Coal fired, hot water heater

Solid Fuel (Coal and Wood) Burning Equipment – Water Heating

Accession # HHCC.2003.081
Exhibit: Heating

A coal fired, hot water heater from the 1940’s, a period in which hydro generation capacity in Ontario was under siege, overloaded as result of rapid post WWII development and the lack of investment during war years in electrical infrastructure. It was a period in which the consumers who could provided themselves with back-up systems. Such as this historic artifact of the times, purchased but never used, Taylor Forbes, Windsor Ont. 1946.



Item: Coal fired, hot water heater
Manufacturer: Taylor Forbes, Canada ltd., Windsor Ontario
Make: Taylor Forbes
Model: Windsor 40
Features: Separate base plate

Damper control motor

Solid Fuel (Coal and Wood) Burning Equipment – Fuel flow, Ignition and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.101
Exhibit: Heating

With Honeywell’s, battery assisted, spring operated, wind-up damper control motor, for coal and wood-fired furnaces, automatic combustion and temperature control would arrive for some Canadians by the early 1920’s. For the first time the homeowner could position the furnace dampers, regulating combustion rate without leaving the living room…well more or less; Honeywell Heating Specialties Co., Circa 1920.



Item: Damper control motor
Manufacturer: Honeywell Heating Specialties Co., Wabash Ind.
Make: Honeywell

Features:
– Handsome metal cabinet in gloss black
– Handsome brass name plate with logo
– Original switching
– Original chain set, with pulleys and hardware
– Original baseboard mounting brackets

Technical Significance:
– There can be little doubt that this device represents the first small steps in the automation of household heating systems in Canada, an event that would change life in Canada forever.
– With key wound, spring-operated, damper actuator motor for positioning damper control chains, the device illustrates dramatically the early first steps in the automation of the household heating system. Starting with the known and the familiar, fire dampers and control chains, the inventor moved to new, novel and innovative means for mechanical automation – without the touch of human hand.
– The battery assisted operation of the motor, through the use of an electric solenoid to operate a brake arm for starting and stopping the motor, illustrates, too, the early application of battery operated electrical mechanisms, as essentially auxiliary devices to assist what was essentially a mechanical system.

Industrial Significance:
– It constitutes an early milestone in the development of automatic heating for homes using solid fuels, wood and coal, prior to the widespread availability of reliable supplies of oil, gas and hydro electrification.


Home made ash sifter

Solid Fuel (Coal and Wood) Burning Equipment – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.155
Exhibit: Heating

A late 19th century, home made, manually operated ash sifter, roughly hewn, nailed together of old boards found around the home, with broom stick, shaker handle and 1/8 inch galvanized screening, etched and eroded through the effects of prolonged use, in sifting ash so as to reuse the unburned, and partially burned pieces of coal, a simple made at home energy conservation technology, Circa 1898.



Item: Home made ash sifter
Make: Home made

Technical Significance:
The hand operated ash sifter is an example of a “small”, “appropriate” Canadian technology of its time, responding to the social, cultural and economic needs and constraints of the period.

The ash sifter was an early energy conservation device, used to conserve a scarce costly energy resource, coal

Energy conservation would be a re-occurring theme in the residential home heating sector, one which would be echoed into and throughout the 20th century and on into the 21st. A news letter to Fess Oil Burner of Canada dealers in 1947, responded to the energy shortage of that period, advising the home owner and service technician of their shared responsibilities for energy conservation, this time in the conservation of home heating fuel oil [see note #2]

A simple handcrafted tool, a made at home technology, the hand operated ash sifter was invented as a response to needs at the turn of the 20st century, would be strangely anticipatory of the needs 100 years later at the turn of the 21st century. The issue then as now is one of energy conservation, a reoccurring theme, marking the “scarcity”, “availability”, as well as “market price” [affordability].

The hand operated manual ash sifter would find its place in the large homes at the turn of the 20th century many of which were heated, at least in part, by coal fired fireplaces, without the luxury of built in shaking mechanisms

The shaking of ashes manually by a hand sifter technology would be a fact of life for those with coal burning fireplaces. For those with central coal heating furnaces with built in shaker grates [operated by turning of a crank], it would be a backup to retain the un-spent coal that escaped the mechanised sifting process.

Industrial Significance:
Crudely fabricated of old pieces of wood, found around the home, clearly the largely unskilled work of a homeowner or household handyman, it is rare marker of the days well before technology’s invasion of the Canadian home, with endless line of labor saving tools, appliances and products for comfort, safety, health and convenience.

The finely made 1/8th inch galvinized sifter screen appears to be a bit of an anomaly, standing in sharp contrast to the other found-at-home materials used. The screening appears not to have been a later addition, however, given the integrated construction detail. All of which says something about the relatively advanced processes for the production of galvanized coated screen of the period – anachronistic


Vaporizing oil burner ‘Coleman’

Vaporizing Oil Burning Equipment and Systems – Burners

Accession # HHCC.2006.154
Exhibit: Heating

A non motorized, vaporizing oil burner for the Canadian home, employing natural gravity feed, with fuel reservoir and brass float actuated fuel oil metering device, brass valving and tubing, engineered by a widely acknowledged pioneer of oil heating equipment in Canada, Coleman Lamp and Stove Co. Ltd. Toronto, Circa 1922.



Item: Vaporizing oil burner ‘Coleman’
Manufacturer: Coleman Lamp and Stove Co. Ltd. Toronto
Make: Colman
Model: unknown

Technical Significance:
They were the early years of the 20th century and “the machine” had not yet arrived in the basements of Canadian homes. Electrification, a prerequisite on which the electric motor depended was for many, still years away. Oil heating, as an alternative to solid fuels, wood and coal, must depend on less sophisticated technologies.

From the vantage point of the early 21st century, the evolution of oil fired, automatic home heating equipment would be seen as generally advancing in four broad waves, each of which would take place over a considerable period of time, each producing many variations of the genre:

1. Vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology [see Group 11.01 artifacts, no. 11.01-1]

2. Elemental, motorized, platform mounted technology with peripheral piping and valving components [see Group 12.01, artifact no 12.01-1, and pump assembly 12.06-1]

3. Compacted motorized technology with inherent, peripheral component parts engineered into the pump assembly [see pump assembly Group 12.06, artifact, and 12.06-2]

4. Functionally integrated, motorized technology, beyond being compacted, a number of functions would be smoothly integrated into a single pump assembly, including piping and valving [see Group 12.01, artifact 12.01-2 and pump assembly 12.06-2]

This apparatus clearly stands as an example of the first wave, vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology

This simple and elegant fuel flow management system was designed with great inventiveness to use the natural force of gravity flow, without reliance on motive power.

It uses a 36gr. float, hand crafted out of brass sheet stock, to meter oil into a combustion chamber [not included], where it is ignited by hand, vaporized and burned.

Te apparatus is simply and beautifully executed using the materials and the manufacturing processes of the period in cast iron and brass.

Industrial Significance:
While systems for automatic fuel feed had been attempted using solid and pulverized fuels [wood and coal], their practical application for household would depend on the availability of a reliable source of clean-burning liquid or gaseous fuels.

The casting and hand machining of brass petcocks and fittings demonstrate an unusual commitment to craftsmanship, which would soon not be so evident with the progressive introduction of mass production, automated manufacturing methods.

The Ontario oil fields of Lambton County, although short lived, and those of Pennsylvania were among the first in the world to be commercially developed by 1860. They provided an early incentive for the Canadian, automatic oil heating industry, as represented here by Colman.

This equipment was developed and manufactured in the first decade of the 20th century by the Coleman Lamp and Stove Co. Ltd. Toronto, a pre-eminent contributor to the development of HVACR, technology during its embryonic years in Canada.


Vaporizing space heater

Vaporizing Oil Burning Equipment and Systems – Space Heating

Accession # HHCC.2003.082
Exhibit: Heating

A liquid fuels, vaporizing, space heater, popular in the early years of the 20th century, as Canadian home owners looked to the latest and best technology of the day, in order to supplement the often cold and draft homes of the period, typically heated by wood or coal stoves or for the fortunate a central, gravity warm air, or hot water system, Colman, Quick Lite, 1929.



Item: Vaporizing space heater
Manufacturer: Colman Co. Ltd., Toronto
Make: Colman
Model: Quick Lite, Col

Technical Significance:
A remarkable statement of the advancements made by the Canadian heating industry in the first two decades of the 20th century, demonstrating not only the cumulated design and engineering expertise of the times, but also the materials and manufacturing processes that were by then available to the Canadian manufacturers, who saw and understood the market potential from a public crying out for greater winter time comfort.


Oil burner assembly ‘Leiman’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Burners

Accession # HHCC.2003.079
Exhibit: Heating

An unusual and rare example of an early 20th century high pressure oil burner assembly, with direct drive, 2 stage, Tuthill gear pump, buil-in oil reservoir, and original valving, constructed on heavy cast iron base, with 1″ pipe legs and cork vibration insulators, equipped brass whistle with embossed plate marked, “when whistle blows, stop motor, fill base with oil”, Leiman Bros Newark, circa 1926.



