered to take the high starting current associated with inductive loads, but to open circuit in response to prolonged over load conditions. Lacking a recycling capability, it left the homeowner vulnerable. As a consequence many homeowners would find their refrigerator off, with resultant food spoilage. The inherent motor overload protector with an automatic recycling capability would still be another decade in the making. In the meantime many fusetrons were disabled by local refrigeration service technician, on the request of angry homeowners. [see ID#294 for example of “Klixon” inherent, automatic overload protection, and ID# 303 for example of early protector by Wagner]
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.179

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with two historic innovations, a first generation, vibration isolating motor mount, and an inherent overload protector with automatic reset, helping to reduce both noise and the risk of personal and property injury in the Canadian kitchen, built in Canada for Kelvinator of Canada’s cabinet refrigerators introduced in the early 1930’s, Wagner, Circa 1936. [see also ID# 297]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL22B55, Type SAR
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset

Technical Significance:
– An artifact of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology for the Canadian home:
1. An early Canadian made FHP motor for an early Canadian refrigerator manufacturer, marking the optimism of the times, the capital investment made, in spite of a period of marked economic depression
2. A pioneering step in quieting the Canadian kitchen. The 4 point, rubber vibration insulating base would be an historic step of significant proportion in reducing noise in the kitchen, which followed the introduction of electro-motive powered machinery into the home. It would be the first step in an evolutionary sequence which would result, in the complete disappearance of the noisy, hazards, FHP motor, embedding it within the refrigeration system itself, the hermetic refrigeration motor compressor. [see examples classification code 4.01] [see also Note 1]
3. An early historic technology for reducing the risk of personal and property damage due to motor overload, the inherent automatic overload protector – See Note No. 1.
4. A combination compressor drive pulley with condenser fan, a technology widely used in the 1920’s and 30’s, here employed by Kelvinator on a Model J15 condensing unit for a home cabinet refrigerator. The pulley hub performs a dual function, acting also as the drive hub of a four blade, 9 inch propeller style condenser fan blade. Driven at 1440 RPM, the un-guarded blade would represent a significant hazard to the un-wary homeowner [see Reference No. 13, P. 66].
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Commutating, single phase, 25 cycle motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.180

A rare, early 20th century, commutating, single phase, 25 cycle, alternating current motor, likely of the repulsion induction type, but requires further study. An early marker of vastly changing times to come, following the first wave of home electrification. It would herald the coming invasion of the Canadian home by electro-motive technology, General Electric, date unknown. [see also ID# 293]



Item: Commutating, single phase, 25 cycle motor
Manufacturer: General Electric Co. Schenectady, NY.
Make: General Electric
Model: Type RSA

Technical Significance:
– A rare example of an early communtating, alternating current motor
– Requires further research to document technical significance.
– An early marker of vastly changing times to come, following the first wave of home electrification technology. A cultural icon, it would herald the coming invasion of the Canadian home by electro-motive technology, starting in central Canada in the 1920’s.


1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.181

A mid 20th century, classic 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor with inherent overload protection and automatic reset, part of a rare set of three 25 cycle motors escaping frequency standardization in 1948. They define new standards of practice, telling many stories of the explosion of small commercial refrigeration applications, which were enabled in the 1940’s through 50’s, changing the lives of Canadians forever, Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1947. [see also ID# 306, 307]



Item: 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL26BF1924N, Type RA
Features:
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset
– State of the art, light weight, non-ferro magnetic, alloy end bells

Technical Significance:
– An artifact [artifacts] of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive technology::
1. Marking the immense engineering achievement in the development and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology well before the mid 20th century, paradoxically on the eve of its gradual demise and replacement by capacitor start FHP technology [see code 16.02],
2. Representing a technological achievement that would define the standard of practice for small commercial refrigeration motor applications in the 1940’s through 50’s, prior to the popularization of capacitor start motor technology and the widespread adoption of embedded motor and compressor equipment for commercial applications, the hermetic refrigeration condensing unit,
3. The popularization of small commercial refrigeration applications, enabled by the Wagner Type KA, a growth market in Canada in the post W.W.II years through the 1960’s, including ice cream and frozen food cabinets and merchandizers, reach-in, unitary refrigerators, display cases and merchandizers for small food stores and confectioneries – enabling a veritable explosion of new food products and tastes for Canadians.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.182

A mid 20th century, classic 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor with inherent overload protection and automatic reset, part of a rare set of three 25 cycle motors escaping frequency standardization in 1948. They define new standards of practice, telling many stories of the explosion of small commercial refrigeration applications, which were enabled in the 1940’s through 50’s, changing the lives of Canadians forever, Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1947. [see also ID# 305, 307]



Item: 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL26BF1924N, Type RA
Features:
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset
– State of the art, light weight, non-ferro magnetic, alloy end bells

Technical Significance:
– An artifact [artifacts] of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive technology::
1. Marking the immense engineering achievement in the development and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology well before the mid 20th century, paradoxically on the eve of its gradual demise and replacement by capacitor start FHP technology [see code 16.02],
2. Representing a technological achievement that would define the standard of practice for small commercial refrigeration motor applications in the 1940’s through 50’s, prior to the popularization of capacitor start motor technology and the widespread adoption of embedded motor and compressor equipment for commercial applications, the hermetic refrigeration condensing unit,
3. The popularization of small commercial refrigeration applications, enabled by the Wagner Type KA, a growth market in Canada in the post W.W.II years through the 1960’s, including ice cream and frozen food cabinets and merchandizers, reach-in, unitary refrigerators, display cases and merchandizers for small food stores and confectioneries – enabling a veritable explosion of new food products and tastes for Canadians.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.183

A mid 20th century, classic 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor with inherent overload protection and automatic reset, part of a rare set of three 25 cycle motors escaping frequency standardization in 1948. They define new standards of practice, telling many stories of the explosion of small commercial refrigeration applications, which were enabled in the 1940’s through 50’s, changing the lives of Canadians forever, Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1947 [see also ID# 305, 306]



Item: 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL26BF1924N, Type RA
Features:
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset
– State of the art, light weight, non-ferro magnetic, alloy end bells

Technical Significance:
– An artifact [artifacts] of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive technology::
1. Marking the immense engineering achievement in the development and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology well before the mid 20th century, paradoxically on the eve of its gradual demise and replacement by capacitor start FHP technology [see code 16.02],
2. Representing a technological achievement that would define the standard of practice for small commercial refrigeration motor applications in the 1940’s through 50’s, prior to the popularization of capacitor start motor technology and the widespread adoption of embedded motor and compressor equipment for commercial applications, the hermetic refrigeration condensing unit,
3. The popularization of small commercial refrigeration applications, enabled by the Wagner Type KA, a growth market in Canada in the post W.W.II years through the 1960’s, including ice cream and frozen food cabinets and merchandizers, reach-in, unitary refrigerators, display cases and merchandizers for small food stores and confectioneries – enabling a veritable explosion of new food products and tastes for Canadians.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1/6 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.184

Classic mid 20th century, repulsion induction high starting torque, 1/6th HP, motor, with inherent automatic overload protection and vibration insulating torsion base, engineered for household cabinet refrigerators. Canadian made by an acknowledged market leader, it would be characteristic of the period of massive growth in the demand for such motors on following frequency standardization, Leland , Circa 1958. [See also ID# 294]



Item: 1/6 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric Canada Limited, Guelph Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: Form AKWIH, Type R

Technical Significance:
– Canadian made, this motor would characterize much of the Canadian experience through middle and later years of the century, in high torque, FHP motor development. It was a period which saw massive growth in the demand for such high starting torque motors, typically for use on refrigeration equipment, following W.W.II and frequency standardization, prior to the domination of the market by embedded motor compressor technology, the hermetic motor compressor.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– For the Canadian household and commercial refrigeration industry, pioneered by Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it would be a “just-in-time” technology, as well as an immensely enabling one – and what it enabled was considerable. Sir William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, had just set out the theoretical principles of the compression refrigeration, Carnot cycle [see Note #1]. But there existed no electro-motive devices with sufficient starting torque able to drive the compressor, making mechanical cooling practical for household and commercial uses – even for those who were otherwise able to enjoy the benefits of electrification. The push was on to develop such a device, the repulsion induction, single-phase motor would quickly follow.
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Well recognized for their performance, reliability and maitainability, the repulsion induction engineering designs employed by Leland Electric, Guelph Ontario, along with Wagner Electric Leaside would in many ways serve to characterizing best Canadian practice through middle and later years of the century.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.156

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, an early design engineered for a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with fuse-style, overload protection, and designed for “V” belt drive applications, with pivoted motor mounting and automatic belt tension device, Delco, Circa 1945.



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: McKinnon Industries, St. Catherines Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M1035
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

With a toe crushing weight this 1/6th HP motor weighs in at 35 lbs., illustrating the greater weight of 25 cycle rotating equipment, over 60 cycle a factor in moving to a higher cycle, in order to help reduce equipment costs.

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, a rare example, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

1940’s style, high tech, capacitor-start motor, designed for top mounted electrolytic capacitor [not included]

Representative of a class of innovations introduced by Frigidaire, to provide automatic control of belt tension, using a simple, extension coil spring, with motor pivotally mounted on base plate. Maintaining proper belt tension, on refrigeration compressor drives was a perennial problem, due to close coupling of motor and compressor and large compressor fly wheel diameter.

Includes an early form of overload protector, the fusetron. Socket provided fusetron not included. Over load protection was an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate un-attended in the home – without the attention of skilled work force.

This type of overload operated much like a standard instant blow fuse, but calibrated to carry the high starting current characteristic of induction loads. Its disadvantage was that it was a non-recycling device, which means that the refrigeration system could be off without the homeowner knowing it. Later devices would be automatically recycling [see ID# 281].

Industrial Significance:
The production of FHP electric motors under the Delco name was a marker of the post W.W.II doom in Canada’s appliance industry. Delco was a brand name, held by General Motors, under which auto electric components were manufactured and marketed. McKinnon Industries was a feeder plant to GM, located in St Catherines

The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper and foil style capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.157

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, with light alloy end bells, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, Delco, Circa 1948. [see also 12.02-2B]



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: McKinnon Industries, St. Catherines, Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M1395
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

Oringinal T.H. Oliver shop tag, in Howard Oliver’s writing

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, this motor is a now rare example, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

A truly advanced piece of FHP induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with advanced engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Drive bearing extended, safety oilier; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; high tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset; light weight alloy end bells, taking advantage of new high tech metallurgy

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

This generation of FHP capacitor-start motor technology in many ways would stand as a consummate achievement, a kind of icon of “the art form”, made economically possible by the high market demand for FHP motors in the Post W.W.II period. It was a market, too, that was augmented by the prospects of frequency standardization, and the massive undertaking of replacing all 25 cycle motors with 60 cycle equipment.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount. Other mounting technologies were developed, but of less staying qualities, [See for example item 16.01-10 and 16.01-11].

The race was on, also, to produce an inherently safer motor, safe for the Canadian householder who was required to attend to routine maintenance tasks such as oiling. It was a period well in advance of sealed bearing technology with lifetime lubrication. Wick-oiled bronze bearings of the time required oiling quarterly. In belt driven refrigeration equipment this brought the householder in contact with a moving, compressor drive belt and whirring condenser fan blade. The design of the extended oilier tube would be a simple but significant safety feature, for householder and service man alike, allowing fingers to keep out of danger’s way.


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.158

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, with light weight alloy end bells, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, Delco, Circa 1948. [see also 12.02-2A]



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: McKinnon Industries, St. Catherines, Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M1395
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, this motor is a now rare example, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

A truly advanced piece of FHP induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with advanced engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Drive bearing extended, safety oilier; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; high tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset; Light weight alloy end bells, taking advantage of new hight tech metallurgy; The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely un-attended in the home.

This generation of FHP capacitor-start motor technology in many ways would stand as a consummate achievement, a kind of icon of “the art form”, made economically possible by the high market demand for FHP motors in the Post W.W.II period. It was a market, too, that was augmented by the prospects of frequency standardization, and the massive undertaking of replacing all 25 cycle motors with 60 cycle equipment.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It was the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technolgy that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount. Other mounting technologies were developed, but of less staying qualities, [See for example item 16.01-10 and 16.01-11].

The race was on, also, to produce an inherently safer motor, safe for the Canadian householder who was required to attend to routine maintenance tasks such as oiling. It was a period well in advance of sealed bearing technology with lifetime lubrication. Wick-oiled bronze bearings of the time required oiling quarterly. In belt driven refrigeration equipment this brought the householder in contact with a moving, compressor drive belt and whirring condenser fan blade. The design of the extended oilier tube would be a simple but significant safety feature, for householder and service man alike, allowing fingers to keep out of danger’s way.


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.159

A latter mid 20th century, high tech, 60cycle capacitor-start motor, a new lighter weight, compact generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by a market now standardized on 60cycle power; with electrolytic, chemical capacitor, inherent, heat overload protection, and automatic reset, light weight alloy end bells, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts, and adaptable base plate, Wagner, Circa 1955.



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Elecrtric, Div. of Sangamo Electric, Leasid
Make: Wagner
Model: UL14BF4723N; Ty

Technical Significance:
A truly advanced piece of FHP induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding , post W.W.II, 60 cycle, refrigeration equipment market, equipped with advanced engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Drive bearing extended, safety oilier; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; high tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset; Light weight alloy end bells, taking advantage of new high tech metallurgy

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely un-attended in the home.