Item: Oil burner assembly ‘Leiman’
Manufacturer: Leiman Bros. Newark, N.J.
Make: Leiman Bros.

Features:
Currently equipped with a much later model 60 cycle motor, having been used as a service pump in the repair shop of T. H. Oliver Aurora Ont. a mark of the long life of the Tuthill pump used by Leiman Bros.


Gun style oil burner ‘Fess’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Burners

Accession # HHCC.2003.080
Exhibit: Heating

A mid 20th century high-pressure, gun style oil burner for residential and small commercial, automatic heating applications. Equipped with integral firing assembly, direct drive oil pump, primary air supply and motor, with modern, unitary construction and styling influenced by Art Deco style trends of the times, in metallic green with chrome trim marked “Fess Heat”, Fess Oil Burner, 1955.



Item: Gun style oil burner ‘Fess’
Manufacturer: Fess Burner Div. John Wood Co., Toronto
Make: Fess
Model: FNAL

Oil burner piping harness

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Firing Assemblies

Accession # HHCC.2006.135
Exhibit: Heating

Beautifully curved, shiny brass oil burner piping harness, with heavy wall, 3/8 inch suction and 1/4 inch discharge lines, equipped with black wrought iron pipe fittings and Dart unions with brass seats. Such harness would stand as a kind of cultural marker of the times, reflecting the oil burner manufacture’s desire to allay public fears about quality and safety of this new technology being brought into the Canadian home in the 1920’s, Anaconda, Circa 1929.



Item: Oil burner piping harness
Manufacturer: Anaconda
Make: Anaconda
Model: 67

Technical Significance:
Brass, because of its special properties [malleability and corrosion resistance] and the relative ease of manufacture, was a material of choice for much speciality manufacturing in the 1920-40’s, a period prior to the development of plastics, which over the next half century would replace brass in many applications.

During these early years massive quantities of brass would be used in speciality manufacturing areas in fluid flow applications such as automatic oil heating and refrigeration. Here corrosion free operation, as well as appearance were important factors in engineering and the market place. [see for example ID#260 to 264]


Fuel filter assembly

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Firing Assemblies

Accession # HHCC.2006.136
Exhibit: Heating

Cast iron, fuel filter assembly with 3/8 inch IPS, black iron pipe and union inlet connection to oil burner, with brass machined screw top, and 3/8 oil priming plug, ground brass seat and cast brass internal screen cartridge, with clearable brass screen filter media, all beautifully crafted, in keeping with the values of the period, using the materials and techniques of the times, manufacturer unknown, 1929.



Item: Fuel filter assembly
Manufacturer: Unknown
Make: Unknown
Model: 16 LB

Technical Significance:
A marker of the attention given by manufacturers, in the early years of automatic oil heating in Canada to giving it a sense of solid craftsmanship, sturdy construction, dependability and good taste.

Brass and bronze, because of their special properties [malleability and corrosion resistance] and the relative ease of manufacture, were material of choice for much speciality manufacturing in the 1920-40’s, a period prior to the development of plastics, which over the next half century would replace these metals and derivatives in many applications.

During these early years massive quantities of brass would be used in speciality manufacturing areas in fluid flow applications such as automatic oil heating and refrigeration. Here corrosion free operation, as well as appearance were important factors in engineering and the market place. [see for example ID#259 to 264]


Atomizing firing head ‘J30’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Firing Assemblies

Accession # HHCC.2006.137
Exhibit: Heating

A high pressure, high voltage, fuel oil atomizing firing head by Fess Oil Burners, Toronto, an acknowledged early pioneer and Canadian market leader in oil burner engineering and manufacture in Canada. Dressed in classic black/green enamelled finish, with long-reach, 3/8 inch IPS brass oil delivery tube, inlet oil filter and oil-flow shut-off valve, Model J30, Circa 1936. [see also design variant ID#262]



Item: Atomizing firing head ‘J30’
Manufacturer: Fess Oil Burners of Canada, Toronto and Montreal
Make: Fess
Model: Model J30

Technical Significance:
A marker of the times in the evolution of automatic oil heating for the Canadian home, this 24 inch, long-reach firing assembly, typical of the period, was designed for “conversion” installation. Such installations were typically found in gravity style, home warm air heating furnace installations in the early years of the 20th century. Here coal grates would be removed, and oil burner refractory would be hand built in its place and a firing head would be inserted, See ID# 243, 244,245.

This firing head, typical of the period, slides into a large (4″ to 5″) fire tube [gun]. It delivers oil at up to 100 psi. to an oil atomizing spray nozzle through a 3/8″ brass, oil delivery tube.

Turbulated air under pressure is forced through an air cone [see ID# 64 and 265] where it is mixed with the atomized oil spray and ignited by an electrically generated spark [See ID# 255 and 256] jumping between two carefully positioned electrodes. High tension insulated cables carry the electrical current to the electrodes, through fragile, porcelain electrical insulators.

The oil atomizing nozzle, first developed in the 1920’s would be a marvel of its times, in product engineering and design, as well as in mass production manufacture. Designed to produce a variety of air patterns, with different combustion characteristics, it would survive relatively unchanged through to the 21st century. See ID# 262 for later variations in advanced nozzle performance.

Industrial Significance:
This high pressure, high voltage, fuel oil atomizing firing head by Fess Oil Burners, Toronto, stands as a marker of the earliest pioneering work of a Canadian company in the engineering and manufacture of automatic heating equipment designed for the Canadian home.

This basic firing head configuration would meet many of the needs of the market-place, and satisfy minimal safety requirements through to the end of the 20th century

During this period, however, engineering applications progressed well beyond the “conversion” market, to smaller, more efficient, unitary, packaged automatic oil heating equipment, for both warm air and hot water [hydronic]. As a result firing assemblies would become much more compact and sophisticated in design.

Yet, the basic engineering design trend had been set by the early 1930’s. Fragile and often temperamental, as it was, firing assemblies of this essential configuration, modified and customized for different applications, would remain the standard for high pressure atomizing oil burners to the end of the 20th century.


Atomizing firing head ‘J31’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Firing Assemblies

Accession # HHCC.2006.138
Exhibit: Heating

A field modified high pressure fuel oil atomizing firing head by Fess Oil Burners, Toronto, an acknowledged early pioneer in oil burner engineering and manufacture in Canada; with classic black/green enamelled finish, long-reach, 3/8 inch, brass, oil delivery tube, inlet oil filter and oil-flow shut-off valve, and modified with the addition of a Honeywell dripples, automatic, oil pressure control, check valve, Fess, Model J31, Circa 1940. [see also ID#261]



Item: Atomizing firing head ‘J31’
Manufacturer: Fess Oil Burners Canada, Toronto
Make: Fess
Model: Model J-31
Features: Original high tension ignition cables

Technical Significance:
A marker of the times in the evolution of automatic oil heating for the Canadian home, this 24 inch, long-reach firing assembly, typical of the period, was designed for “conversion” installation. Such installations were typically found in gravity style, home warm air heating furnace installations in the early years of the 20th century. Here coal grates would be removed, and oil burner refractory would be hand built in its place and a firing head would be inserted, See ID# 243, 244,245.

This firing head, typical of the period, slides into a large (4″ to 5″) fire tube [gun]. It delivers oil at up to 100 psi. to an oil atomizing spray nozzle through a 3/8″ brass, oil delivery tube.

Turbulated air under pressure is forced through an air cone [see ID# 64 and 265] where it is mixed with the atomized oil spray and ignited by an electrically generated spark [See ID# 255 and 256] jumping between two carefully positioned electrodes. High tension insulated cables carry the electrical current to the electrodes, through fragile, porcelain electrical insulators.

The oil atomizing nozzle, first developed in the 1920’s would be a marvel of its times, in product engineering and design, as well as in mass production manufacture. Designed to produce a variety of air patterns, with different combustion characteristics, it would survive relatively unchanged through to the 21st century.

This firing assembly, modified 10 years or so after first installation, suggests something of the long “shelf life” of the basic technology.

A performance characteristic of such firing assemblies was the tendency to eject oil into the firebox at below the specified design pressure, 85 to 100 psi. The result was poor combustion and a smoky, smelly fire. Usually caused by a fuel pump failing to open at the proper pressure, the dripples valve would provide a quick fix, a less expensive alternative to pump repair or replacement.

Industrial Significance:
This high pressure, high voltage, fuel oil atomizing firing head by Fess Oil Burners, Toronto, stands as a marker of the earliest pioneering work of a Canadian company in the engineering and manufacture of automatic heating equipment designed for the Canadian home.

This basic firing head configuration would meet many of the needs of the market-place, and satisfy minimal safety requirements through to the end of the 20th century

During this period, however, engineering applications progressed well beyond the “conversion” market, to smaller, more efficient, unitary, packaged automatic oil heating equipment, for both warm air and hot water [hydronic]. As a result firing assemblies would become much more compact and sophisticated in design.

Yet, the basic engineering design trend had been set by the early 1930’s. Fragile and often temperamental, as it was, firing assemblies of this essential configuration, modified and customized for different applications, would remain the standard for high pressure atomizing oil burners to the end of the 20th century.


Fuel oil by-pass valve

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Firing Assemblies

Accession # HHCC.2006.139
Exhibit: Heating

A fuel oil pressure regulating, by-pass valve, beautifully crafted and styled for the discerning eye in brass/bronze. It exemplifies the range of peripheral devices engineered by a new generation of technology manufacturers, starting in the late 1920’s, innovators and suppliers to the automatic oil heating market. Together, they built the system of interacting and mutually supporting components and parts required for safe, efficient, reliable, automatic home heating in Canada, Detroit Lubricator, Circa 1940.



Item: Fuel oil by-pass valve
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Company, Detroit Mich.
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: Type S15
Features: Embossed Detroit Lubricator logo; Beautifully embossed brass name label

Technical Significance:
Of spring compensated, piston design, this fully adjustable by-pass valve would be a technical break through in its times, allowing excess fuel oil to be automatically circulated back to the oil tank from the oil burner. Oil pump engineering would later incorporate a pressure regulating, by-pass valve function as an integral part of the pump itself, see Note 1 [See Group 12.06 historic artifacts]

The device stands as a reminder that the commitment to automatic heating for the Canadian home brought with it a vast range of engineering challenges. Required would be a network of fully automated devices, mechanical, electrical and hydraulic, all of which must work together, smoothly and systemically to produce the required performance characteristics – including self-regulation, safely, reliability, efficiency, and affordability- all quite unimagined a decade earlier

It exemplifies the great precision made possible in the 1930’s and 40’s, given the limited engineering materials and production machining methods of the times.

It exemplifies, too, the range of peripheral devices engineered and manufactured by a new generation of companies, starting in the late 1920’s, for the automatic oil heating market, part of the system of interacting and mutually supporting components and parts required.

Industrial Significance:
Demonstrates the vast engineering know-how accumulated by fluid flow valve speciality companies of the time, here Detroit Lubricator, whose valves dominated many facets of the HVACR industry, ubiquitous through much of the 20th century [See also Group 3.01 and 3.02 historic artifacts]


Convex nose air cone

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Firing Assemblies

Accession # HHCC.2006.140
Exhibit: Heating

An air cone for a high pressure, atomizing oil burner, designed with convex nose and 8 turbulator blades. Unobtrusive and elemental in appearance and seemingly of little consequence, it would, none-the-less, prove to be a critical component in oil burner performance in its time, helping to ensure quiet, efficient, smoke free combustion. \r\nBlued and heavily corroded as a result of use in a typical 3000 deg. combustion chamber, unknown manufacturer, Circa 1948. [see also ID#265]



Item: Convex nose air cone
Manufacturer: Unknown
Make: Unknown
Model: Unknown

Technical Significance:
The simple, crude air cone, a piece of sand moulded and machined cast iron, would come to represent much of the challenge faced in squeezing acceptable levels of reliable performance out of the high pressure atomizing oil burner, given the state of that technology in the early and mid 20th century.

In this period, experiments in refractory, air cone, air turbulator, nozzle, electrode and oil pump design would be endless, in an attempt to optimize a technology which refused to be optimized, until significant redesign and re-configuring of the high pressure atomizing burner took place in the latter years of the century. [See Reference 1]

This seemingly simple, elemental device stands as a reminder of the system of often crudely fashioned, empirically derived, interrelated and mutually supporting component parts on which the safe, reliable and efficient operation of automatic oil heating for the Canadian home would depend in the mid 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
Many variations in air cone design are to be found, reflecting the practice of the period. Each manufacturer would experiment to find the configuration best suited to his equipment’s performance – see ID#265


Concave nose air cone

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Firing Assemblies

Accession # HHCC.2006.141
Exhibit: Heating

An air cone for a high pressure, atomizing oil burner, designed with concave nose, 8 foreshortened turbulator blades and extended collar. Unobtrusive and elemental in appearance and seemingly of little consequence, it would, none-the-less, prove to be a critical component in oil burner performance in its time, helping to ensure quiet, efficient, smoke free combustion. Blued and heavily corroded as a result of use in a typical 3000 deg. combustion chamber, unknown manufacturer, Circa 1948. [see also ID#265]



Item: Concave nose air cone
Manufacturer: Unknown
Make: Unknown
Model: Unknown

Technical Significance:
The simple, crude air cone, a piece of sand moulded and machined cast iron, would come to represent much of the challenge faced in squeezing acceptable levels of reliable performance out of the high pressure atomizing oil burner, given the state of that technology in the early and mid 20th century.

In this period, experiments in refractory, air cone, air turbulator, nozzle, electrode and oil pump design would be endless, in an attempt to optimize a technology which refused to be optimized, until significant redesign and re-configuring of the high pressure atomizing burner took place in the latter years of the century. [See Reference 1]

This seemingly simple, elemental device stands as a reminder of the system of often crudely fashioned, empirically derived, interrelated and mutually supporting component parts on which the safe, reliable and efficient operation of automatic oil heating for the Canadian home would depend in the mid 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
Many variations in air cone design are to be found, reflecting the practice of the period. Each manufacturer would experiment to find the configuration best suited to his equipment’s performance – see ID#264


Fuel pump assembly ‘D8’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.142
Exhibit: Heating

A fuel pump assembly for low pressure, mechanical atomizing oil burner, with direct, flexible coupled, electric motor drive, with carbon blade rotary pump, worm drive, gear pump, and automatic oil volume and pressure control valves, from the widely acknowledged pioneer of automatic oil heating equipment in Canada, Fess, Model D8, Circa 1924.



Item: Fuel pump assembly ‘D8’
Manufacturer: Fess Oil Burner of Canada
Make: Fess
Model: D8

Technical Significance:
They were the early years of the 20th century and “the machine” had arrived in the basements of a few well to do Canadian homes – whether the refrigerating machine [see condensing unit Group 2.01] or the automatic oil burning, home heating machine.

The Fess Model D would typify the latter. Like many such arrivals it would first appear, celebrated for its potential contribution to human comfort, health and convenience, only much later as a social and cultural change agent with awesome impact on Canada and Canadians, their life and times.

The Model D [There was a series of them] represented the leading edge of self- powered, self-regulating, automatic oil heating technology of the period, likely the first wave of pressure atomizing technology commercially marketed in Canada. The mechanism was described by Fess as being of the low pressure, mechanical atomizing type, using “the retarded heat principle”. It consisted of what the Fess manual refers to as a “machine proper” and a “fire door insert”.

The machine proper included a heavy steel pedestal on which was mounted this assembly consisting of a carbon blade rotary pump, worm driven gear pump, with rotary needle valve, including oil volume and pressure adjustments.

The assembly was driven with a direct coupled repulsion induction motor [see Group 16.00], drawing oil from a float control, valve chamber with strainer. The entire machine proper rested in trays that caught leaking oil, with provisions for sucking it back into the system.

The fire door insert included nozzle assembly, ignition transformer and spark plug

The burner was controlled with a Model 77, Locksmith, stack switch [See Group 12.08]

Industrial Significance:
Appearing in the early 1920’s, Canadian household machinery was initially styled after its industrial counterpart in cast iron, steel, light weight die casting alloys, brass and bronze, using the industrial processes available in the times.

Fess Oil Burners of Canada [later the John Wood Company, Toronto] became a major player in the development of the automatic oil heating industry, starting in the 1920’s

The industry would shortly move on to a more compact, functionally integrated, unitary equipment look, thus distancing itself from the factory floor. See ID# 267 – but for now the D series was as good as it gets.


Fuel pump assembly ‘J18’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.143
Exhibit: Heating

A compact, functionally integrated fuel pump assembly for gun type, low pressure atomizing oil burner, with flange motor mount, air intake housing, fuel pump, and pressure gauge 0 to 20 psi., all over coated in classic black-green gloss enamel of the period; equipped with drive coupling, pressure regulating valve, fitments, and oil filter all executed in solid brass/bronze, all targeted on the affluent, discerning, life style seeking householder, Fess, Model J18, Circa 1930. [see also 12.06-11]



Item: Fuel pump assembly ‘J18’
Manufacturer: Fess Oil Burner of Canada
Make: Fess
Model: J18

Technical Significance:
By the early 1930’s the Canadian oil heating industry was progressing well beyond simple, gravity feed, vaporizing oil-heating equipment [see Group 11,05 artifacts]. Having developed mechanical, low pressure atomizing machinery [see ID# 12.06-9], it was ready to move on to more efficient, cleaner and more reliable atomizing methods, to be found in the pressure-atomizing “gun” burner technology of the period.

This historic artifact models well the sophisticated engineering and design achievements of the period, in compact, functionally integrated fuel oil pump assemblies for low pressure atomizing oil burners.