This generation of FHP capacitor-start motor technology in many ways would stand as a consummate achievement, a kind of icon of “the art form”, made economically possible by the high market demand for FHP motors in the Post W.W.II period. It was now a North American market, largely standardization, on 60 cycle power.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It was the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The capacitor-start, refrigeration motor, and the advanced 20th century electrical technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would soon disappear withnthe advance of hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Industrial Significance:
With the early 1950’s came the opportunity for FHP electric motor manufactures to move too a new generation of designs and styling, as exemplified here. The FHP motor would be smaller and lighter weight technology, made possible by standardisation on 60 cycle power, the development of new more sophisticated engineering design methodologies, new materials and metallurgy, coupled with the economic incentive for development, fostered by a now larger electrically standardized, consumer market place, as well as by a rapidly expanding post W.W.II economy.

The expanding market opportunities of the early 1950’s would attract a new cohort of suppliers to the field. The number of manufactures, working with this basic technology shown here, would increase dramatically throughout the 1950’s, in addition to Delco and Wagner, among many others were: GE [see item 12.06-4], Tamper [see item 12.06-6], Century [see item 12.06-7] and Leland.

This motor stands as a marker of the rapidly expanding, mid 20th century market for FHP motor technology, serving to attract Canadian manufactures. Wagner, a well established US manufacture, like Delco, would find a Canadian manufacturing partner, here the Sangamo Company, Leaside Ontario

Part of the times was also the emergence of a new look and feel for the FHP motor, sleeker more eye appealing, as demonstrated here – less a piece of mere machinery than a mid 20th century, sophisticated piece of electrical apparatus. The new emphasis on styling and eye appeal, along with functionality and performance would reflect the influence of the industrial designer and a new body of industrial styling practice, a development, new, for the mid 20th century.

The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race was on, also, to produce an inherently safer motor, safe for the Canadian householder who was required to attend to routine maintenance tasks such as oiling. It was a period well in advance of sealed bearing technology with lifetime lubrication. Wick-oiled bronze bearings of the time required oiling quarterly. In belt driven refrigeration equipment this brought the householder in contact with a moving, compressor drive belt and whirring condenser fan blade. The design of the extended oilier tube would be a simple but significant safety feature, for householder and service man alike, allowing fingers to keep out of danger’s way.


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.160

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, all steel body, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, GE, Circa 1948. [see also 12.02-5, for similar 60 cycle design]



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: Canadian General Electric co., Toronto
Make: GE
Model: 11F111BX
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, this motor is a now rare example, representative of Canadian General Electric’s motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s. See ID #285, Item 16.02-5 for similar motor in 6o cycle. The latter with 1/4 HP rating, has a laminated stack length of 3inches and weights 30 lbs. compared with the former, with only a 1/6th HP rating, with a 4 inch laminated stack length and weighing 35 lbs.

Representative of FHP, capacitor start, induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; High tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset.

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount [see ID # 281]. GE followed Delco’s lead.

The configuration employed by GE lacks some of the advanced features used by Delco in the the same period, including light weight alloy end bells and extended drive end safety oiler [see ID # 281]


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.161

A mid 20th century, high tech, 60 cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, all steel body, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, GE, Circa 1955. [see also 12.02-4, for similar 25 cycle design]



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: Canadian General Electric co., Toronto
Make: GE
Model: 11F122B
Features:
Original cable connector illustrating trade practices of the time

Technical Significance:
Provides a graphic contrast between 25 and 60 cycle design practice by GE. See ID #284, Item 16.02-4 for similar motor in 25 cycle. The latter with 1/6th HP rating, has a laminated stack length of 4 inches and weights 35 lbs. compared with the former, with a 1/4 HP rating, with only a 3 inch laminated stack length and a weight of 30 lbs.

Representative of FHP, capacitor start, induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; High tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset.

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount [see ID # 281]. GE followed Delco’s lead.

The configuration employed by GE lacks some of the advanced features used by Delco in the the same period, including light weight alloy end bells and extended drive end safety oiler [see ID # 281]


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Tamper’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.162

A mid 20th century, high tech, 60 cycle capacitor-start motor, made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor and inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount, engineered by a small, start-up Canadian Company, it tells many stories of the exceptionalities of its life and times. Tamper, Circa 1955.



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Tamper’
Manufacturer: Tamper Electric, Montreal
Make: Tamper
Model: MPR-1451-15BK
Features:
Carries Ontario Hydro brass identification plate: HEPC Stock NO. P56-02-22-12-308-0002

Technical Significance:
An historical artifact of the post W.W.II years in the evolution of FHP motor technology in Canada, which although un-remarkable in matters of innovation and excellence, tells important stories of the exceptionalities of its times:

Of one of the largest and most sophisticated engineering mega-projects in Canadian history, frequency standardization in Ontario

The remarkable, although short lived period of expansion of the Canadian FHP motor manufacturing industry,

The manner in which the industry attracted new entrance, as small start-up companies, such as Tamper, as well as large manufactures with almost un-limited economic and engineering resources to draw on, such as GE [see ID#285 and 284]

Representative of FHP, capacitor start, induction motor technology, built for the post W.W.II rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; High tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset.

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

The motor exemplifies increasingly sophisticated developments in the field of electrolytic condensers, on which the capacitor start motor depended for its performance. Capacitors were getting smaller and more reliable, as well as appearing in more sophisticated, high tensile strength plastic enclosures sealed against moisture and with built-in, easy release, snap mounting brackets

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Century’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.163

A mid 20th century, high tech, 60 cycle capacitor-start motor, made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with ball bearings, totally enclosed, all steel body with slotted, rigid base for general utility applications in damp environments , Century, Circa 1958.



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Century’
Manufacturer: Century Electric St Louis Mo.
Make: Century
Model: CSH-65L-DHC3-3F
Features:
Original electrical connector illustrating trade practices of the period

Technical Significance:
The motor exemplifies increasingly sophisticated developments in the field of electrolytic condensers, on which the capacitor start motor depended for its performance. Capacitors were getting smaller and more reliable, through the 1950’s.

Exemplifies the design and engineering of general utility, totally enclosed, ball bearing applications engineered for damp locations.

Industrial Significance:
Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]


Single phase, AC induction motor ‘Apex’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.164

A very early 20th century, single phase, alternating current induction motor, to be found in commercial production, uses the resistance phase splitting principle to produce self-starting, equipped with bronze sleeve bearings with external oil reservoirs and spring loaded wick oilers with snap caps, drip proof steel housing and external electric wiring junction box, for use in Canadian homes of the period on cloths washing machines, Apex, date unknown.



Item: Single phase, AC induction motor ‘Apex’
Manufacturer: The Apex Electric Mfg Co., Cleveland and Toronto
Make: Apex
Model: Type WG
Features:
With original service tag in Howard Oliver’s hand writing “Troyers, Oakridges”, Troyers operated a farm on the Oak Ridges Moraine, an hour north of Toronto in the early years of the 20th century

Technical Significance:
An exemplar of a rare, early 25 cycle, split phase, induction motor production, for home applications, typically in an early electric washing machine

Industrial Significance:
An icon of the earliest years of commercial electric motor design and production for use in the homes, of those that could afford labour saving electric appliances, and living in homes that enjoyed the recognized benefits of home electrification


Split phase, induction motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.165

An early mid 20th century split phase, induction motor with sealed [now pierced] bearings, built for the then rapidly expanding home appliance industry in post WW2 Canada, used on an early cloths drier, it is equipped a twin belt, single piece pulley, part of a drive technology of the period developed by Kenmore and sold by the Robert Simpson Co. one of Canada’s historic department stores of note. GE, Circa 1955.



Item: Split phase, induction motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: Canadian General Electric Co. Toronto
Make: GE
Model: 11F281
Features:
Equipped with an early version of so called “sealed bearings”, which were promoted as life time bearing requiring no oiling

Equipped a twin belt, single piece pulley, part of a drive technology of the period developed by Kenmore

Technical Significance:
Defines the engineering design idiom for split-phase, motor technology employed throughout the middle years of the 20th century, moving through the mature years of this genre towards the end of the century, when a new genre would progressively emerge, smaller, lighter and more energy efficient.

Marked an early attempt by manufacturers to produce a motor with “lifetime” sealed bearings requiring no oiling in the normal course of a lifetime of use. In fact electro-motorized appliance were becoming increasingly compacted, enclosed in high style cabinets which made service all but impossible, except by the trained appliance repair worker. As a result the sealed cap on the bearing became as much a recognition of the fact that the motor would never get oiled, then a marker of any special provisions made for prolonged bearing life. Whether motors made for such applications were equipped with oil caps or not was irrelevant. It would be several decades before a truly lifetime sealed, sleeve bearing would appear on the consumer appliance market.

Representative of a period of increasing innovation in the development of electro- motor enabled, home appliance technology, it is equipped with a twin belt, single piece pulley, part of a cloths drier drive technology for the period developed by Kenmore and sold by the Robert Simpson Co., one of Canada’s historic department stores of note. GE, Circa 1955.

Industrial Significance:
A marker of split phase electric motor production in Canada and the US, in the latter years of the 20th century. Manufactured in the hundreds of thousands, by GE and other manufacturers, it stands as an icon of its times, marking the first great period mass production and marketing of electric, motorized household appliances, now made possible by wide spread home electrification.


Split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.166

An early mid 20th century split phase, induction motor with ball bearings, built for the then rapidly expanding home workshop equipment industry in post W.W.II Canada, equipped with hefty 1/2 horsepower rating and manual reset over load protection, it would be a marker of a significant cultural shift in male leisure time pursuits, Delco, Circa 1958.



Item: Split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Mckinnon Industries St Catherines Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M253901
Features:
Shop service tag in Howard Olivers hand writing “Checks OK Jan, 75

Technical Significance:
Exemplifies the evolution of inherent, automatic overload protection devices with manual reset, a prerequisite requirement for home hobby shop equipment:

Such applications typically rewired low starting torque [as on circular saws, but moderate horse power, current ratings, which could readily lead to burn out under high load conditions

Motors were built for an affordable market and were built inexpensively, with little tolerance for prolonged loading [over loading],

While automatic overload protection was considered an essential safety precaution, both for personal and property reasons, automatic reset would constitute a safety hazard, allowing the equipment to come back on out of control of operator,

Defines the engineering design idiom for split-phase, low starting torque, motor technology employed throughout the middle years of the 20th century in home appliances and hobby shop equipment, moving through the mature years of this genre towards the end of the century, when a new genre would progressively emerge, smaller, lighter and more energy efficient.

Industrial Significance:
The motor stands as a relatively rare marker of a breed of home hobby shop motor which would soon disappear. The stand alone, home hobby shop motor as a product of the post W.W.II market place, would be a relatively short lived phenomena. Early power tools of the period were, designed for the home work shop were of the conventional belt drive type, through the 1950’s to 80’s, but the trend was increasingly to much more integrated designs in which the motor was built into the equipment, itself, as an inherent design component.

A marker of split phase electric motor production in Canada and the US, in the latter years of the 20th century. Manufactured in the hundreds of thousands, by Delco, GE and other manufacturers, it stands as an icon of its times, marking the first great period mass production and marketing of electric, motorized household appliances and hobby shop equipment, now made possible by wide spread home electrification.


Affordable split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.167

An early mid 20th century, split phase, affordable, induction motor, for general utility applications, built for an open, FHP electric motor market for use on light duty power equipment around the house, shop and farm. With hefty 1/3 horsepower rating, it serves as a marker of the vast in roads made by electro motive technology on every nook and cranny of popular Canadian life style by the 1950’s, Delco, Circa 1956.



Item: Affordable split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Mckinnon Industries St Catherines Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M2480A1
Features:
Shop service tag in Howard Olivers hand writing “Checks OK Jan, 75; Original wiring harness illustrating electrical wiring practices of the period

Technical Significance:
A remarkable, yet un- remarkable piece of electro motive technology of its time. It would be remarkable in the state of motive technology it represented, a level of remarkable achievement in engineering, mass production, and marketing as popular consumer product, all achieved in less then two decades [see ID#280]. Yet built for a low cost market, it would be quite un-remarkable in its lack of function and feature characterizing special purpose motors of the same period, including high starting torque, automatic over heat protection.

It defines the engineering design idiom for split-phase, low starting torque, motor technology employed throughout the middle years of the 20th century, in general utility applications for home, shop and farm, moving through the mature years of this genre towards the end of the century, when a new genre would progressively emerge, smaller, lighter and more energy efficient.


Split phase, induction motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.168

An early mid 20th century, split phase, induction motor, speciality engineered, Canadian built for the automatic oil burning, winter air conditioner market, equipped with torsion, vibration rubber insulating mountings, bronze sleeve bearings and characteristic extended oiler tubes with snap caps, it would serve as a marker of best practice in motor production for belted fan applications for the winter air conditioner, heating market during its period of rapid expansion following W.W.II, Leland, Circa 1956.



Item: Split phase, induction motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric, Canada Ltd, Guelph. Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: KS209
Features:
– Original shop repair service tag in Howard Oliver’s hand writing “for sale or service, $20.00”
– Original manufactures instructions.

Technical Significance:
– The Leland KS would model the best in FHP motor engineering design for belted fan duty operations on centrifugal fan applications for winter air conditioners, throughout the 1950’s and 60’s, in Canada. Typically mounted on top of the fan in a floating harass, the motor would be in the cool return air stream, serving to prevent over heating, and allowing relatively compact, heat emitting body designs
– The belted fan configuration with variable speed pulley [see Group 12.11 artifacts] would give way to direct drive, axial mounted motors with electrical speed control for use on centrifugal fans by the end of the century


60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.194

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor, suspended on three point rubber vibration isolating mount, from two legged pedestal, with 10 inch 4 blade fan, engineered for condenser fan coil applications on hermetic refrigeration units. Used throughout the 1960’s and beyond, it helped to make possible a new generation of quieter more efficient commercial refrigeration equipment and appliances, Delco Circa 1964.