Modelled here is the best of the offerings of the industry to Canadian home owners of the period – at least to those that could afford the best and the latest is advanced automatic home heating technology in the early 1930 – in the midst of national economic depression.

A superb example of what was now possible, given the advances in oil atomizing technology, metallurgy, manufacturing and fabrication methods of the day.

Exemplified, too, is a new era of industrial craftsmanship with an eye for a new of eye-catching and pleasing industrial styling.

Seen here is a new generation of mechanical equipment, targeted on the hearts and minds of the Canadian homeowner, equipment which was starting to loose the crude industrial machinery look, and develop a new aesthetic, one distancing its self from the factory floor look of a few years earlier [see 12.06-9].

What had been acquired by the industry was a new sense of how to smoothly integrate and articulate mechanisms traditionally of widely different functions [oil pumps, motors, fans and pressure valves] into a single functioning whole. A new kind of sophisticated entity had been created, one made all the more appealing to the early 20th century discriminating homeowner of good taste with the addition of polished brass fitments. See Note #2

The new gun style burner consisted of a direct drive, flange mounted motor, a Sirocco type high pressure fan to deliver primary air for combustion, a compact positive displacement, gear pump, an oil atomizing nozzle, high potential electrical transformer, and ignition electrodes.

Industrial Significance:
Fess Oil Burners of Canada [later the John Wood Company, Toronto] became a major player in the development of the automatic oil heating industry, starting in the late 1920’s

Capitalizing on the sales potential of the new more compact and reliable “gun” type technology, the Fess J series of automatic oil burners would be representative of a new generation of highly innovative equipment, taking advantage of the newly emerging Canadian market in the early 1930’s.

Its Model J series of gun type, pressure atomizing burners, in their characteristic black-green, would be a familiar site in the basements of the well-to-do across much of central Canada in the 30’s.

The industry was moving to more compact, functionally integrated, unitary equipment configurations, away from the industrial machinery look. With the advent of the high pressure gun burner, the basic oil burner configuration had been established which, with many modifications and enhancements, would largely characterize the field through to the end of the 20th century.


Rotary fuel oil pump

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.144
Exhibit: Heating

A rotary, low pressure, fuel oil pump, with carbon separator blades, heavy steel rotor, in cast and machined steel body, with classic black/green enamel finish, and original external piping connections, a marker of the 2nd wave of automatic home heating, pump assembly technology for the Canadian home, partial pump assembly only, manufacturer unknown, Circa 1924.



Item: Rotary fuel oil pump
Manufacturer: Unknown See Note 1
Make: Unknown See Note 1
Model: V916
Features: Natural carbon blade

Technical Significance:
From the vantage point of the early 21st century the evolution of automatic oil fired home heating equipment would be seen as generally advancing in four broad waves, each of which would take place over a considerable period of time, each producing many variations of the genre:

1. Vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology [see Group 11.01 artifacts, no. 11.01-1]

2. Elemental, motorized, platform mounted technology with peripheral piping and valving components [see Group 12.01, artifact no 12.01-1, and pump assembly 12.06-1]

3. Compacted motorized technology with inherent, peripheral component parts engineered into the pump assembly [see pump assembly Group 12.06, artifact, and 12.06-2]

4. Functionally integrated, motorized technology, beyond being compacted, a number of functions would be smoothly integrated into a single pump assembly, including piping and valving [see Group 12.01, artifact 12.01-2 and pump assembly 12.06-2]

By the early 1930’s the Canadian oil heating industry was progressing well beyond simple, gravity feed, vaporizing oil-heating equipment [wave 1] moving to elemental, motorized, electrified, designs [wave 2], using low pressure mechanical atomizing burners with rotary, carbon separator blade pumps [see ID# 12.06-9].

This pump assembly is, then, a marker of the second wave. It is associated with the earliest years of electrified and motorized oil heating equipment to be found in Canadian homes

A hallmarks of the design is the use of carbon, separator, rotor blades. Carbon was a natural choice, as a natural substance, which tended to be self lubricating and self-positioning, wearing to cylinder wall to maintain a close running tolerance and quiet operation – all this in a period long before the availability of more sophisticated engineering materials

A hallmark of this technology of the period would also be its massive weight, as represented here by this 10 lb., toe crushing, partial pump body. But the look was a preferred one in the culture of the times, by a public still spooked by the seeming inherent dangers represented by un-attended, automatic oil heating equipment in the home. Among other things it must look, feel and in fact be solid.

Industrial Significance:
A marker of the manufacturing techniques of the times


Rotary fuel oil pump

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.145
Exhibit: Heating

A rotary, low pressure, fuel oil pump for automatic home heating, with carbon rotor separator blades, heavy steel rotor, in cast and machined steel body equipped for 4 bolt flange motor mounting, built-in, brass, automatic pressure regulating valve with manual adjustment, beginning to suggest the early years of the 4th wave in engineering design, characterized by compacted, integrated fuel oil pump assemblies, manufacturer unknown, Circa 1929.



Item: Rotary fuel oil pump
Manufacturer: Unknown See Note 1
Make: Unknown See Note 1
Model: Unknown
Features: Natural carbon separator blades

Technical Significance:
From the vantage point of the early 21st century, the evolution of oil fired, automatic home heating equipment would be seen as generally advancing in four broad waves, each of which would take place over a considerable period of time, each producing many variations of the genre:

1. Vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology [see Group 11.01 artifacts, no. 11.01-1]

2. Elemental, motorized, platform mounted technology with peripheral piping and valving components [see Group 12.01, artifact no 12.01-1, and pump assembly 12.06-1]

3. Compacted motorized technology with inherent, peripheral component parts engineered into the pump assembly [see pump assembly Group 12.06, artifact, and 12.06-2]

4. Functionally integrated, motorized technology, beyond being compacted, a number of functions would be smoothly integrated into a single pump assembly, including piping and valving [see Group 12.01, artifact 12.01-2 and pump assembly 12.06-2]

By the early 1930’s the Canadian oil heating industry was progressing well beyond simple, gravity feed, vaporizing oil-heating equipment [wave 1] and elemental, motorized, electrified, designs [wave 2], to increasingly more compacted and functionally integrated engineering designs. Seen here in the compact, coaxial motor drive flange and the built in pressure valve and piping passages.

This pump assembly is, then, an early marker of the 4th design wave

A hallmarks of the design is the use of carbon, separator, rotor blades. Carbon was a natural choice, as a natural substance, which tended to be self lubricating and self-positioning, wearing to cylinder wall to maintain a close running tolerance and quiet operation – all this in a period long before the availability of more sophisticated engineering materials

A hallmark of this technology of the period would also be its massive weight, as represented here by this 10 lb., toe crushing, partial pump body. But the look was a preferred one in the culture of the times, by a public still spooked by the seeming inherent dangers represented by un-attended, automatic oil heating equipment in the home. Among other things it must look, feel and in fact be solid.

Industrial Significance:
A marker of the sophisticated machining and manufacturing techniques of the times, using the relatively crude machine tools available.


Single stage rotary gear pump

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.146
Exhibit: Heating

A single stage rotary gear pump, with cast and machined steel body, two hole flange and barrel mount and two point drive coupling for close, direct motor drive; with original oil piping, it would be part of the 3rd wave in engineering design, characterized by compacted, fuel oil pump assemblies, Tuthill Pump Co. Chicago, Circa 1929.



Item: Single stage rotary gear pump
Manufacturer: Tuthill Pump Co. Chicago
Make: Tuthill
Model: Unknown

Technical Significance:
From the vantage point of the early 21st century, the evolution of oil fired, automatic home heating equipment would be seen as generally advancing in four broad waves, each of which would take place over a considerable period of time, each producing many variations of the genre:

1. Vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology [see Group 11.01 artifacts, no. 11.01-1]

2. Elemental, motorized, platform mounted technology with peripheral piping and valving components [see Group 12.01, artifact no 12.01-1, and pump assembly 12.06-1]

3. Compacted motorized technology with inherent, peripheral component parts engineered into the pump assembly [see pump assembly Group 12.06, artifact, and 12.06-2]

4. Functionally integrated, motorized technology, beyond being compacted, a number of functions would be smoothly integrated into a single pump assembly, including piping and valving [see Group 12.01, artifact 12.01-2 and pump assembly 12.06-2]

Seen here is an early, compact rotary gear pump, for close coupled, direct drive application, beginning to reflect the drive configuration to be found on the mainstream of oil burners through the balance of the 20th century.

This pump assembly stands as a late example of the 3rd wave of fuel oil pump assemblies

The close coupled, direct drive configuration used here would be an early application of the design commonly found throughout the industry to the end of the 29th century

Industrial Significance:
This requisitely crafted and machined gear, miniature gear pump would be a marvel of engineering design and production of the day

Tuthill would be widely acknowledged in the industry as an early innovator in the field, providing many of the engineering ideas, principles, products and breakthroughs which the industry would bill on – see for example ID#271.


Two stage rotary gear pump

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.147
Exhibit: Heating

Two stage rotary gear pump, with cast and machined steel body, two hole flange and barrel-mount for close, direct motor coupling; with internal pressure regulating and cut- off valves, inlet oil strainer and oil bypass, it would set a new standard for fuel oil pump assemblies, part of a 4th wave in engineering design, characterized by compacted and functionally integrated engineering, Fuelstat, Tuthill Pump Co. Chicago, Circa 1937.



Item: Two stage rotary gear pump
Manufacturer: Tuthill Pump Co. Chicago
Make: Tuthill
Model: DES???AT??
Features: Over coated in flawless gloss maroon enamel, likely to match the colour of an oil burner supplier of the period

Technical Significance:
From the vantage point of the early 21st century, the evolution of oil fired, automatic home heating equipment would be seen as generally advancing in four broad waves, each of which would take place over a considerable period of time, each producing many variations of the genre:

1. Vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology [see Group 11.01 artifacts, no. 11.01-1]

2. Elemental, motorized, platform mounted technology with peripheral piping and valving components [see Group 12.01, artifact no 12.01-1, and pump assembly 12.06-1]

3. Compacted motorized technology with inherent, peripheral component parts engineered into the pump assembly [see pump assembly Group 12.06, artifact, and 12.06-2]

4. Functionally integrated, motorized technology, beyond being compacted, a number of functions would be smoothly integrated into a single pump assembly, including piping and valving [see Group 12.01, artifact 12.01-2 and pump assembly 12.06-2]

This pump assembly stands as an example of 4th wave of fuel oil pump assemblies

The close coupled, direct drive configuration used here would be an early application of the design commonly found throughout the industry to the end of the 29th century

Industrial Significance:
Tuthill would be widely acknowledged in the industry as an early innovator in the field, providing many of the engineering ideas, principles, products and breakthroughs which the industry would bill on – see for example ID#271, 272, 273.


Single stage rotary gear pump

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.148
Exhibit: Heating

Single stage rotary gear pump, with light weight die cast body, two hole flange and barrel mount for close, direct motor coupling; with internal pressure regulating and cut-off valves, inlet oil strainer and oil bypass, it would set a new standard for fuel oil pump assemblies, part of a 4th wave in engineering design, characterized by compacted and functionally integrated engineering, Fuelstat, EN, Tuthill Pump Co. Chicago, Circa 1937.



Item: Single stage rotary gear pump
Manufacturer: Tuthill Pump Co. Chicago
Make: Tuthill
Model: EN

Technical Significance:
From the vantage point of the early 21st century, the evolution of oil fired, automatic home heating equipment would be seen as generally advancing in four broad waves, each of which would take place over a considerable period of time, each producing many variations of the genre:

1. Vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology [see Group 11.01 artifacts, no. 11.01-1]

2. Elemental, motorized, platform mounted technology with peripheral piping and valving components [see Group 12.01, artifact no 12.01-1, and pump assembly 12.06-1]

3. Compacted motorized technology with inherent, peripheral component parts engineered into the pump assembly [see pump assembly Group 12.06, artifact, and 12.06-2]

4. Functionally integrated, motorized technology, beyond being compacted, a number of functions would be smoothly integrated into a single pump assembly, including piping and valving [see Group 12.01, artifact 12.01-2 and pump assembly 12.06-2]

This pump assembly stands as an example of 4th wave of fuel oil pump assemblies, compact and functionally integrated in light weight die cast body.

Industrial Significance:
Tuthill would be widely acknowledged in the industry as an early innovator in the field, providing many of the engineering ideas, principles, products and breakthroughs which the industry would build on – see for example ID#271, 272, 273.


Single stage rotary gear pump ‘Tuthill’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.149
Exhibit: Heating

Tuthill single stage rotary gear pump, carrying the corporate name of Prenco, Toronto Canada, similar to the Tuthill Model EN, see ID# 272, with modern, stylish name plate and logo in silver against grass green background, a marker of the rapidly expanding market for automatic oil heating equipment in Canada following W.W.II, Fuelstat, Prenco, Tuthill Pump Corp. Toronto, Circa 1948.



Item: Single stage rotary gear pump ‘Tuthill’
Manufacturer: Prenco, Tuthill Pump Corp. Toronto
Make: Prenco Tuthill

Technical Significance:
From the vantage point of the early 21st century, the evolution of oil fired, automatic home heating equipment would be seen as generally advancing in four broad waves, each of which would take place over a considerable period of time, each producing many variations of the genre:

1. Vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology [see Group 11.01 artifacts, no. 11.01-1]

2. Elemental, motorized, platform mounted technology with peripheral piping and valving components [see Group 12.01, artifact no 12.01-1, and pump assembly 12.06-1]

3. Compacted motorized technology with inherent, peripheral component parts engineered into the pump assembly [see pump assembly Group 12.06, artifact, and 12.06-2]

4. Functionally integrated, motorized technology, beyond being compacted, a number of functions would be smoothly integrated into a single pump assembly, including piping and valving [see Group 12.01, artifact 12.01-2 and pump assembly 12.06-2]

This pump assembly stands as an example of 4th wave of fuel oil pump assemblies, compact and functionally integrated in light weight die cast body.

Industrial Significance:
Tuthill would be widely acknowledged in the industry as an early innovator in the field, providing many of the engineering ideas, principles, products and breakthroughs which the industry would build on – see for example ID#271, 272, 273.

With modern, stylish name plate and logo in silver against grass green background, with smoothly rounded long radius corners it would signal a new era in industrial design, with a new role for the industrial designer, creating products with eye appeal, distancing the oil heat industry from the products of its industrial past [see for example ID#268]


Two stage rotary gear pump ‘Webster’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.150
Exhibit: Heating

Two stage rotary, gear style pump, in cast steel body with extended shaft, and Webster stylish logo, carrying a Canadian manufacturer’s name; an example of beautifully compacted and functionally integrated engineering. [4th wave] and of the rapidly approaching mature market years for high pressure, 100 psi. oil burner technology, bringing with it a giant bulge in the percentages of Canadian home owners and businesses that would enjoy automatic heating, Webster/ Canadian Acme Screw and Gear, Circa 1955.



Item: Two stage rotary gear pump ‘Webster’
Manufacturer: Canadian Acme Screw and Gear, Toronto
Make: Webster
Model: 2R-111D-AH

Technical Significance:
From the vantage point of the early 21st century, the evolution of oil fired, automatic home heating equipment would be seen as generally advancing in four broad waves, each of which would take place over a considerable period of time, each producing many variations of the genre:

1. Vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology [see Group 11.01 artifacts, no. 11.01-1]

2. Elemental, motorized, platform mounted technology with peripheral piping and valving components [see Group 12.01, artifact no 12.01-1, and pump assembly 12.06-1]

3. Compacted motorized technology with inherent, peripheral component parts engineered into the pump assembly [see pump assembly Group 12.06, artifact, and 12.06-2]

4. Functionally integrated, motorized technology, beyond being compacted, a number of functions would be smoothly integrated into a single pump assembly, including piping and valving [see Group 12.01, artifact 12.01-2 and pump assembly 12.06-2]

This pump assembly stands as an example of advanced 4th wave fuel oil pump technology, compact and functionally integrated in heavy cast steel body.

A marker of the now rapidly approaching mature market years for high pressure, 100 psi. oil burner technology, leaving room for a new generation of ultra-high pressure, 200 psi. technology.

Industrial Significance:
Webster a respected US manufacturer of oil burner components, including ignition transformers [see ID#12.07-1 and 2] and oil pumps, would like Tuthill seek Canadian partners in the post WWII period to take advantage of the rapid growth of the oil heating market in Canada.


Compact fuel pump assembly

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.152
Exhibit: Heating

A compact, functionally integrated fuel pump assembly for gun type, low pressure atomizing oil burner, equipped with Tuthill fuel oil pump, drive coupling, pressure regulating valve, fitments, and oil filter all executed in solid brass/bronze, , Fess, Model J18, Circa 1930, partial assembly only. [see also 12.06-10, ID#267]



Item: Compact fuel pump assembly
Manufacturer: Fess Oil Burner of Canada
Make: Fess
Model: J18

Technical Significance:
By the early 1930’s the Canadian oil heating industry was progressing well beyond simple, gravity feed, vaporizing oil-heating equipment [see Group 11,05 artifacts]. Having developed mechanical, low pressure atomizing machinery [see ID# 12.06-9], it was ready to move on to more efficient, cleaner and more reliable atomizing methods, to be found in the pressure-atomizing “gun” burner technology of the period.

This historic artifact models well the sophisticated engineering and design achievements of the period, in compact, functionally integrated fuel oil pump assemblies for low pressure atomizing oil burners.

Modelled here is the best of the offerings of the industry to Canadian home owners of the period – at least to those that could afford the best and the latest is advanced automatic home heating technology in the early 1930 – in the midst of national economic depression.

A superb example of what was now possible, given the advances in oil atomizing technology, metallurgy, manufacturing and fabrication methods of the day.

Exemplified, too, is a new era of industrial craftsmanship with an eye for a new of eye-catching and pleasing industrial styling.