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products, General Motors Corp, Dayton
Make: Delco
Model: A7839, Type SST, Universal No. 506035

Technical Significance:
– Representative of a new generation of sleek, compact, more electrically efficient, and customized shaded pole motor technology, for the mid 1960’s.
– With a totally sealed body and bearings, it was a marker of the now rapidly emerging body of engineering and manufacturing practice, moving to a “parts replacement” culture, from the traditional “parts repair” mode of operation.
– The small shaded pole condenser fan motor was a key development in the evolution of the hermetically sealed, commercial refrigeration condensing unit. The refrigeration compressor and drive motor had all of a sudden disappeared, what emerged in its place was a new configuration, with no drive belts, pulleys or drive motor to be seen. The new “hermetically sealed” configuration would be more efficient, quieter, reliable and maintainable. The drive motor was now “unobtrusive” [the motor had disappeared], and “inherent” [part of the compressor], as well as having become “embedded” [in a single envelope} in matters of engineering concept and design. But this new, innovative design concept left behind no compressor motor drive hub on which to mount a fan blade for condenser cooling. Shaded pole motor technology would arrive
– “just-in-time” to take its place and enable a new future for commercial refrigerated appliances and equipment.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would help move the Canadian commercial refrigeration industry solidly into a new generation of more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, making possible a wide range of new refrigeration appliances and fresh and frozen food merchandizers.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.
– A highly innovative shaded pole motor application by Delco, this configuration would become a classic of the commercial refrigeration industry, found on many refrigeration manufacture’s condensing units, here marked specifically for Universal Cooler Co.


60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.195

A heavy duty, mid 20th century, 60 cycle, 1/20 HP, shaded pole, induction fan motor, custom designed for GE window air conditioner, evaporator and condenser application. Equipped with rubber, torsion 2 point mounting and inherent, automatic overload protection, it helped to make possible a new generation of affordable, larger capacity, quieter more efficient “through-the-wall” [window] air conditioners which changed for ever the expectations of Canadians about what to do about the summer’s heat, GE, Circa 1964. [1 of a set of 3, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, see also ID#320 and 321]



Item: 60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: General Electric, Fort Wayne Ind.
Make: GE
Model: 5KSP21DG1834AS

Technical Significance:
– 1 of a set of 3, shaded pole, custom designed motors, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, in order to fit the specialized requirements of different air conditioner manufacturers, models, and model years, for example in matters of horsepower, starting torque, rotation, inherent automatic thermal protection, etc [see also ID#320 and 321].
– Equipped with torsion, rubber vibration mountings, and automatic, recycling, inherent overload protection, It would be representative of an 1960’s, generation of heavy, fan-duty, customized shaded pole motor technology, for the now rapidly maturing through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market.
– With a totally sealed body and bearings, it was a marker of the now rapidly emerging body of engineering and manufacturing practice, moving to a “parts replacement” culture, from the traditional “parts repair” mode of operation.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation, air conditioning and ventilation where imperatives.
– By the mid 1960’s the through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market was rapidly maturing, providing the Canadian public an affordable solution to spikes in summer heat that her-to-for could not have been imagined. The innovative, unitary engineering concept with cooling and heat rejection equipment all in the same cabinet made it readily installed by the do-it-yourself’s, without special tools and equipment. Air conditioners had become the newest home appliance.


60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.196

A heavy duty, mid 20th century, 60 cycle, 1/20 HP, shaded pole, induction fan motor, custom designed for GE window air conditioner, evaporator and condenser application. Equipped with rubber, torsion 2 point vibration isolating mounting, it helped to make possible a new generation of affordable, larger capacity, quieter more efficient “through-the-wall” [window] air conditioners which changed for ever the expectations of Canadians about what to do about the summer’s heat, GE, Circa 1964. [2 of a set of 3, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, see also ID#319 and 321]



Item: 60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: General Electric, Fort Wayne Ind.
Make: GE
Model: 5KSP21DG941B

Technical Significance:
– 1 of a set of 3, shaded pole, custom designed motors, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, in order to fit the specialized requirements of different air conditioner manufacturers, models, and model years, for example in matters of horsepower, starting torque, rotation, inherent automatic thermal protection, etc [see also ID#319 and 321].
– Equipped with torsion, rubber vibration mountings, and automatic, recycling, inherent overload protection, It would be representative of an 1960’s, generation of heavy, fan-duty, customized shaded pole motor technology, for the now rapidly maturing through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market.
– With a totally sealed body and bearings, it was a marker of the now rapidly emerging body of engineering and manufacturing practice, moving to a “parts replacement” culture, from the traditional “parts repair” mode of operation.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation, air conditioning and ventilation where imperatives.
– By the mid 1960’s the through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market was rapidly maturing, providing the Canadian public an affordable solution to spikes in summer heat that her-to-for could not have been imagined. The innovative, unitary engineering concept with cooling and heat rejection equipment all in the same cabinet made it readily installed by the do-it-yourself’s, without special tools and equipment. Air conditioners had become the newest home appliance.


60 cycle, 1/15HP induction fan motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.197

A heavy duty, mid 20th century, 60 cycle, 1/15 HP, shaded pole, induction fan motor, custom designed for GE window air conditioner, evaporator and condenser application. Equipped with rubber, torsion 2 point vibration isolating mounting, it helped to make possible a new generation of affordable, larger capacity, quieter more efficient “through-the-wall” [window] air conditioners which changed for ever the expectations of Canadians about what to do about the summer’s heat, GE, Circa 1964 [2 of a set of 3, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, see also ID#319 and 320].



Item: 60 cycle, 1/15HP induction fan motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: General Electric, Fort Wayne Ind.
Make: GE
Model: 5KSP21FG1579A

Technical Significance:
– 1 of a set of 3, shaded pole, custom designed motors, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, in order to fit the specialized requirements of different air conditioner manufacturers, models, and model years, for example in matters of horsepower, starting torque, rotation, inherent automatic thermal protection, etc [see also ID#319 and 320].
– Equipped with torsion, rubber vibration mountings, and automatic, recycling, inherent overload protection, It would be representative of an 1960’s, generation of heavy, fan-duty, customized shaded pole motor technology, for the now rapidly maturing through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market.
– With a totally sealed body and bearings, it was a marker of the now rapidly emerging body of engineering and manufacturing practice, moving to a “parts replacement” culture, from the traditional “parts repair” mode of operation.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation, air conditioning and ventilation where imperatives.
– By the mid 1960’s the through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market was rapidly maturing, providing the Canadian public an affordable solution to spikes in summer heat that her-to-for could not have been imagined. The innovative, unitary engineering concept with cooling and heat rejection equipment all in the same cabinet made it readily installed by the do-it-yourself’s, without special tools and equipment. Air conditioners had become the newest home appliance.


Electric motor sleeve bearings

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.202

Early mid 20th century, bronze alloy, FHP electric motor sleeve bearings, split bearing design, with spiral oil grooves, adapted for automatic wick oiling. A “state-of-the-art”, self oiling bearing developed for electric motors for use in Canadian homes, where long life and reliable performance would be expected, without the constant attention of an “operating engineer” with oil can in hand [set of two], manufacturer unknown, Circa 1948.


Short circuiting ring

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.203

A rare view of an early 1930’s, short circuiting ring [necklace], constructed of copper, stamped and formed, segments, hand strung on fine wire, approximately 40 to the inch, part of the centrifugally operated, automatic short circuiting mechanism, used to convert a high torque, repulsion start, induction run, single phase motors from repulsion start to induction run operation, representative of the complex, innovative engineering, manufacturing and craftsmanship represented in this early technology, [See ID# 296, item 16.01-5], Wagner, Circa 1932].


Electric brush lifter carton

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.204

A Canadian made, mid 20th century, classic Leland Electric brush lifter, carton only, for repulsion induction, single phase motor. A stencilled carton with graphics in blue and yellow, it would be representative of the newly emerging field of industrial graphic design of the times. As well as it would be a marker of the ever increasing importance of the “technology after-market”, supplying Canadian consumers of the new popular technologies invading their homes [post WWII electric and electronic appliances] with the replacement parts needed to help ensure satisfaction, Leland, Circa 1948. [See ID# 308, item 16.01-14]


Rubber equipment mountings

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.205

A collection of rubber mountings for vibration isolating, and quieting of electro-motive equipment. The 13 varieties included are representative of the proliferation and diversity of innovative solutions devised by the middle of the 20th century. Vibration and sound control quickly emerged as a critical engineering requirement for the wide spread acceptance of electro-motive technology by Canadian homes and places of business, manufacturers unknown, Circa 1948.


‘Slow blow’ fuse

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.206

The “fusetat’ [later fusetron] was an early step in the evolution of personal and property damage protection resulting from electric motor overload , on the way to fully automatic, inherent, overload protection for FHP motors used in Canadian homes and commercial establishments. Conceived as a special kind of “slow-blow”, throw-away fuse, it lacked the ability to re-close. As a consequence many owners would find their refrigerator off, with resultant food spoilage. The fully automatic, re-closing overload protector [See ID#331] would still be close to a decade away, before it saw wide spread application, Buss Fusetat, 1934.


Overload protector

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.207

Thermal disk, snap action, automatic re-closing, overload protector mounted on original motor manufacturer’s mounting plate, A key step in the evolution of personal and property damage protection resulting from FHP electric motor overload [over heating]. Overload, safety devices that re-closed automatically after cooling, built into the compressor motor itself, would be the final step in the development of refrigeration equipment that would operate un-attended, fully protected, while cycling automatically to maintain a set refrigerated temperature.


Miniature motor armature

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.208

Miniature armature for universal, AC – DC electric motor, equipped with wound rotor, commutator, inherent cooling fan and splined shaft, engineered for custom application, possibly and electric fan, electric drill, vacuum cleaner, or food processor. An engineering and manufacturing wonder of the early to mid 20th century, such technology would help to trigger a “sea change” in Canadian consumer expectations of the good things that the electric appliance industry had in store, manufacturer unknown, circa 1948.


Electric motor test block

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.209

An improvised, FHP, electric motor test block, locally made using standard home electrification hardware components found in the Canadian home of the 1920s to 40’s. Reflecting the ingenuity of HVACR mechanics of the times, the device when connected in series with a potentially faulty motor, limited the current flow, thus protecting the motor and the operator, locally made, circa 1946.


Refrigerator test analyser

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.210

A portable, household refrigerator, electrical test analyser in handsome wooden carrying case, locally made using an assembly of old electrical and radio test gear. Reflecting the ingenuity of an early HVACR mechanic, the device provided for fused fault protection, current limiting load protection and continuity testing, as well as providing for the measurement of applied voltage and load current, locally made, circa 1946.


Run time recorder

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.211

An improvised, cumulative running time operations recorder, making use of an electric, bedroom alarm clock, wiring harness, spring clips and rubber insulating sleeves. Reflecting the ingenuity of HVACR mechanics of the times the device, when connected in parallel with an automatic heating or refrigeration system, effectively measured the total time of operation within a 24 hour period, locally made, circa 1946.


Analogue ammeter

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.212

A portable, induction type, clamp-on, analogue ammeter and voltmeter in hansom, now well used, black leather case with spring clip. Reflecting a new generation of HVACR test equipment emerging in the 1950’s, it measured current on 6 scales from 6 to 300 amps, and voltage on three scales from 150 to 600 volts, Amprobe, circa 1955.


Rotary tachometer

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.213

A portable, hand-held, rotary, tachometer, calibrated from 400 to 4,000 RPM, equipped with rubber friction drive. Among other things the device would be a marker of the increasingly sophisticated test and measurement equipment used by HVACR technicians involved in system applications and equipment re-engineering, as the mid 20th century emerged, Corbin Screw Corp. New Britain, Conn.. Circa 1945.


Set of inside diameter gauges

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.214

Set of 4 telescoping inside gauges, range ? inch to 2 1/8 inches, varying in thousands of an inch. Each is beautifully crafted in machine steel with spring loaded plunger, knurled handle and knurled locking screw embedded in the handle, an example of the precision tools available to Canadian machinists and HVACR mechanics by the 1940’s – on which they would depend. Used, among other things, to measure the inside diameter of electric motor bearings, compressor cylinder displacement etc. In hansom, slide-top, wooden box, Model 229, Starrett, Circa 1942.


Two inch Micrometer calliper

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.215

Two inch Micrometer calliper for measuring by thousandths from one inch to two inches, with ratchet stop, knurled handle, and fraction/decimal equivalent chart engraved on yoke in 32nds and 64ths. An example of the precision tools available to Canadian machinists and HVACR mechanics by the 1940’s – on which they would be dependent. Used, among other things, to measure the diameter of electric motor bearings, compressor pistons, etc. Beranta, Circa 1942.


Bearing scraper

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.216

An 11 inch, narrow, bearing scraper, with 3 inch blade, designed for “modern bearings”, with black, turned, wooden handle and steel furl, an early 20th century tool for hand fitting journal bearings, “VLC4BK” CLEV’D.O., Circa 1930.


4 blade small bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.217

Set of 4 blade, small bearing reamers in sizes from ? to 7/16 inches, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of small, FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1940’s through 1960’s. Set of 7 enclosed in original blue, heavy card, custom case, with Beard logo and name plate stencilled in gold and blue, Circa 1945.


6 blade bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.218

Set of 6 blade, bearing reamers in sizes from 7/16 to 1 1/8 inches, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1930’s through 1960’s. Set of 9 enclosed in original heavy oak, clear varnished, custom case with manufacturer’s label, insignia and specifications in gold and black, Circa 1939.