Seen here is a new generation of mechanical equipment, targeted on the hearts and minds of the Canadian homeowner, equipment which was starting to loose the crude industrial machinery look, and develop a new aesthetic, one distancing its self from the factory floor look of a few years earlier [see 12.06-9].

What had been acquired by the industry was a new sense of how to smoothly integrate and articulate mechanisms traditionally of widely different functions [oil pumps, motors, fans and pressure valves] into a single functioning whole. A new kind of sophisticated entity had been created, one made all the more appealing to the early 20th century discriminating homeowner of good taste with the addition of polished brass fitments. See Note #2

The new gun style burner consisted of a direct drive, flange mounted motor, a Sirocco type high pressure fan to deliver primary air for combustion, a compact positive displacement, gear pump, an oil atomizing nozzle, high potential electrical transformer, and ignition electrodes..

Industrial Significance:
Fess Oil Burners of Canada [later the John Wood Company, Toronto] became a major player in the development of the automatic oil heating industry, starting in the late 1920’s

Capitalizing on the sales potential of the new more compact and reliable “gun” type technology, the Fess J series of automatic oil burners would be representative of a new generation of highly innovative equipment, taking advantage of the newly emerging Canadian market in the early 1930’s.

Its Model J series of gun type, pressure atomizing burners, in their characteristic black-green, would be a familiar site in the basements of the well-to-do across much of central Canada in the 30’s.

The industry was moving to more compact, functionally integrated, unitary equipment configurations, away from the industrial machinery look. With the advent of the high pressure gun burner, the basic oil burner configuration had been established which, with many modifications and enhancements, would largely characterize the field through to the end of the 20th century.


8K volt ignition transformer

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Ignition Transformers

Accession # HHCC.2006.131
Exhibit: Heating

An 8,000 volt, electric spark, ignition transformers, in gloss black steel case with brass nameplate. Such devices in the home and the sparks they generated would be a source of great public mystery and often apprehension in the early years of the 20th century. Yet, they would be the true heroes of early technology for the Canadian home; without them the mechanical wonders of the period would not have been possible, the internal combustion engine, the automobile, and automatic home heating. Webster, Circa 1936.



Item: 8K volt ignition transformer
Manufacturer: Webster Electric Co., Racine, Wis.
Make: Webster
Model: 20-D F
Features: Original wire connector illustrating electrical trade practices of the times

Chrome plated cameo styled, brass nameplate, highly decorate with logo.

Technical Significance:
In a period of increasingly sophisticated mechanical contrivances, the development of electrical apparatus – including reliable, efficient high voltage ignition transformers and electric motors tended, for the most part, to lag well behind the mechanical mechanisms which they supported.

The engineering and manufacturing challenge was to build an electrical transformer, to operate on 110 volts alternating current [the then accepted standard for hydro electrification in Canada], one that would create a sufficiently hot spark, about 8,000 to 10,000 volts, needed to reliably ignite an atomised oil vapor and air mixture.

Little of a theoretical practical nature was known in the early years of the 20th century about the design of electrical equipment, certainly not high voltage transformers. The principles of alternating electrical circuits, as well as those of magnetic circuits were little understood, by those who must apply them.

Farada’s experiments of the 1840’s and 50 had only been translated into the mathematical formula needed for precise engineering design in the 1870’s. And Steinmetz would not set out the basic parameters for the design of electromagnetic circuits until the early years of the 20th century. But the market place could not wait, engineering design proceeded empirically, with the knowledge available – with much trial and error.

The toe crushing weight and size of these early specimens [15 to 20 lbs] is a reminder of the crude design criteria employed and the materials available, especially the crude dielectric materials for the insulation of wire and coil bundles operating at high potential levels. As a result electrical failure was common, with all the accompanying dangers of un-ignited explosive mixtures being pumped into the furnace fire box.

Of special significance is this, long obsolete, 25 cycle, AC specimen. Once the standard in Ontario, 25 cycle equipment was heavier and bulkier than its 60 cycle counter part.

Industrial Significance:
By the mid 1930’s the future of the Canadian oil heat industry was assured of a long period of solid growth. With hydro electrification now well advanced in many urban areas in Canada, the desire for automatic, home heating was almost universal, and with it the pressure to engineer high voltage ignition devices in Canada, at reduced cost and improved reliability and performance – See ID# 256 and 257.


10K volt ignition transformer

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Ignition Transformers

Accession # HHCC.2006.132
Exhibit: Heating

A 10,000 volt, electric spark, ignition transformers, in non-ferro-magnetic, brass case in gloss black enamel, manufactured and stencilled for Fess Oil Burners of Canada, an acknowledged early pioneer and Canadian market leader. Such high voltage devices in the home would be a source of great public mystery and often apprehension in the early years of the 20th century. But without the electric spark the mechanical wonders of the age would not have been possible, the internal combustion engine, the automobile, and automatic home heating. Webster, Circa 1938.



Item: 10K volt ignition transformer
Manufacturer: Webster Electric Co., Racine, Wis.
Make: Webster
Model: 27D13
Features: Original wire connector and cable stub, illustrating electrical trade practices of the times; Chrome plated, classical oval, brass nameplate, highly decorate with Fess logo, torch held high.

Technical Significance:
In a period of increasingly sophisticated mechanical contrivances, the development of electrical apparatus – including reliable, efficient high voltage ignition devices [transformers] and electric motors tended, for the most part, to lag well behind the mechanical mechanisms which they supported.

The engineering and manufacturing challenge was to build an electrical transformer, to operate on 110 volts alternating current [the then accepted standard for hydro electrification in Canada], one that would create a sufficiently hot spark, about 8,000 to 10,000 volts, needed to reliably ignite an atomised oil vapour and air mixture.

Little of a theoretical nature was known in the early years of the 20th century about the design of electrical equipment, certainly not high voltage transformers. The principles of alternating electrical circuits, as well as those of magnetic circuits were little understood, by those who must apply them.

Farada’s experiments of the 1840’s and 50 had only been translated into the mathematical formula needed for precise engineering design in the 1870’s. And Steinmetz would not set out the basic parameters for the design of electromagnetic circuits until the early years of the 20th century. But the market place could not wait, engineering design proceeded empirically, with the knowledge available – with much trial and error. The cost would be in reliability and performance standards

The toe crushing weight and size of these early specimens [25 lbs] is a reminder of the crude design criteria employed, and the materials available, especially the crude dielectric materials for the insulation of wire and coil bundles operating at these high potential levels. As a result electrical failure was common, with all the accompanying dangers posed by un-ignited explosive mixtures being pumped into the furnace fire box.

Of special significance is this 25 cycle specimen. Once the standard in Ontario, 25 cycle equipment was heavier and bulkier than its 60 cycle counter part. Frequency standardization in Ontario, a project of monolithic proportion, now long forgotten was a technological marvel in its own right. It occurred, largely, in the latter half of the 1940’s

Industrial Significance:
A rare marker of the early years in the Canadian, automatic oil heating industry, this ignition transformer by the acknowledged, early US leader in transformer engineering, design and manufacturer, Webster Electric, was stencilled for Fess Oil Burners of Canada, then an acknowledged early pioneer and market leader in the engineering, design and manufacture of oil burners in Canada. The suggestion here is that there were no Canadian ignition transformer manufactures in the period.

By the mid 1930’s the future of the Canadian oil heat industry was assured of a long period of solid growth. With hydro electrification now well advanced in many urban areas in Canada, the desire for automatic, home heating was almost universal, and with it the pressure to engineer high voltage ignition in Canada, at reduced cost and improved reliability and performance – See ID# 256 and 257.


10Kv 60 cycle ignition transformer

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Ignition Transformers

Accession # HHCC.2006.133
Exhibit: Heating

A 10,000 volt, 60 cycle spark, ignition transformer, in ferro-magnetic, steel case in gloss black enamel, with long radius corners, reminiscent of the Art Deco style. Equipped with built in junction box, adjustable base and brown porcelain high tension insulators with screw terminals, it stands as an historic example of the work of early, Canadian, ignition transformer, speciality manufactures, tooling up for the now rapidly expanding, home heating market in Canada, Amalgamated Electric, 1960.



Item: 10Kv 60 cycle ignition transformer
Manufacturer: Jefferson Electric, Amalgamated Electric Corporati
Make: Jefferson
Model: Cat No. 638-241
Features: Original wire connector and cable stub, illustrating electrical trade practices of the times

Art Deco inspired, long radius. rounded corners

Technical Significance:
Early high voltage ignition transformers were built in non-ferro magnetic, brass enclosures [See ID# 255 and 256], considered necessary to isolate the enclosure from the electro magnetic circuit. Subsequent engineering studies confirmed the use of magnetic steel shells, as seen here – a cost saving feature for the manufacturer.

By the 1960’s the toe crushing weight of early ignition transformers [See ID# 255 and 256] had been reduced by 50%, due to advances in engineering design, the use of new inorganic dielectric, insulating materials able to with stand high voltages and surges, as well as as a consequence of frequency standardization [25 to 60 cycle]

Industrial Significance:
The smoothly rounded, long radius corners, giving this device a distinctly modern Art Deco look, is also a marker of the advanced, production manufacturing methods of the 1960’s

The early patent numbers are somewhat surprising [1930 to 1932], suggest that there was little new in the technology, which could be patented, through the ensuing years to the 1960’s, the major advances being made in materials and manufacturing methods.

By the 1960’s the Canadian automatic oil heating industry was into supplying a major after-market, for parts and upgraded equipment. This ignition transformer is a marker of those times, built with adaptable, slotted base-plate, making it readily adaptable to a number of different oil burner manufacturer’s applications.

The increasingly wide range of different physical configurations, as well as different technologies appearing on the Canadian oil heating market by the 1960’s, demonstrated the immense inventiveness characterizing the Canadian automatic oil heating industry of the times. As a result, Canadian ignition transformer manufactures were called upon to adapt their deigns to many different configurations, in order to meet the needs of original equipment manufacturers, as well as the diversity of forms required to economically service the after market [See also ID# 258].

Much of the credibility of the Canadian oil heat industry would rest on its ability to service the after-market promptly, efficiently and at a cost homeowners could afford. Motors, high voltage ignition transformer and electrodes, as well as high pressure oil atomizing nozzles and oil pumps were all casualties of normal ware and tear, often breaking down as a result of prolonged periods of cold Canadian winter weather. A substantial service industry in towns and cities across the country would develop by the 1960’s, with the challenge of maintaining a stock of replacement parts in the many configurations required for emergency, “no-heat” service.


10Kv 60 cycle ignition transformer

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Ignition Transformers

Accession # HHCC.2006.134
Exhibit: Heating

A 10,000 volt, 60 cycle spark, ignition transformer, in ferro-magnetic, steel case in gloss black enamel, with long radius corners, reminiscent of the Art Deco style. Equipped with hinged base-plate and enclosed high tension insulators with adjustable brass pressure contacts and built in junction box, it stands as an historic example of the immense diversity and inventiveness of the Canadian oil heat industry during its years of post W.W.II rapid growth, Allison 1964.



Item: 10Kv 60 cycle ignition transformer
Manufacturer: Allanson Armature Mfg Co. Ltd, Toronto
Make: Allanson
Model: Cat No. 521, ty
Features: Original wire connector and cable stubs, illustrating electrical trade practices of the times

Art Deco inspired, long radius. rounded corners

Technical Significance:
Early high voltage ignition transformers were built in non-ferro magnetic, brass enclosures [See ID# 255 and 256], considered necessary to isolate the enclosure from the electro magnetic circuit. Subsequent engineering studies confirmed the appropriate use of magnetic steel shells, as seen here – a cost saving feature for the manufacturer.

By the 1960’s the toe crushing weight of early ignition transformers [See ID# 255 and 256] had been reduced by 50%, due to advances in engineering design, the use of new inorganic dielectric, insulating materials able to with stand high voltages and surges, as well as as a consequence of frequency standardization [25 to 60 cycle]

Industrial Significance:
The Canadian automatic oil heating industry was expanding rapidly in the 1960’s. The Allanson, Armature Mfg. Co., having made its name in the manufacture electric armatures for the automotive industry, for use in generators and starters would see in the heating industry opportunities for horizontal expansion, making use of its core skills – electrical coil winding.

By the 1960’s the Canadian automatic oil heating industry was into supplying a major after-market, for parts and upgraded equipment. This ignition transformer designed with a hinged base and enclosed high tension connections stands as an example of the range of configurations needed in transformers to meet the diverse engineering and design requirements of the period

The increasingly wide range of different physical configurations, as well as different technologies appearing on the Canadian oil heating market by the 1960’s, demonstrated the immense inventiveness characterizing the Canadian automatic oil heating industry of the times. As a result, Canadian ignition transformer manufactures were called upon to adapt their designs to many different configurations, in order to meet the needs of original equipment manufacturers, as well as the diversity of forms required to economically service the after-market [See also ID# 258].

Much of the credibility of the Canadian oil heat industry would rest on its ability to service the after-market promptly, efficiently, and at a cost homeowners could afford. Motors, high voltage ignition transformer and electrodes, as well as high pressure oil atomizing nozzles and oil pumps were all casualties of normal ware and tear, often short lived, often breaking down as a result of prolonged periods of cold Canadian winter weather. A substantial service industry in towns and cities across the country would develop by the 1960’s, with the challenge of maintaining a stock of replacement parts in the many configurations required for emergency, “no-heat” service.

The smoothly rounded, long radius corners, giving this device a distinctly modern Art Deco look, is a marker of the advanced, production manufacturing methods of the 1960’s


Combustion controller for oil

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.102
Exhibit: Heating

A 1920’s automated combustion controller for Canadian oil fired, home heating systems, with Bourdon tube actuated mercury switch for “pressure ignition control” and “Adjustatherm,” safety cut-out, marketed in Ottawa by Shaver Bros, Type SDP 22, , Mercoid Corp., Circa 1929. [partial assembly only]



Item: Combustion controller for oil
Manufacturer: Mercoid Corp. Chicago Ill.
Make: Mercoid
Model: Type SDP22
Features: – high style, brass name plate with logo and graphics in red and black
– Stencilled for Shaver Bros Ottawa

Technical Significance:
– Representative of the earliest automatic combustion control technology for oil fired domestic heating systems marketed in Canada, using oil pressure to actuate electric ignition transformer at predetermined set point, and a temperature sensing stack switch, as safety device, in case of flame failure. See schematic diagram.
– Representative, too, of the earliest complex systems introduced into the Canadian home. See Note #1

Industrial Significance:
– Mercoid, a name no doubt derived from the company’s reliance on mercury bulb switching, would prove to be a time honoured one in the HVACR field as it evolved over the 20th century and into the 21st. Current catalogues show similar Bourdon tube driven mercury bulb switching, as used in this 1920’s device [See Dwyer Instruments Web site]


Combustion controller for oil

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.103
Exhibit: Heating

A 1920’s automated combustion controller for Canadian oil fired, home heating systems, with oil pressure actuated, pancake style bellows safety switch, electric thermal safety lock-out with manual reset and flapper valve actuated mercury bulb switch, enclosed in stylish, heavy cast steel enclosure with highly decorated cover plate, Hart Oil Heat, Preferred Oil burners Inc., Circa 1929.



Item: Combustion controller for oil
Manufacturer: Hart Oil Heat, Preferred Oil burners Inc., Peoria, Ill.
Make: Hart Oil Heat, Preferred Oil Burners
Model: Partially obliterated
Features:
– high style, painted stencilled cover plate in red, gold and black
– Original wiring harness
– Original oil piping connectors

Technical Significance:
– Representative of the earliest automatic combustion control technology for oil fired domestic heating systems marketed in Canada
– Characteristic of a period of embryonic technological development in any field, this automated combustion controller and safety switch further demonstrates the array of mechanisms, new and novel being experimented with. From the perspective of the early 21st century, without the benefit of documentation or schematic diagram, it is not at all clear even how the various interacting and mutually supporting component parts of this panel operated to variously provide the required level of automation and safety protection required for public comfort and safety.
– Representative, of the earliest complex systems introduced into the Canadian home. See Note #1


Combustion controller for oil

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.104
Exhibit: Heating

A 1920’s automated combustion controller for oil fired, home heating systems, equipped with electro-magnetic actuated, tilting mercury bulb line voltage contractor and thermal electric safety lock-out with manual reset. Paired with a stack mounted, bimetal, automatic heat-sensing switch, it would set a new standard of performance, comfort, reliability and safety for Canadian homeowners. Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., Model 77, Circa 1929. [1 of 2, See also ID# 231]



Item: Combustion controller for oil
Manufacturer: Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., Elkhart Ind.
Make: Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls
Model: Number 77, Model 125
Features:
– Gloss black cabinet
– Sophisticated name plate and logo in black, red and chrome
– Original wiring harness

Technical Significance:
– With the “Locksmith” system, compact and elegant in concept, design and construction the Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co. would introduce a new generation of advanced engineered combustion safety controls [c.f., ID # 226 and 227] and take over acknowledged leadership in the field of automatic oil heating for the Canadian home.
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp, moved to adopt an integrated systems approach, with its companion stack mounted heat sensor [ID # 229] and room thermostat [ID #215. The system stopped and started the oil burner, on call from the room thermostat, through a line voltage, electric solenoid actuated mercury bulb switch. Ne for the times, a compact thermally timed interlock, with manual reset performed the safety protection function.
– While simple, by contrast to the next generation of combustion controllers [See 234], these automated, electrical control devices were non-the-less something of a marvel, given the embryonic nature of engineering systems know-how of the times.
– Evident in this new generation of automated electrical devices was the introduction of electronic components, heralding the period, then 40 years or so ahead, in which combustion controllers would be primarily electronic devices, for example employing photo-electric sensing. Here a simple electronic condenser had been added to the analogue electrical switching mechanism, in order to help control arching, see Company Manual Ref #1 p.42
– These embryonic, electric automated systems were representative of the earliest introduction of complex systems into the Canadian home. See Note #2

Industrial Significance:
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., would launch a new generation of combustion control and safety technology with their “Locksmith” system. Compact and elegant in concept, design and construction it would prove to be the market leader. Later Time-O-Stat would be bought out by Honeywell to carry on in the position of widely acknowledged industry leader in HVACR automation and control
– Time-O-Stat Lockswitch and Stack Switch technology was widely used on both mechanical atomizing [See collection display item H2] and pressure atomizing [See collection display item H4] automatic oil heating systems in Canada throughout the early years of the industry.
– These control systems were a source of wonderment and no little fear for the Canadian public, as well as for many of the tradesmen who were called upon to understand, install and repair them, as well as to advise the homeowner on their proper, satisfactory operation.
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., would be among the first technology suppliers to the HVACR field, who understanding the increasing complexity of their automation technology, would provide service, installation and logic, trouble shooting guides.