Long 6 blade bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.219

Set of 6 blade, extra long, alignment bearing reamers, six in Snap-On, Blue Point case, sizes from ? to 1 1/16; with four supplementary reamers to extend range from 9/16 to 15/16, all with tapered self-alignment pilots, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1950’s through 1960’s, Variously made by Snap-On, Joborn and Webco, Circa 1958.


Panel wall fan

Ventilation Equipment and Systems – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.085

The second half of the 20th century brought with it new realisations of the importance of air quality and the need for proper ventilation of working spaces. This elemental, 16″, 3 blade, panel wall fan, in knock-down form, for assembly on-the-job, equipped with automatic wall damper was a response to the growing market of the late 1950’s, Waugh and McKewen, London Ont., Supplier to the trade, 1957.



Item: Panel wall fan
Manufacturer: Unknown
Make: Unknown

Ducted fan assembly

Ventilation Equipment and Systems – Commercial

Accession # HHCC.2003.086

A special application ducted fan assembly, with rubber mounted, centrifugal, high static pressure fan, hub mounted, shaded pole electric motor and high temperature, thermal disk limit control, in custom formed housing with baked, brown wrinkled enamel, complete with 110 volt line cord and plug, illustrating the sophistication of the small application, air handling equipment available by the mid 1950’s, with a well developed network of OEM parts suppliers feeding the industry. 1957.



Item: Ducted fan assembly
Manufacturer: unknown
Make: Unknown

Repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.170

Classic mid 20th century, heavy duty, repulsion induction, brush lifting motor, dual voltage and mechanically reversible. Canadian made, it would characterize much of the Canadian experience through middle and latter years of the century, a period which saw massive growth in the demand for such high torque motors following W.W.II and frequency standardization. Yet, paradoxically, the period also witnessed the progressive demise of the technology, Leland [new and unused], Circa 1960. [See also ID# 308]



Item: Repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric Canada Limited, Quelph Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: Form AKWJH, Type R
Features:
– Built-in well for the possible installation of “Klixon” motor overload protector with automatic reset.
– Shop tag in Howard Oliver’s hand writing, “checks OK, Jan 1975”

Technical Significance:
– With a built-in “well” making provision for “Klixon” inherent motor overload protector technology, this artifact is a marker of the advances made by mid century in personal and property protection for the FHP motor owners. By then, the inherent, automatic overload projector with automatic reset had become a mainstream technology, for which provisions were being built into the motor body, whether the particular application required it or not. Inherent, automatic overload motor protection was a universal truth for FHP motor design by the middle of the 20th century. It was yet another indicator of the new world of advances made through automation – as it existed in the mid 20th century.
– Canadian made, this motor would characterize much of the Canadian experience through middle and later years of the century, in high torque, FHP motor development. A period which saw massive growth in the demand for such high starting torque motors, typically for use on refrigeration equipment, which flooded the market in those years, following W.W.II and frequency standardization.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology,throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– For the Canadian household and commercial refrigeration industry, pioneered by Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it would be a “just-in-time” technology, as well as an immensely enabling one – and what it enabled was considerable. Sir William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, had just set out the theoretical principles of the compression refrigeration, Carnot cycle [see Note #1]. But there existed no electro-motive devices with sufficient starting torque able to drive the compressor, making mechanical cooling practical for household and commercial uses – even for those who were otherwise able to enjoy the benefits of electrification. The push was on to develop such a device, the repulsion induction, single-phase motor would quickly follow.
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Well recognized for their performance, reliability and maitainability, the repulsion induction engineering designs employed by Leland Electric, Quelph Ontario, along with Wagner Electric Leaside would in many ways serve to characterizing best Canadian practice through middle and later years of the century.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


Variable speed repulsion motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.171

A rarity, a variable speed repulsion motor, with mechanical speed, forward and reverse control lever. A classic, mid 20th century piece of speciality, repulsion induction technology, marking the apogee of the genre – in a period when the genre was still the wonder-boy of single phase, electric motor engineering. Canadian made, it would stand as a special time piece, marking the achievements and sophistication of the Canadian electric motor engineering and manufacturing, part of the “golden years” of the industry in Canada, Leland, 1948.



Item: Variable speed repulsion motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric Canada Limited, Quelph Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: Form BOWJH, Type RV
Features:
– 6 inch pressed steel V pulley for B and C-section belts. The pulley, now badly out of alignment, and showing the signs of rusting, as a result of normal ware and tar, marks these pulleys, fabricated in pressed steel, as best for light duty applications

Technical Significance:
– Variable speed repulsion motor with mechanical speed, forward and reverse control lever.
– A classic, mid 20th century piece of speciality, repulsion induction technology, marking the apogee of the genre – in a period when the genre was still the wonder-boy of single phase, electric motor engineering. For it would be another half century before capacitor start, electronic, digital speed control would be popularly available.
– Canadian made, it would stand as a special time piece, marking the achievements and sophistication of the Canadian electric motor engineering and manufacturing, part of the “golden years” of the industry in Canada,
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Well recognized for their performance, reliability and maitainability, the repulsion induction engineering designs employed by Leland Electric, Quelph Ontario, along with Wagner Electric Leaside would in many ways serve to characterizing best Canadian practice through middle and later years of the century.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.172

An early 20th century, repulsion induction, brush lifting, 25 cycle motor, manufactured in Canada for Kelvinator’s pioneering generation of cabinet refrigerators for the home. With bronze bearings and short, snap cap oilers, open ventilated, cast iron frame, and slotted 4 bolt, rigid steel base, it stands as a rare time piece in the evolution of the Canadian FHP motor and refrigeration industries, Wagner, 1928.



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: Type 66XL7 RA
Features:
– 3 original manufacturers shipping tags

Technical Significance:
– A rare glimpse of the earliest years of Canadian commercial production of repulsion induction, FHP, single phase, motor technology. In spite of the engineering and manufacturing challenges faced, the development was spurred on by the promise of ever increasing market demand for high starting torque motors for home and commercial applications.
– The technology, complete with centrifugally operated brush lifters [to reduce wear and noise], and armature short circuiting mechanism [to convert from repulsion start to induction run operation] represented a truly astonishing level of research and development, and manufacturing know how, all in an era with little theory and practical experience to draw on.
– The bearing oiling system, engineered without extended oiler tubes, stands as an example of early consumer product development, with little regard for public safety. Many fingers would get caught in pulleys and fan blades before extension safety oiler tubes would become common place [see for example ID# 301 to 307]. With the ever-increasing range and sophistication of electro-motive devices for home use would come increasingly stringent safety requirements with the regulatory agencies needed to enforce them. By the end of the century substantial space in customer owning and operating manuals would be given over to safety precautions.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– For the Canadian household and commercial refrigeration industry, pioneered by Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it would be a “just-in-time” technology, as well as an immensely enabling one – and what it enabled was considerable. Sir William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, had just set out the theoretical principles of the compression refrigeration, Carnot cycle [see Note #1]. But there existed no electro-motive devices with sufficient starting torque able to drive the compressor, making mechanical cooling practical for household and commercial uses – even for those who were otherwise able to enjoy the benefits of electrification. The push was on to develop such a device, the repulsion induction, single-phase motor would quickly follow.
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Canadian made, this motor would stand as a marker of the earliest years of FHP, single phase, electric motor manufacturing in the country. It would be spurred on by the promise of new market opportunities for electro-mechanical home appliances,
– The oil soaked service tags, still attached to the motor after close to 80 years, tell a number of stories of their life and times:
1. Of constant oil spillage, typically running over the floor of a Canadian kitchen somewhere, the result of over oiling of motor bearings and leaking refrigeration compressor seals. The sealed motor compressor unit could not come too soon for many home owners.
2. Of the 20 some odd service centres across Canada, established to support the service of Wagner motors and Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, as early as 1928
3. Of the four-year replacement program, which Kelvinator maintained to promote the quality and reliability of the cabinet refrigerators they marketed to wary homeowners, as early as the 1920’s.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.173

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with historic innovative, first generation, vibration isolating motor mounts, a significant step in helping to reduce the noise level in the canadian kitchen, resulting from the introduction of motorized machinery, built in Canada for Kelvinator’s cabinet refrigerators introduced in the early 1930’s, Wagner, Circa 1932.



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL22B110K128, Type SAR
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– With original shop tag, T.H. Oliver, Refrigeration and Electric Service, marked “salvage …..”

Technical Significance:
– An artifact of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology for the Canadian home:
1. An early Canadian made FHP motor for an early Canadian refrigerator manufacturer, marking the optimism of the times, the capital investment made, in spite of a period of marked economic depression
2. A pioneering step in quieting the Canadian kitchen. The 4 point, rubber vibration insulating base would be an historic step of significant proportion in reducing noise in the kitchen, which followed the introduction of electro-motive powered machinery into the home. It would be the first step in an evolutionary sequence which would result, in the complete disappearance of the noisy, hazards, FHP motor, embedding it within the refrigeration system itself, the hermetic refrigeration motor compressor. [see examples classification code 4.01] [see also Note 1]
3. Part of the historic movement to unitize and package the mechanical refrigeration systems, to be marketed to the Canadian home owner – with all its piping, motor, compressor, valving and so forth. Manufactures understood that the popular acceptance of the technology by homeowners, would increasingly depend on making this mechanical wonder not only quieter, but more reliable and repairable, independent of local highly skilled tradesman. The packaged, factory ready refrigeration replacement system was seen as the answer, although not altogether successful in the earliest attempts of which this motor was part – See Reference 12.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.174

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with historic, innovative, first generation, vibration isolating, rubber motor mounts, a significant step in helping to reduce the noise level in the kitchen, resulting from the introduction of motorized machinery, Delco, Circa 1932. [see also ID# 299, 301, 302]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 5094
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts

Technical Significance:
– Stands as an exemplar of the dissemination of 4 point rubber insulating motor mounting technology in the early 1930’s adopted here by Delco, a division of Frigidaire – see also ID# 297
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.175

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with historic, innovative, two point cradle style, vibration isolating, rubber motor mounting, a significant step in helping to reduce the noise level in the kitchen, resulting from the introduction of motorized machinery, Delco, Circa 1932. [see also ID# 298, 301, 302]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 2144
Features:
– T. H. Oliver service tag in Mr. Oliver’s hand writing, “Mr Dryden, Danels and Dryden”, “25 cycle motor, defective winding”

Technical Significance:
– An example of the innovative engineering of the period working to quiet the cabinet refrigerator in the early 1930’s, adopted here by Frigidaire/Delco, – see also ID# 298
– The cradle mount provided Frigidaire with a dual function of motor quieting, as well as automatic belt tightening, afforded by a spring tension devices operating on the cradle to hold the belt in a taught position – see Reference 12
– The cradle motor mount by Frigidaire/Delco would be one more significant step in an evolutionary sequence which would result, in the complete disappearance of the noisy, hazards, FHP motor, embedding it within the refrigeration system itself, the hermetic refrigeration motor compressor. [see examples classification code 4.01]
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor, 1/4HP ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.176

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, 1/4 HP repulsion induction motor, equipped with rigid base for use on small commercial refrigeration applications, commonly found in Canada on Frigidaire condensing units in small food store and confectionery applications, throughout the pre W.W.II years and beyond to frequency standardization and the birth of the hermetic motor compressor, Delco, Circa 1936.



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor, 1/4HP ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 4394

Technical Significance:
– The physical size and crushing weight of this 1/4 HP motor of the period is a matter of note. The magnetic circuits required for 25 cycle applications, along with the all ferro-magnetic bodies, coupled with the relatively crude engineering designs of the period would lead to massive equipment by future standards. For examples of applications by Frigidaire see Reference No 12
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.177

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor for household cabinet refrigerator with vibration isolating motor mounts, and fusetron holder, two significant innovations, helping to reduce noise in the kitchen, and the risk of property and personal injury due to motor overheating, Delco, Circa 1934. [see also ID# 298, 302]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 4089
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– Fusetron holder now blanked off, early technology for motor overload protection

Technical Significance:
– Represented here are two major innovations in FHP motor technology for the Canadian home, associated with the early 1930’s. One for the reduction of noise [the four-point vibration, rubber mount], the second for reduction of risk of property and personal damage, due to an overheated motor [the fusetron]. Both were crude beginnings, soon to be replaced by more advanced forms of the technology.
– The fusetron [See item code 16.06-5], now removed and opening blanked off, tells important stories of technological evolution and advancement in personal and property protection. The fusetron was a slow blow fuse engineered to take the high starting current associated with inductive loads, but to open circuit in response to prolonged over load conditions. Lacking a recycling capability, it left the homeowner vulnerable. As a consequence many homeowners would find their refrigerator off, with resultant food spoilage. The inherent motor overload protector with an automatic recycling capability would still be another decade in the making. In the meantime many fusetrons were disabled by local refrigeration service technician, on the request of angry homeowners. [see ID#294 for example of “Klixon” inherent, automatic overload protection]
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.178

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor for household cabinet refrigerator with vibration isolating motor mounts, and fusetron holder, two significant innovations, helping to reduce noise in the kitchen, and the risk of property and personal injury due to motor overheating, Delco, Circa 1934. [see also ID# 298, 301]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 4093
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– Fusetron holder now blanked off, early technology for motor overload protection

Technical Significance:
– Represented here are two major innovations in FHP motor technology for the Canadian home, associated with the early 1930’s. One for the reduction of noise [the four-point vibration, rubber mount], the second for reduction of risk of property and personal damage, due to an overheated motor [the fusetron]. Both were crude beginnings, soon to be replaced by more advanced forms of the technology.
– The fusetron [See item code 16.06-5], now removed and opening blanked off, tells important stories of technological evolution and advancement in personal and property protection. The fusetron was a slow blow fuse engineered to take the high starting current associated with inductive loads, but to open circuit in response to prolonged over load conditions. Lacking a recycling capability, it left the homeowner vulnerable. As a consequence many homeowners would find their refrigerator off, with resultant food spoilage. The inherent motor overload protector with an automatic recycling capability would still be another decade in the making. In the meantime many fusetrons were disabled by local refrigeration service technician, on the request of angry homeowners. [see ID#294 for example of “Klixon” inherent, automatic overload protection, and ID# 303 for example of early protector by Wagner]
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.179

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with two historic innovations, a first generation, vibration isolating motor mount, and an inherent overload protector with automatic reset, helping to reduce both noise and the risk of personal and property injury in the Canadian kitchen, built in Canada for Kelvinator of Canada’s cabinet refrigerators introduced in the early 1930’s, Wagner, Circa 1936. [see also ID# 297]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL22B55, Type SAR
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset

Technical Significance:
– An artifact of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology for the Canadian home:
1. An early Canadian made FHP motor for an early Canadian refrigerator manufacturer, marking the optimism of the times, the capital investment made, in spite of a period of marked economic depression
2. A pioneering step in quieting the Canadian kitchen. The 4 point, rubber vibration insulating base would be an historic step of significant proportion in reducing noise in the kitchen, which followed the introduction of electro-motive powered machinery into the home. It would be the first step in an evolutionary sequence which would result, in the complete disappearance of the noisy, hazards, FHP motor, embedding it within the refrigeration system itself, the hermetic refrigeration motor compressor. [see examples classification code 4.01] [see also Note 1]
3. An early historic technology for reducing the risk of personal and property damage due to motor overload, the inherent automatic overload protector – See Note No. 1.
4. A combination compressor drive pulley with condenser fan, a technology widely used in the 1920’s and 30’s, here employed by Kelvinator on a Model J15 condensing unit for a home cabinet refrigerator. The pulley hub performs a dual function, acting also as the drive hub of a four blade, 9 inch propeller style condenser fan blade. Driven at 1440 RPM, the un-guarded blade would represent a significant hazard to the un-wary homeowner [see Reference No. 13, P. 66].
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Commutating, single phase, 25 cycle motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.180

A rare, early 20th century, commutating, single phase, 25 cycle, alternating current motor, likely of the repulsion induction type, but requires further study. An early marker of vastly changing times to come, following the first wave of home electrification. It would herald the coming invasion of the Canadian home by electro-motive technology, General Electric, date unknown. [see also ID# 293]



Item: Commutating, single phase, 25 cycle motor
Manufacturer: General Electric Co. Schenectady, NY.
Make: General Electric
Model: Type RSA

Technical Significance:
– A rare example of an early communtating, alternating current motor
– Requires further research to document technical significance.
– An early marker of vastly changing times to come, following the first wave of home electrification technology. A cultural icon, it would herald the coming invasion of the Canadian home by electro-motive technology, starting in central Canada in the 1920’s.


1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.181

A mid 20th century, classic 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor with inherent overload protection and automatic reset, part of a rare set of three 25 cycle motors escaping frequency standardization in 1948. They define new standards of practice, telling many stories of the explosion of small commercial refrigeration applications, which were enabled in the 1940’s through 50’s, changing the lives of Canadians forever, Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1947. [see also ID# 306, 307]



Item: 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL26BF1924N, Type RA
Features:
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset
– State of the art, light weight, non-ferro magnetic, alloy end bells

Technical Significance:
– An artifact [artifacts] of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive technology::
1. Marking the immense engineering achievement in the development and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology well before the mid 20th century, paradoxically on the eve of its gradual demise and replacement by capacitor start FHP technology [see code 16.02],
2. Representing a technological achievement that would define the standard of practice for small commercial refrigeration motor applications in the 1940’s through 50’s, prior to the popularization of capacitor start motor technology and the widespread adoption of embedded motor and compressor equipment for commercial applications, the hermetic refrigeration condensing unit,
3. The popularization of small commercial refrigeration applications, enabled by the Wagner Type KA, a growth market in Canada in the post W.W.II years through the 1960’s, including ice cream and frozen food cabinets and merchandizers, reach-in, unitary refrigerators, display cases and merchandizers for small food stores and confectioneries – enabling a veritable explosion of new food products and tastes for Canadians.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.182

A mid 20th century, classic 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor with inherent overload protection and automatic reset, part of a rare set of three 25 cycle motors escaping frequency standardization in 1948. They define new standards of practice, telling many stories of the explosion of small commercial refrigeration applications, which were enabled in the 1940’s through 50’s, changing the lives of Canadians forever, Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1947. [see also ID# 305, 307]



Item: 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL26BF1924N, Type RA
Features:
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset
– State of the art, light weight, non-ferro magnetic, alloy end bells

Technical Significance:
– An artifact [artifacts] of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive technology::
1. Marking the immense engineering achievement in the development and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology well before the mid 20th century, paradoxically on the eve of its gradual demise and replacement by capacitor start FHP technology [see code 16.02],
2. Representing a technological achievement that would define the standard of practice for small commercial refrigeration motor applications in the 1940’s through 50’s, prior to the popularization of capacitor start motor technology and the widespread adoption of embedded motor and compressor equipment for commercial applications, the hermetic refrigeration condensing unit,
3. The popularization of small commercial refrigeration applications, enabled by the Wagner Type KA, a growth market in Canada in the post W.W.II years through the 1960’s, including ice cream and frozen food cabinets and merchandizers, reach-in, unitary refrigerators, display cases and merchandizers for small food stores and confectioneries – enabling a veritable explosion of new food products and tastes for Canadians.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.183

A mid 20th century, classic 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor with inherent overload protection and automatic reset, part of a rare set of three 25 cycle motors escaping frequency standardization in 1948. They define new standards of practice, telling many stories of the explosion of small commercial refrigeration applications, which were enabled in the 1940’s through 50’s, changing the lives of Canadians forever, Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1947 [see also ID# 305, 306]



Item: 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL26BF1924N, Type RA
Features:
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset
– State of the art, light weight, non-ferro magnetic, alloy end bells

Technical Significance:
– An artifact [artifacts] of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive technology::
1. Marking the immense engineering achievement in the development and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology well before the mid 20th century, paradoxically on the eve of its gradual demise and replacement by capacitor start FHP technology [see code 16.02],
2. Representing a technological achievement that would define the standard of practice for small commercial refrigeration motor applications in the 1940’s through 50’s, prior to the popularization of capacitor start motor technology and the widespread adoption of embedded motor and compressor equipment for commercial applications, the hermetic refrigeration condensing unit,
3. The popularization of small commercial refrigeration applications, enabled by the Wagner Type KA, a growth market in Canada in the post W.W.II years through the 1960’s, including ice cream and frozen food cabinets and merchandizers, reach-in, unitary refrigerators, display cases and merchandizers for small food stores and confectioneries – enabling a veritable explosion of new food products and tastes for Canadians.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1/6 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.184

Classic mid 20th century, repulsion induction high starting torque, 1/6th HP, motor, with inherent automatic overload protection and vibration insulating torsion base, engineered for household cabinet refrigerators. Canadian made by an acknowledged market leader, it would be characteristic of the period of massive growth in the demand for such motors on following frequency standardization, Leland , Circa 1958. [See also ID# 294]



Item: 1/6 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric Canada Limited, Quelph Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: Form AKWIH, Type R

Technical Significance:
– Canadian made, this motor would characterize much of the Canadian experience through middle and later years of the century, in high torque, FHP motor development. It was a period which saw massive growth in the demand for such high starting torque motors, typically for use on refrigeration equipment, following W.W.II and frequency standardization, prior to the domination of the market by embedded motor compressor technology, the hermetic motor compressor.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– For the Canadian household and commercial refrigeration industry, pioneered by Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it would be a “just-in-time” technology, as well as an immensely enabling one – and what it enabled was considerable. Sir William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, had just set out the theoretical principles of the compression refrigeration, Carnot cycle [see Note #1]. But there existed no electro-motive devices with sufficient starting torque able to drive the compressor, making mechanical cooling practical for household and commercial uses – even for those who were otherwise able to enjoy the benefits of electrification. The push was on to develop such a device, the repulsion induction, single-phase motor would quickly follow.
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Well recognized for their performance, reliability and maitainability, the repulsion induction engineering designs employed by Leland Electric, Quelph Ontario, along with Wagner Electric Leaside would in many ways serve to characterizing best Canadian practice through middle and later years of the century.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


1 1/2 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.185

An early mid 20th century, classic 1 1/2 HP, 25 cycle, repulsion induction, single phase motor, employing FHP technology extended to cover motors in the integral HP range, making possible larger capacity refrigeration and air conditioning applications in areas not served by industrial three-phase power, Wagner, Circa 1942.



Item: 1 1/2 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: Name plate not included

Technical Significance:
– An artifact of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive and refrigeration technology, including:
1. Witnessing the engineering achievement and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology by the mid 20th century.
2. The successful adaptation of FHP, single phase, repulsion induction motor technology to integral HP applications, typically 1, 1 1/2, 2, 3, and 5 HP.
3. The installation of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment in areas not served by three-phase power. As a result low pressure refrigeration system applications grew rapidly in the pre W.W.II years and beyond, including small cold storage plants, large food stores, food processing applications and ice cream making, etc – See Reference 7, P. 7
4. The development of large diary farms, such as the one at Eaton Hall, made possible by mechanical refrigeration equipment for rapid milk cooling and storage, prior to shipment to the dairy for processing.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1 1/2 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.186

An early mid 20th century, classic 1 1/2 HP, 25 cycle, repulsion induction, single phase motor, escaping frequency standardization in 1948, employing FHP technology extended to cover motors in the integral HP range, making possible larger capacity refrigeration and air conditioning applications in areas not served by industrial three-phase power, Wagner, new and un-used, Circa 1947.



Item: 1 1/2 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: ZL44BF2346, Type RA
Features:
– Original manufacturers warranty card and instructions

Technical Significance:
– An artifact of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive and refrigeration technology, including:
1. Witnessing the engineering achievement and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology by the mid 20th century.
2. The successful adaptation of FHP, single phase, repulsion induction motor technology to integral HP applications, typically 1, 1 1/2, 2, 3, and 5 HP.
3. The installation of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment in areas not served by three-phase power. As a result low pressure refrigeration system applications grew rapidly in the pre W.W.II years and beyond, including small cold storage plants, large food stores, food processing applications and ice cream making, etc.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.156

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, an early design engineered for a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with fuse-style, overload protection, and designed for “V” belt drive applications, with pivoted motor mounting and automatic belt tension device, Delco, Circa 1945.



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: McKinnon Industries, St. Catherines Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M1035
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

With a toe crushing weight this 1/6th HP motor weighs in at 35 lbs., illustrating the greater weight of 25 cycle rotating equipment, over 60 cycle a factor in moving to a higher cycle, in order to help reduce equipment costs.

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, a rare example, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

1940’s style, high tech, capacitor-start motor, designed for top mounted electrolytic capacitor [not included]

Representative of a class of innovations introduced by Frigidaire, to provide automatic control of belt tension, using a simple, extension coil spring, with motor pivotally mounted on base plate. Maintaining proper belt tension, on refrigeration compressor drives was a perennial problem, due to close coupling of motor and compressor and large compressor fly wheel diameter.

Includes an early form of overload protector, the fusetron. Socket provided fusetron not included. Over load protection was an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate un-attended in the home – without the attention of skilled work force.

This type of overload operated much like a standard instant blow fuse, but calibrated to carry the high starting current characteristic of induction loads. Its disadvantage was that it was a non-recycling device, which means that the refrigeration system could be off without the homeowner knowing it. Later devices would be automatically recycling [see ID# 281].

Industrial Significance:
The production of FHP electric motors under the Delco name was a marker of the post W.W.II doom in Canada’s appliance industry. Delco was a brand name, held by General Motors, under which auto electric components were manufactured and marketed. McKinnon Industries was a feeder plant to GM, located in St Catherines

The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper and foil style capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.157

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, with light alloy end bells, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, Delco, Circa 1948. [see also 12.02-2B]



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: McKinnon Industries, St. Catherines, Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M1395
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

Oringinal T.H. Oliver shop tag, in Howard Oliver’s writing

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, this motor is a now rare example, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

A truly advanced piece of FHP induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with advanced engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Drive bearing extended, safety oilier; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; high tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset; light weight alloy end bells, taking advantage of new high tech metallurgy

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

This generation of FHP capacitor-start motor technology in many ways would stand as a consummate achievement, a kind of icon of “the art form”, made economically possible by the high market demand for FHP motors in the Post W.W.II period. It was a market, too, that was augmented by the prospects of frequency standardization, and the massive undertaking of replacing all 25 cycle motors with 60 cycle equipment.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount. Other mounting technologies were developed, but of less staying qualities, [See for example item 16.01-10 and 16.01-11].

The race was on, also, to produce an inherently safer motor, safe for the Canadian householder who was required to attend to routine maintenance tasks such as oiling. It was a period well in advance of sealed bearing technology with lifetime lubrication. Wick-oiled bronze bearings of the time required oiling quarterly. In belt driven refrigeration equipment this brought the householder in contact with a moving, compressor drive belt and whirring condenser fan blade. The design of the extended oilier tube would be a simple but significant safety feature, for householder and service man alike, allowing fingers to keep out of danger’s way.


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.158

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, with light weight alloy end bells, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, Delco, Circa 1948. [see also 12.02-2A]



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: McKinnon Industries, St. Catherines, Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M1395
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, this motor is a now rare example, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

A truly advanced piece of FHP induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with advanced engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Drive bearing extended, safety oilier; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; high tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset; Light weight alloy end bells, taking advantage of new hight tech metallurgy; The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely un-attended in the home.

This generation of FHP capacitor-start motor technology in many ways would stand as a consummate achievement, a kind of icon of “the art form”, made economically possible by the high market demand for FHP motors in the Post W.W.II period. It was a market, too, that was augmented by the prospects of frequency standardization, and the massive undertaking of replacing all 25 cycle motors with 60 cycle equipment.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It was the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technolgy that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount. Other mounting technologies were developed, but of less staying qualities, [See for example item 16.01-10 and 16.01-11].

The race was on, also, to produce an inherently safer motor, safe for the Canadian householder who was required to attend to routine maintenance tasks such as oiling. It was a period well in advance of sealed bearing technology with lifetime lubrication. Wick-oiled bronze bearings of the time required oiling quarterly. In belt driven refrigeration equipment this brought the householder in contact with a moving, compressor drive belt and whirring condenser fan blade. The design of the extended oilier tube would be a simple but significant safety feature, for householder and service man alike, allowing fingers to keep out of danger’s way.


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.159

A latter mid 20th century, high tech, 60cycle capacitor-start motor, a new lighter weight, compact generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by a market now standardized on 60cycle power; with electrolytic, chemical capacitor, inherent, heat overload protection, and automatic reset, light weight alloy end bells, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts, and adaptable base plate, Wagner, Circa 1955.



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Elecrtric, Div. of Sangamo Electric, Leasid
Make: Wagner
Model: UL14BF4723N; Ty

Technical Significance:
A truly advanced piece of FHP induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding , post W.W.II, 60 cycle, refrigeration equipment market, equipped with advanced engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Drive bearing extended, safety oilier; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; high tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset; Light weight alloy end bells, taking advantage of new high tech metallurgy

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely un-attended in the home.

This generation of FHP capacitor-start motor technology in many ways would stand as a consummate achievement, a kind of icon of “the art form”, made economically possible by the high market demand for FHP motors in the Post W.W.II period. It was now a North American market, largely standardization, on 60 cycle power.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It was the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The capacitor-start, refrigeration motor, and the advanced 20th century electrical technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would soon disappear withnthe advance of hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Industrial Significance:
With the early 1950’s came the opportunity for FHP electric motor manufactures to move too a new generation of designs and styling, as exemplified here. The FHP motor would be smaller and lighter weight technology, made possible by standardisation on 60 cycle power, the development of new more sophisticated engineering design methodologies, new materials and metallurgy, coupled with the economic incentive for development, fostered by a now larger electrically standardized, consumer market place, as well as by a rapidly expanding post W.W.II economy.

The expanding market opportunities of the early 1950’s would attract a new cohort of suppliers to the field. The number of manufactures, working with this basic technology shown here, would increase dramatically throughout the 1950’s, in addition to Delco and Wagner, among many others were: GE [see item 12.06-4], Tamper [see item 12.06-6], Century [see item 12.06-7] and Leland.

This motor stands as a marker of the rapidly expanding, mid 20th century market for FHP motor technology, serving to attract Canadian manufactures. Wagner, a well established US manufacture, like Delco, would find a Canadian manufacturing partner, here the Sangamo Company, Leaside Ontario

Part of the times was also the emergence of a new look and feel for the FHP motor, sleeker more eye appealing, as demonstrated here – less a piece of mere machinery than a mid 20th century, sophisticated piece of electrical apparatus. The new emphasis on styling and eye appeal, along with functionality and performance would reflect the influence of the industrial designer and a new body of industrial styling practice, a development, new, for the mid 20th century.

The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race was on, also, to produce an inherently safer motor, safe for the Canadian householder who was required to attend to routine maintenance tasks such as oiling. It was a period well in advance of sealed bearing technology with lifetime lubrication. Wick-oiled bronze bearings of the time required oiling quarterly. In belt driven refrigeration equipment this brought the householder in contact with a moving, compressor drive belt and whirring condenser fan blade. The design of the extended oilier tube would be a simple but significant safety feature, for householder and service man alike, allowing fingers to keep out of danger’s way.


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.160

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, all steel body, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, GE, Circa 1948. [see also 12.02-5, for similar 60 cycle design]



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: Canadian General Electric co., Toronto
Make: GE
Model: 11F111BX
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, this motor is a now rare example, representative of Canadian General Electric’s motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s. See ID #285, Item 16.02-5 for similar motor in 6o cycle. The latter with 1/4 HP rating, has a laminated stack length of 3inches and weights 30 lbs. compared with the former, with only a 1/6th HP rating, with a 4 inch laminated stack length and weighing 35 lbs.

Representative of FHP, capacitor start, induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; High tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset.

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount [see ID # 281]. GE followed Delco’s lead.

The configuration employed by GE lacks some of the advanced features used by Delco in the the same period, including light weight alloy end bells and extended drive end safety oiler [see ID # 281]


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.161

A mid 20th century, high tech, 60 cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, all steel body, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, GE, Circa 1955. [see also 12.02-4, for similar 25 cycle design]



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: Canadian General Electric co., Toronto
Make: GE
Model: 11F122B
Features:
Original cable connector illustrating trade practices of the time

Technical Significance:
Provides a graphic contrast between 25 and 60 cycle design practice by GE. See ID #284, Item 16.02-4 for similar motor in 25 cycle. The latter with 1/6th HP rating, has a laminated stack length of 4 inches and weights 35 lbs. compared with the former, with a 1/4 HP rating, with only a 3 inch laminated stack length and a weight of 30 lbs.

Representative of FHP, capacitor start, induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; High tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset.

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount [see ID # 281]. GE followed Delco’s lead.

The configuration employed by GE lacks some of the advanced features used by Delco in the the same period, including light weight alloy end bells and extended drive end safety oiler [see ID # 281]


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Tamper’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.162

A mid 20th century, high tech, 60 cycle capacitor-start motor, made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor and inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount, engineered by a small, start-up Canadian Company, it tells many stories of the exceptionalities of its life and times. Tamper, Circa 1955.



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Tamper’
Manufacturer: Tamper Electric, Montreal
Make: Tamper
Model: MPR-1451-15BK
Features:
Carries Ontario Hydro brass identification plate: HEPC Stock NO. P56-02-22-12-308-0002

Technical Significance:
An historical artifact of the post W.W.II years in the evolution of FHP motor technology in Canada, which although un-remarkable in matters of innovation and excellence, tells important stories of the exceptionalities of its times:

Of one of the largest and most sophisticated engineering mega-projects in Canadian history, frequency standardization in Ontario

The remarkable, although short lived period of expansion of the Canadian FHP motor manufacturing industry,

The manner in which the industry attracted new entrance, as small start-up companies, such as Tamper, as well as large manufactures with almost un-limited economic and engineering resources to draw on, such as GE [see ID#285 and 284]

Representative of FHP, capacitor start, induction motor technology, built for the post W.W.II rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; High tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset.

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

The motor exemplifies increasingly sophisticated developments in the field of electrolytic condensers, on which the capacitor start motor depended for its performance. Capacitors were getting smaller and more reliable, as well as appearing in more sophisticated, high tensile strength plastic enclosures sealed against moisture and with built-in, easy release, snap mounting brackets

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Century’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.163

A mid 20th century, high tech, 60 cycle capacitor-start motor, made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with ball bearings, totally enclosed, all steel body with slotted, rigid base for general utility applications in damp environments , Century, Circa 1958.



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Century’
Manufacturer: Century Electric St Louis Mo.
Make: Century
Model: CSH-65L-DHC3-3F
Features:
Original electrical connector illustrating trade practices of the period

Technical Significance:
The motor exemplifies increasingly sophisticated developments in the field of electrolytic condensers, on which the capacitor start motor depended for its performance. Capacitors were getting smaller and more reliable, through the 1950’s.

Exemplifies the design and engineering of general utility, totally enclosed, ball bearing applications engineered for damp locations.

Industrial Significance:
Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]


Single phase, AC induction motor ‘Apex’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.164

A very early 20th century, single phase, alternating current induction motor, to be found in commercial production, uses the resistance phase splitting principle to produce self-starting, equipped with bronze sleeve bearings with external oil reservoirs and spring loaded wick oilers with snap caps, drip proof steel housing and external electric wiring junction box, for use in Canadian homes of the period on cloths washing machines, Apex, date unknown.



Item: Single phase, AC induction motor ‘Apex’
Manufacturer: The Apex Electric Mfg Co., Cleveland and Toronto
Make: Apex
Model: Type WG
Features:
With original service tag in Howard Oliver’s hand writing “Troyers, Oakridges”, Troyers operated a farm on the Oak Ridges Moraine, an hour north of Toronto in the early years of the 20th century

Technical Significance:
An exemplar of a rare, early 25 cycle, split phase, induction motor production, for home applications, typically in an early electric washing machine

Industrial Significance:
An icon of the earliest years of commercial electric motor design and production for use in the homes, of those that could afford labour saving electric appliances, and living in homes that enjoyed the recognized benefits of home electrification


Split phase, induction motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.165

An early mid 20th century split phase, induction motor with sealed [now pierced] bearings, built for the then rapidly expanding home appliance industry in post WW2 Canada, used on an early cloths drier, it is equipped a twin belt, single piece pulley, part of a drive technology of the period developed by Kenmore and sold by the Robert Simpson Co. one of Canada’s historic department stores of note. GE, Circa 1955.



Item: Split phase, induction motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: Canadian General Electric Co. Toronto
Make: GE
Model: 11F281
Features:
Equipped with an early version of so called “sealed bearings”, which were promoted as life time bearing requiring no oiling

Equipped a twin belt, single piece pulley, part of a drive technology of the period developed by Kenmore

Technical Significance:
Defines the engineering design idiom for split-phase, motor technology employed throughout the middle years of the 20th century, moving through the mature years of this genre towards the end of the century, when a new genre would progressively emerge, smaller, lighter and more energy efficient.

Marked an early attempt by manufacturers to produce a motor with “lifetime” sealed bearings requiring no oiling in the normal course of a lifetime of use. In fact electro-motorized appliance were becoming increasingly compacted, enclosed in high style cabinets which made service all but impossible, except by the trained appliance repair worker. As a result the sealed cap on the bearing became as much a recognition of the fact that the motor would never get oiled, then a marker of any special provisions made for prolonged bearing life. Whether motors made for such applications were equipped with oil caps or not was irrelevant. It would be several decades before a truly lifetime sealed, sleeve bearing would appear on the consumer appliance market.

Representative of a period of increasing innovation in the development of electro- motor enabled, home appliance technology, it is equipped with a twin belt, single piece pulley, part of a cloths drier drive technology for the period developed by Kenmore and sold by the Robert Simpson Co., one of Canada’s historic department stores of note. GE, Circa 1955.

Industrial Significance:
A marker of split phase electric motor production in Canada and the US, in the latter years of the 20th century. Manufactured in the hundreds of thousands, by GE and other manufacturers, it stands as an icon of its times, marking the first great period mass production and marketing of electric, motorized household appliances, now made possible by wide spread home electrification.


Split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.166

An early mid 20th century split phase, induction motor with ball bearings, built for the then rapidly expanding home workshop equipment industry in post W.W.II Canada, equipped with hefty 1/2 horsepower rating and manual reset over load protection, it would be a marker of a significant cultural shift in male leisure time pursuits, Delco, Circa 1958.



Item: Split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Mckinnon Industries St Catherines Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M253901
Features:
Shop service tag in Howard Olivers hand writing “Checks OK Jan, 75

Technical Significance:
Exemplifies the evolution of inherent, automatic overload protection devices with manual reset, a prerequisite requirement for home hobby shop equipment:

Such applications typically rewired low starting torque [as on circular saws, but moderate horse power, current ratings, which could readily lead to burn out under high load conditions

Motors were built for an affordable market and were built inexpensively, with little tolerance for prolonged loading [over loading],

While automatic overload protection was considered an essential safety precaution, both for personal and property reasons, automatic reset would constitute a safety hazard, allowing the equipment to come back on out of control of operator,

Defines the engineering design idiom for split-phase, low starting torque, motor technology employed throughout the middle years of the 20th century in home appliances and hobby shop equipment, moving through the mature years of this genre towards the end of the century, when a new genre would progressively emerge, smaller, lighter and more energy efficient.

Industrial Significance:
The motor stands as a relatively rare marker of a breed of home hobby shop motor which would soon disappear. The stand alone, home hobby shop motor as a product of the post W.W.II market place, would be a relatively short lived phenomena. Early power tools of the period were, designed for the home work shop were of the conventional belt drive type, through the 1950’s to 80’s, but the trend was increasingly to much more integrated designs in which the motor was built into the equipment, itself, as an inherent design component.

A marker of split phase electric motor production in Canada and the US, in the latter years of the 20th century. Manufactured in the hundreds of thousands, by Delco, GE and other manufacturers, it stands as an icon of its times, marking the first great period mass production and marketing of electric, motorized household appliances and hobby shop equipment, now made possible by wide spread home electrification.


Affordable split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.167

An early mid 20th century, split phase, affordable, induction motor, for general utility applications, built for an open, FHP electric motor market for use on light duty power equipment around the house, shop and farm. With hefty 1/3 horsepower rating, it serves as a marker of the vast in roads made by electro motive technology on every nook and cranny of popular Canadian life style by the 1950’s, Delco, Circa 1956.



Item: Affordable split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Mckinnon Industries St Catherines Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M2480A1
Features:
Shop service tag in Howard Olivers hand writing “Checks OK Jan, 75; Original wiring harness illustrating electrical wiring practices of the period

Technical Significance:
A remarkable, yet un- remarkable piece of electro motive technology of its time. It would be remarkable in the state of motive technology it represented, a level of remarkable achievement in engineering, mass production, and marketing as popular consumer product, all achieved in less then two decades [see ID#280]. Yet built for a low cost market, it would be quite un-remarkable in its lack of function and feature characterizing special purpose motors of the same period, including high starting torque, automatic over heat protection.

It defines the engineering design idiom for split-phase, low starting torque, motor technology employed throughout the middle years of the 20th century, in general utility applications for home, shop and farm, moving through the mature years of this genre towards the end of the century, when a new genre would progressively emerge, smaller, lighter and more energy efficient.


1/40 HP shaded pole induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.187

An early mid 20th century, 25 cycle, 1/40 th HP shaded pole, single phase induction motor, equipped with rigid base engineered for use on Kelvinator commercial refrigeration fan-coil cooling unit applications, commonly found in walk-in coolers in food stores and small cold storage plants throughout the pre W.W.II years and beyond to frequency standardization. It would help to change the expectations of Canadians about what was at the their local food store Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1948.



Item: 1/40 HP shaded pole induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Corporation, Saint Louis Mo.
Make: Wagner
Model: BY115A1992
Features:
– With original shop tag, T. H. Oliver Engineering Sales and Service, “New 25 cycle…..Kelv. coil……”

Technical Significance:
– Exemplifying the relative weight and bulk expected of 25 cycle motor technology of the times, compared with 60 cycle motors which followed frequency standardisation in Canada in the latter 1940’s – see for example ID#312
– A new and unused 25 cycle motor left behind at the time of frequency standardisation, it tells the story of one of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario – a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A one-of-a-kind, just-in-time technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


1/60 HP, 60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.188

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, 1/36 th HP, Canadian made, shaded pole, single phase induction motor, engineered for use on small commercial refrigeration fan-coil cooling unit applications, commonly found in walk-in coolers in food stores throughout the early post W.W.II years and beyond. It would help to change the expectations of Canadians about what was at the their local food store, Robins Myers, Circa 1952.



Item: 1/60 HP, 60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor
Manufacturer: Robins Myers of Canada Limited, Brantford
Make: Robins Myers
Model: Type T1-AEZ1, Frame C32

Technical Significance:
– Small, light weight and efficient, it is an example of the elegant and sophisticated, shaded pole motor technology that quickly emerged in Canada in the post W.W.II years, as a response to the market opportunities following frequency standardization and the rapid growth of the commercial refrigeration industry.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which encouraged US electric motor manufactures, like Robins Myers, to establish facilities in Canada, as well as Canadian manufactures to enter the field – see ID#313.
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics make the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A one-of-a-kind, just-in-time technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.189

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, Canadian made, shaded pole induction motor, engineered for use on small commercial refrigeration fan-coil cooling unit applications, commonly found on walk-in coolers in food stores throughout the early post W.W.II years and beyond. It would help to change the expectations of Canadians about what their local merchant had in store for them, Electrohome, Circa 1956.



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor
Manufacturer: Electrohome, Kitchener, Ont
Make: Electrohome
Model: 2828-53-12-03

Technical Significance:
– Small, light weight and efficient, it is an example of the elegant and sophisticated, shaded pole motor technology that quickly emerged in Canada in the post W.W.II years, as a response to the market opportunities following frequency standardization and the rapid growth of the commercial refrigeration industry.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which encouraged electric appliance and equipment manufacturers to enter the small motor’s – see also ID#312.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would rigger a movement in the commercial refrigeration industry solidly towards more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, in preference to natural or gravity systems [i.e., fan coil units replaced much static fin coils].


60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.190

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, Canadian made, shaded pole, induction motor, with custom fan hub, engineered for use on small commercial refrigeration fan-coil cooling unit applications, commonly found in food display cases throughout the 1950’s through 70’s, helping to change the face of Canadian food merchandising in Canada, with greater range of fresh vegetables and meat products, often held in refrigerated self-service display cases, Electrohome, Circa 1965. [see also ID#315 to 317]



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor
Manufacturer: Electrohome, Kitchener, Ont
Make: Electrohome
Model: 2828-53-12-03

Technical Significance:
– With custom fan hub, the motor would mark the increasing customization of shaded pole induction motor technology, matching it physically, as well as electrically and mechanically to the unique needs of equipment manufactures [See ID# 315 to 317]
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would trigger a movement in the commercial refrigeration industry solidly towards more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, in preference to natural or gravity systems [i.e., fan coil units replaced much static fin coils].
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which encouraged electric appliance and equipment manufacturers to enter the small motor’s – see also ID#312.
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics make it ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A one-of-a-kind, just-in-time technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.191

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, Canadian made, shaded pole, induction motor, with custom three point, vibration isolating, vertical mount, engineered for fan coil applications on refrigerated self-service display cases, used throughout the 1960’s and beyond, helping to change the face of Canadian food merchandising in Canada, with greater range of fresh vegetables and meat products as well as frozen foods, all now available self-service, Electrohome, Circa 1963. [one of a matched set of 3, new and unused, see also ID#316 and 317]



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole induction motor
Manufacturer: Electrohome, Kitchener, Ont
Make: Electrohome
Model: 18-53-05-07

Technical Significance:
– Representative of a new generation of sleek, compact, more electrically efficient and customized shaded pole motor technology for the 1960’s
– Designed for vertical mounting these motors, would typically be found in multiples of two, three, four or more arranged along the length of the refrigerated display case.
– New for the times, as a protection against personal and property damage due to over heating, these motors are equipped with “lock rotor protection”, ensuring that motor exciting current would not exceed safe levels even if the motor stalled.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would help move the Canadian commercial refrigeration industry solidly into a new generation of more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, making possible a wide range of new refrigeration appliances and fresh and frozen food merchandizers.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– One of a matched set of three motors, all of the same serial number, suggests that they came from the same production run in Electrohome’s Kitchener Ontario plant in 1963.
– The set of three identical motors represents the mode of application in which multiple motors where used together in a single refrigerated self service case
– All new, unused and pristine the set provides an authentic reflection of the engineering, production, materials and manufacturing processes of the period
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which among other things would encourage electric appliance and equipment manufacturers, like Electrohome, to enter the small motor’s [see also ID#312].
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.192

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, Canadian made, shaded pole, induction motor, with custom three point, vibration isolating, vertical mount, engineered for fan coil applications on refrigerated self-service display cases, used throughout the 1960’s and beyond, helping to change the face of Canadian food merchandising in Canada, with greater range of fresh vegetables and meat products as well as frozen foods, all now available self-service, Electrohome, Circa 1963. [two of a matched set of 3, all new and unused, see also ID#315 and 317]



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor
Manufacturer: Electrohome, Kitchener, Ont
Make: Electrohome
Model: 18-53-05-07

Technical Significance:
– Representative of a new generation of sleek, compact, more electrically efficient and customized shaded pole motor technology for the 1960’s
– Designed for vertical mounting these motors, would typically be found in multiples of two, three, four or more arranged along the length of the refrigerated display case.
– New for the times, as a protection against personal and property damage due to over heating, these motors are equipped with “lock rotor protection”, ensuring that motor exciting current would not exceed safe levels even if the motor stalled.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would help move the Canadian commercial refrigeration industry solidly into a new generation of more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, making possible a wide range of new refrigeration appliances and fresh and frozen food merchandizers.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– One of a matched set of three motors, all of the same serial number, suggests that they came from the same production run in Electrohome’s Kitchener Ontario plant in 1963.
– The set of three identical motors represents the mode of application in which multiple motors where used together in a single refrigerated self service case
– All new, unused and pristine the set provides an authentic reflection of the engineering, production, materials and manufacturing processes of the period
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which among other things would encourage electric appliance and equipment manufacturers, like Electrohome, to enter the small motor’s [see also ID#312].
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.193

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, Canadian made, shaded pole, induction motor, with custom three point, vibration isolating, vertical mount, engineered for fan coil applications on refrigerated self-service display cases, used throughout the 1960’s and beyond, helping to change the face of Canadian food merchandising in Canada, with greater range of fresh vegetables and meat products as well as frozen foods, all now available self-service, Electrohome, Circa 1963. [two of a matched set of 3, all new and unused, see also ID#315 and 316]



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor
Manufacturer: Electrohome, Kitchener, Ont
Make: Electrohome
Model: 18-53-05-07

Technical Significance:
– Representative of a new generation of sleek, compact, more electrically efficient and customized shaded pole motor technology for the 1960’s
– Designed for vertical mounting these motors, would typically be found in multiples of two, three, four or more arranged along the length of the refrigerated display case.
– New for the times, as a protection against personal and property damage due to over heating, these motors are equipped with “lock rotor protection”, ensuring that motor exciting current would not exceed safe levels even if the motor stalled.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would help move the Canadian commercial refrigeration industry solidly into a new generation of more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, making possible a wide range of new refrigeration appliances and fresh and frozen food merchandizers.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– One of a matched set of three motors, all of the same serial number, suggests that they came from the same production run in Electrohome’s Kitchener Ontario plant in 1963.
– The set of three identical motors represents the mode of application in which multiple motors where used together in a single refrigerated self service case
– All new, unused and pristine the set provides an authentic reflection of the engineering, production, materials and manufacturing processes of the period
– A marker of the “golden”, post W.W.II years of refrigeration manufacturing in Canada, which among other things would encourage electric appliance and equipment manufacturers, like Electrohome, to enter the small motor’s [see also ID#312].
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.


60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.194

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor, suspended on three point rubber vibration isolating mount, from two legged pedestal, with 10 inch 4 blade fan, engineered for condenser fan coil applications on hermetic refrigeration units. Used throughout the 1960’s and beyond, it helped to make possible a new generation of quieter more efficient commercial refrigeration equipment and appliances, Delco Circa 1964.



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products, General Motors Corp, Dayton
Make: Delco
Model: A7839, Type SST, Universal No. 506035

Technical Significance:
– Representative of a new generation of sleek, compact, more electrically efficient, and customized shaded pole motor technology, for the mid 1960’s.
– With a totally sealed body and bearings, it was a marker of the now rapidly emerging body of engineering and manufacturing practice, moving to a “parts replacement” culture, from the traditional “parts repair” mode of operation.
– The small shaded pole condenser fan motor was a key development in the evolution of the hermetically sealed, commercial refrigeration condensing unit. The refrigeration compressor and drive motor had all of a sudden disappeared, what emerged in its place was a new configuration, with no drive belts, pulleys or drive motor to be seen. The new “hermetically sealed” configuration would be more efficient, quieter, reliable and maintainable. The drive motor was now “unobtrusive” [the motor had disappeared], and “inherent” [part of the compressor], as well as having become “embedded” [in a single envelope} in matters of engineering concept and design. But this new, innovative design concept left behind no compressor motor drive hub on which to mount a fan blade for condenser cooling. Shaded pole motor technology would arrive
– “just-in-time” to take its place and enable a new future for commercial refrigerated appliances and equipment.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would help move the Canadian commercial refrigeration industry solidly into a new generation of more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, making possible a wide range of new refrigeration appliances and fresh and frozen food merchandizers.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.
– A highly innovative shaded pole motor application by Delco, this configuration would become a classic of the commercial refrigeration industry, found on many refrigeration manufacture’s condensing units, here marked specifically for Universal Cooler Co.


60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.195

A heavy duty, mid 20th century, 60 cycle, 1/20 HP, shaded pole, induction fan motor, custom designed for GE window air conditioner, evaporator and condenser application. Equipped with rubber, torsion 2 point mounting and inherent, automatic overload protection, it helped to make possible a new generation of affordable, larger capacity, quieter more efficient “through-the-wall” [window] air conditioners which changed for ever the expectations of Canadians about what to do about the summer’s heat, GE, Circa 1964. [1 of a set of 3, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, see also ID#320 and 321]



Item: 60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: General Electric, Fort Wayne Ind.
Make: GE
Model: 5KSP21DG1834AS

Technical Significance:
– 1 of a set of 3, shaded pole, custom designed motors, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, in order to fit the specialized requirements of different air conditioner manufacturers, models, and model years, for example in matters of horsepower, starting torque, rotation, inherent automatic thermal protection, etc [see also ID#320 and 321].
– Equipped with torsion, rubber vibration mountings, and automatic, recycling, inherent overload protection, It would be representative of an 1960’s, generation of heavy, fan-duty, customized shaded pole motor technology, for the now rapidly maturing through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market.
– With a totally sealed body and bearings, it was a marker of the now rapidly emerging body of engineering and manufacturing practice, moving to a “parts replacement” culture, from the traditional “parts repair” mode of operation.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation, air conditioning and ventilation where imperatives.
– By the mid 1960’s the through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market was rapidly maturing, providing the Canadian public an affordable solution to spikes in summer heat that her-to-for could not have been imagined. The innovative, unitary engineering concept with cooling and heat rejection equipment all in the same cabinet made it readily installed by the do-it-yourself’s, without special tools and equipment. Air conditioners had become the newest home appliance.


60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.196

A heavy duty, mid 20th century, 60 cycle, 1/20 HP, shaded pole, induction fan motor, custom designed for GE window air conditioner, evaporator and condenser application. Equipped with rubber, torsion 2 point vibration isolating mounting, it helped to make possible a new generation of affordable, larger capacity, quieter more efficient “through-the-wall” [window] air conditioners which changed for ever the expectations of Canadians about what to do about the summer’s heat, GE, Circa 1964. [2 of a set of 3, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, see also ID#319 and 321]



Item: 60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: General Electric, Fort Wayne Ind.
Make: GE
Model: 5KSP21DG941B

Technical Significance:
– 1 of a set of 3, shaded pole, custom designed motors, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, in order to fit the specialized requirements of different air conditioner manufacturers, models, and model years, for example in matters of horsepower, starting torque, rotation, inherent automatic thermal protection, etc [see also ID#319 and 321].
– Equipped with torsion, rubber vibration mountings, and automatic, recycling, inherent overload protection, It would be representative of an 1960’s, generation of heavy, fan-duty, customized shaded pole motor technology, for the now rapidly maturing through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market.
– With a totally sealed body and bearings, it was a marker of the now rapidly emerging body of engineering and manufacturing practice, moving to a “parts replacement” culture, from the traditional “parts repair” mode of operation.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation, air conditioning and ventilation where imperatives.
– By the mid 1960’s the through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market was rapidly maturing, providing the Canadian public an affordable solution to spikes in summer heat that her-to-for could not have been imagined. The innovative, unitary engineering concept with cooling and heat rejection equipment all in the same cabinet made it readily installed by the do-it-yourself’s, without special tools and equipment. Air conditioners had become the newest home appliance.


“embedded” shaded pole induction motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.198

An early “embedded” application of shaded pole induction motor technology, as an “inherent” component of a small, direct drive, water circulating pump assembly. With plastic pump housing and impeller blade, and its own 8 blade cooling fan, it would be a marker of a new, trend setting, much more integrated approach to the engineering of electro-motive devices for the 1950 and beyond, in which the motor itself has become “unobtrusive” part of a larger whole, Gorman-Rupp, circa 1955.



Item: “embedded” shaded pole induction motor
Manufacturer: Gorman-Rupp Industries, Bellville, Ohio
Make: Gorman-Rupp

Technical Significance:
– An example of an early, trend setting, “embedded” application of shaded pole induction motor technology, as an “inherent” component of a small, direct drive, water circulating pump assembly, marking the movement to more integrated and holistic approach to the engineering of electro-motive devices for the 1950 and beyond, in which the motor itself has become “unobtrusive” part of a larger whole.
– A rare view of an early embedded shaded pole motor application, engineered as an inherent component of a small direct drive, water circulating pump assembly. Seen as cost saving measure, such assemblies, also made more economical on 60 cycle, would become increasingly popular, following frequency standardization in the late 1940’s in Canada on household appliances – for example on automatic dish washers and laundry equipment.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan and pump applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air and water circulation, air conditioning and ventilation where imperatives.


Electric motor sleeve bearings

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.202

Early mid 20th century, bronze alloy, FHP electric motor sleeve bearings, split bearing design, with spiral oil grooves, adapted for automatic wick oiling. A “state-of-the-art”, self oiling bearing developed for electric motors for use in Canadian homes, where long life and reliable performance would be expected, without the constant attention of an “operating engineer” with oil can in hand [set of two], manufacturer unknown, Circa 1948.


Short circuiting ring

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.203

A rare view of an early 1930’s, short circuiting ring [necklace], constructed of copper, stamped and formed, segments, hand strung on fine wire, approximately 40 to the inch, part of the centrifugally operated, automatic short circuiting mechanism, used to convert a high torque, repulsion start, induction run, single phase motors from repulsion start to induction run operation, representative of the complex, innovative engineering, manufacturing and craftsmanship represented in this early technology, [See ID# 296, item 16.01-5], Wagner, Circa 1932].


Electric brush lifter carton

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.204

A Canadian made, mid 20th century, classic Leland Electric brush lifter, carton only, for repulsion induction, single phase motor. A stencilled carton with graphics in blue and yellow, it would be representative of the newly emerging field of industrial graphic design of the times. As well as it would be a marker of the ever increasing importance of the “technology after-market”, supplying Canadian consumers of the new popular technologies invading their homes [post WWII electric and electronic appliances] with the replacement parts needed to help ensure satisfaction, Leland, Circa 1948. [See ID# 308, item 16.01-14]


Rubber equipment mountings

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.205

A collection of rubber mountings for vibration isolating, and quieting of electro-motive equipment. The 13 varieties included are representative of the proliferation and diversity of innovative solutions devised by the middle of the 20th century. Vibration and sound control quickly emerged as a critical engineering requirement for the wide spread acceptance of electro-motive technology by Canadian homes and places of business, manufacturers unknown, Circa 1948.


‘Slow blow’ fuse

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.206

The “fusetat’ [later fusetron] was an early step in the evolution of personal and property damage protection resulting from electric motor overload , on the way to fully automatic, inherent, overload protection for FHP motors used in Canadian homes and commercial establishments. Conceived as a special kind of “slow-blow”, throw-away fuse, it lacked the ability to re-close. As a consequence many owners would find their refrigerator off, with resultant food spoilage. The fully automatic, re-closing overload protector [See ID#331] would still be close to a decade away, before it saw wide spread application, Buss Fusetat, 1934.


Overload protector

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.207

Thermal disk, snap action, automatic re-closing, overload protector mounted on original motor manufacturer’s mounting plate, A key step in the evolution of personal and property damage protection resulting from FHP electric motor overload [over heating]. Overload, safety devices that re-closed automatically after cooling, built into the compressor motor itself, would be the final step in the development of refrigeration equipment that would operate un-attended, fully protected, while cycling automatically to maintain a set refrigerated temperature.


Miniature motor armature

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.208

Miniature armature for universal, AC – DC electric motor, equipped with wound rotor, commutator, inherent cooling fan and splined shaft, engineered for custom application, possibly and electric fan, electric drill, vacuum cleaner, or food processor. An engineering and manufacturing wonder of the early to mid 20th century, such technology would help to trigger a “sea change” in Canadian consumer expectations of the good things that the electric appliance industry had in store, manufacturer unknown, circa 1948.


Electric motor test block

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.209

An improvised, FHP, electric motor test block, locally made using standard home electrification hardware components found in the Canadian home of the 1920s to 40’s. Reflecting the ingenuity of HVACR mechanics of the times, the device when connected in series with a potentially faulty motor, limited the current flow, thus protecting the motor and the operator, locally made, circa 1946.


Refrigerator test analyser

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.210

A portable, household refrigerator, electrical test analyser in handsome wooden carrying case, locally made using an assembly of old electrical and radio test gear. Reflecting the ingenuity of an early HVACR mechanic, the device provided for fused fault protection, current limiting load protection and continuity testing, as well as providing for the measurement of applied voltage and load current, locally made, circa 1946.


Run time recorder

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.211

An improvised, cumulative running time operations recorder, making use of an electric, bedroom alarm clock, wiring harness, spring clips and rubber insulating sleeves. Reflecting the ingenuity of HVACR mechanics of the times the device, when connected in parallel with an automatic heating or refrigeration system, effectively measured the total time of operation within a 24 hour period, locally made, circa 1946.


Analogue ammeter

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.212

A portable, induction type, clamp-on, analogue ammeter and voltmeter in hansom, now well used, black leather case with spring clip. Reflecting a new generation of HVACR test equipment emerging in the 1950’s, it measured current on 6 scales from 6 to 300 amps, and voltage on three scales from 150 to 600 volts, Amprobe, circa 1955.


Rotary tachometer

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.213

A portable, hand-held, rotary, tachometer, calibrated from 400 to 4,000 RPM, equipped with rubber friction drive. Among other things the device would be a marker of the increasingly sophisticated test and measurement equipment used by HVACR technicians involved in system applications and equipment re-engineering, as the mid 20th century emerged, Corbin Screw Corp. New Britain, Conn.. Circa 1945.


Set of inside diameter gauges

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.214

Set of 4 telescoping inside gauges, range ? inch to 2 1/8 inches, varying in thousands of an inch. Each is beautifully crafted in machine steel with spring loaded plunger, knurled handle and knurled locking screw embedded in the handle, an example of the precision tools available to Canadian machinists and HVACR mechanics by the 1940’s – on which they would depend. Used, among other things, to measure the inside diameter of electric motor bearings, compressor cylinder displacement etc. In hansom, slide-top, wooden box, Model 229, Starrett, Circa 1942.


Two inch Micrometer calliper

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.215

Two inch Micrometer calliper for measuring by thousandths from one inch to two inches, with ratchet stop, knurled handle, and fraction/decimal equivalent chart engraved on yoke in 32nds and 64ths. An example of the precision tools available to Canadian machinists and HVACR mechanics by the 1940’s – on which they would be dependent. Used, among other things, to measure the diameter of electric motor bearings, compressor pistons, etc. Beranta, Circa 1942.


Bearing scraper

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.216

An 11 inch, narrow, bearing scraper, with 3 inch blade, designed for “modern bearings”, with black, turned, wooden handle and steel furl, an early 20th century tool for hand fitting journal bearings, “VLC4BK” CLEV’D.O., Circa 1930.


4 blade small bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.217

Set of 4 blade, small bearing reamers in sizes from ? to 7/16 inches, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of small, FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1940’s through 1960’s. Set of 7 enclosed in original blue, heavy card, custom case, with Beard logo and name plate stencilled in gold and blue, Circa 1945.


6 blade bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.218

Set of 6 blade, bearing reamers in sizes from 7/16 to 1 1/8 inches, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1930’s through 1960’s. Set of 9 enclosed in original heavy oak, clear varnished, custom case with manufacturer’s label, insignia and specifications in gold and black, Circa 1939.


Long 6 blade bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.219

Set of 6 blade, extra long, alignment bearing reamers, six in Snap-On, Blue Point case, sizes from ? to 1 1/16; with four supplementary reamers to extend range from 9/16 to 15/16, all with tapered self-alignment pilots, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1950’s through 1960’s, Variously made by Snap-On, Joborn and Webco, Circa 1958.


Set of inside diameter gauges

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.214

Set of 4 telescoping inside gauges, range ? inch to 2 1/8 inches, varying in thousands of an inch. Each is beautifully crafted in machine steel with spring loaded plunger, knurled handle and knurled locking screw embedded in the handle, an example of the precision tools available to Canadian machinists and HVACR mechanics by the 1940’s – on which they would depend. Used, among other things, to measure the inside diameter of electric motor bearings, compressor cylinder displacement etc. In hansom, slide-top, wooden box, Model 229, Starrett, Circa 1942.


Two inch Micrometer calliper

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.215

Two inch Micrometer calliper for measuring by thousandths from one inch to two inches, with ratchet stop, knurled handle, and fraction/decimal equivalent chart engraved on yoke in 32nds and 64ths. An example of the precision tools available to Canadian machinists and HVACR mechanics by the 1940’s – on which they would be dependent. Used, among other things, to measure the diameter of electric motor bearings, compressor pistons, etc. Beranta, Circa 1942.


Bearing scraper

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.216

An 11 inch, narrow, bearing scraper, with 3 inch blade, designed for “modern bearings”, with black, turned, wooden handle and steel furl, an early 20th century tool for hand fitting journal bearings, “VLC4BK” CLEV’D.O., Circa 1930.


4 blade small bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.217

Set of 4 blade, small bearing reamers in sizes from ? to 7/16 inches, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of small, FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1940’s through 1960’s. Set of 7 enclosed in original blue, heavy card, custom case, with Beard logo and name plate stencilled in gold and blue, Circa 1945.


6 blade bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.218

Set of 6 blade, bearing reamers in sizes from 7/16 to 1 1/8 inches, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1930’s through 1960’s. Set of 9 enclosed in original heavy oak, clear varnished, custom case with manufacturer’s label, insignia and specifications in gold and black, Circa 1939.


Long 6 blade bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.219

Set of 6 blade, extra long, alignment bearing reamers, six in Snap-On, Blue Point case, sizes from ? to 1 1/16; with four supplementary reamers to extend range from 9/16 to 15/16, all with tapered self-alignment pilots, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1950’s through 1960’s, Variously made by Snap-On, Joborn and Webco, Circa 1958


Set of inside diameter gauges

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.214

Set of 4 telescoping inside gauges, range ? inch to 2 1/8 inches, varying in thousands of an inch. Each is beautifully crafted in machine steel with spring loaded plunger, knurled handle and knurled locking screw embedded in the handle, an example of the precision tools available to Canadian machinists and HVACR mechanics by the 1940’s – on which they would depend. Used, among other things, to measure the inside diameter of electric motor bearings, compressor cylinder displacement etc. In hansom, slide-top, wooden box, Model 229, Starrett, Circa 1942.


Two inch Micrometer calliper

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.215

Two inch Micrometer calliper for measuring by thousandths from one inch to two inches, with ratchet stop, knurled handle, and fraction/decimal equivalent chart engraved on yoke in 32nds and 64ths. An example of the precision tools available to Canadian machinists and HVACR mechanics by the 1940’s – on which they would be dependent. Used, among other things, to measure the diameter of electric motor bearings, compressor pistons, etc. Beranta, Circa 1942.


Bearing scraper

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.216

An 11 inch, narrow, bearing scraper, with 3 inch blade, designed for “modern bearings”, with black, turned, wooden handle and steel furl, an early 20th century tool for hand fitting journal bearings, “VLC4BK” CLEV’D.O., Circa 1930.


4 blade small bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.217

Set of 4 blade, small bearing reamers in sizes from ? to 7/16 inches, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of small, FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1940’s through 1960’s. Set of 7 enclosed in original blue, heavy card, custom case, with Beard logo and name plate stencilled in gold and blue, Circa 1945.


6 blade bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.218

Set of 6 blade, bearing reamers in sizes from 7/16 to 1 1/8 inches, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1930’s through 1960’s. Set of 9 enclosed in original heavy oak, clear varnished, custom case with manufacturer’s label, insignia and specifications in gold and black, Circa 1939.


Long 6 blade bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.219

Set of 6 blade, extra long, alignment bearing reamers, six in Snap-On, Blue Point case, sizes from ? to 1 1/16; with four supplementary reamers to extend range from 9/16 to 15/16, all with tapered self-alignment pilots, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1950’s through 1960’s, Variously made by Snap-On, Joborn and Webco, Circa 1958.