Flame monitoring device

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.105
Exhibit: Heating

A 1920’s high tech, automated, flame monitoring device for oil fired, home heating systems. Paired with the manufacturer’s “Locksmith” electromagnetic combustion controller [see ID#228], it operated using a helical bimetal spring to actuate twin mercury bulb switches, in order to control starting and running operations, ignition duration, flame failure and safety recycling time, Model 48H, Time-O-Stat Controls Co., Elkhart Ind. [I of 2, see ID# 236]



Item: Flame monitoring device
Manufacturer: Time-O-Stat Controls Co., Elkhart Ind.
Make: Time-O-Stat Controls
Model: Model 48H
Features:
– Gloss black, pressed steel cabinet with built in electrical junction box
– Sophisticated name plate and logo in black, red and chrome
– Instructions stencilled to the inside of cover is a reminder of the complexity of the system, the dangers and risks of malpractice and the need for informed owners and operators
– Original wiring connector

Technical Significance:
– The controller, with twin, tilting mercury bulb switches, stands as a marker of the period in the development of early line voltage automated, alternating current switching devices for inductive loads [electric motors]. Here the mercury tube became the preferred switching medium.
– The charred inside surface of the control cover shows the effect of an electrical fire at one point, not uncommon in early switching devices used on high starting current A.C. induction loads [electric motors]
– With the “Locksmith” system, and stack located heat monitor, compact and elegant in concept, design and construction the Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co. would introduce a new generation of advanced engineered combustion safety controls [c.f., ID # 226 and 227] and take over acknowledged leadership in the field of automatic oil heating for the Canadian home.
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp, later Time-O-Stat Controls Co.moved to adopt an integrated systems approach, with its companion stack mounted heat sensor [ID # 229] and room thermostat [ID #215. The system stopped and started the oil burner, on call from the room thermostat, through a line voltage, electric solenoid actuated mercury bulb switch. New for the times, a compact thermally timed interlock, with manual reset performed the safety protection function.
– While simple, by contrast to the next generation of combustion controllers [See 234], these automated, electrical control devices were non-the-less something of a marvel, given the embryonic nature of engineering systems know-how of the times.
– These embryonic, electric automated systems were representative of the earliest introduction of complex systems into the Canadian home. See Note #2

Industrial Significance:
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., would launch a new generation of combustion control and safety technology with their “Locksmith” system. Compact and elegant in concept, design and construction it would prove to be the market leader. Later Time-O-Stat would be bought out by Honeywell to carry on in the position of widely acknowledged industry leader in HVACR automation and control
– Time-O-Stat Lockswitch and Stack Switch technology was widely used on both mechanical atomizing [See collection display item H2] and pressure atomizing [See collection display item H4] automatic oil heating systems in Canada throughout the early years of the industry.
– These control systems were a source of wonderment and no little fear for the Canadian public, as well as for many of the tradesmen who were called upon to understand, install and repair them, as well as to advise the homeowner on their proper, satisfactory operation.
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., would be among the first technology suppliers to the HVACR field, who understanding the increasing complexity of their automation technology, would provide service, installation and logic, trouble shooting guides.


Control and switch panel

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.106
Exhibit: Heating

An 1920’s, field assembled electrical control and switch panel for oil fired, home heating systems, equipped with Time-O-Stat, Locksmith control [See ID# 230] and Square D, fused, manual, safety, disconnect switch, mounted on handmade pine panel board with walnut finish and fire protective covering; an icon of its times reflecting something of the trade practices and public expectations of the period, as well as the attention given to public safety, Circa 1929.



Item: Control and switch panel
Manufacturer: Unknown, Possibly Howard Oliver Aurora Ontario
Make: Shop fabricated

Technical Significance:
– The panel board is an icon of its time, reflecting something of electric trade practices and public expectations for craftsmanship in the early years of the 20th century, an embryonic period in the electrification of Canadian homes and the installation of electric equipment.
– The attention to styling and detail in the construction of the panel reflected the culture of the day. While relatively crude in construction it reflected the expectation for craftsmanship of the period, including mitred corners, finishing mouldings and furniture style walnut finish
– Here evidence of what might be seen as “over design” is every where evident. And for good reason, the public were fascinated but nervous about new unfamiliar technology in the home, especially electrical equipment that operated automatically, without the touch of human hand.
– The danger of fire and electrocution were matters of public concern. The robustly designed equipment, the evidence of government certification and equipment testing standards, as well as evidence of competent field practices and craftsmanship were intended to demonstrate due care, caution and respect in the public good.
– With the “Locksmith” system, compact and elegant in concept, design and construction by Time-O-Stat Controls Co. would introduce a new generation of advanced engineered combustion safety controls [c.f., ID # 226 and 227] and take over acknowledged leadership in the field of automatic oil heating for the Canadian home.
– The heavy steel encased, fused “safety”, disconnect switch, mounted on fire proofed panel was designed to give the customer a feeling of perfect confidence that all possible steps had been taken for the safety of the household
– Approved field practice, enforced by electrical inspectors, required that such panel boards be installed at the entrance to the furnace or boiler room within easy reach, allowing the homeowner full control and access, in order to shut down the system manually in the case of emergency.
– These embryonic, electric automated systems were representative of the earliest introduction of complex systems into the Canadian home. See Note #2

Industrial Significance:
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., would launch a new generation of combustion control and safety technology with their “Locksmith” system. Compact and elegant in concept, design and construction it would prove to be the market leader. Later Time-O-Stat would be bought out by Honeywell to carry on in the position of widely acknowledged industry leader in HVACR automation and control
– Time-O-Stat Lockswitch and Stack Switch technology was widely used on both mechanical atomizing [See collection display item H2] and pressure atomizing [See collection display item H4] automatic oil heating systems in Canada throughout the early years of the industry.
– These control systems were a source of wonderment and no little fear for the Canadian public, as well as for many of the tradesmen who were called upon to understand, install and repair them, as well as to advise the homeowner on their proper, satisfactory operation.
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., would be among the first technology suppliers to the HVACR field, who understanding the increasing complexity of their automation technology, would provide service, installation and logic, trouble shooting guides.


Combustion controller for oil

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.107
Exhibit: Heating

A 1920’s automated combustion controller for oil fired, home heating systems, equipped with electro-magnetic actuated, tilting mercury bulb line voltage contractor and thermal electric safety lock-out with manual reset. Paired with a stack mounted, bimetal, automatic heat-sensing switch, it would set a new standard of performance, comfort, reliability and safety for Canadian homeowners. Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., Model 125, No. 77, Circa 1929, missing internal component parts. [2 of 2, See also ID# 228]



Item: Combustion controller for oil
Manufacturer: Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., Elkhart Ind.
Make: Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls
Model: Number 77, Model 125
Features:
– Condenser separately found with the control, likely removed for testing and or replacement, No, M-377; Capacity.15 to 20 M. F. , Date Feb 8, 1929
– Gloss black cabinet
– Sophisticated name plate and logo in black, red and chrome

Technical Significance:
– With the “Locksmith” system, compact and elegant in concept, design and construction the Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co. would introduce a new generation of advanced engineered combustion safety controls [c.f., ID # 226 and 227] and take over acknowledged leadership in the field of automatic oil heating for the Canadian home.
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp, moved to adopt an integrated systems approach, with its companion stack mounted heat sensor [ID # 229] and room thermostat [ID #215. The system stopped and started the oil burner, on call from the room thermostat, through a line voltage, electric solenoid actuated mercury bulb switch. Ne for the times, a compact thermally timed interlock, with manual reset performed the safety protection function.
– While simple, by contrast to the next generation of combustion controllers [See 234], these automated, electrical control devices were non-the-less something of a marvel, given the embryonic nature of engineering systems know-how of the times.
– Evident in this new generation of automated electrical devices was the introduction of electronic components, heralding the period, then 40 years or so ahead, in which combustion controllers would be primarily electronic devices, for example employing photo-electric sensing. Here a simple electronic condenser had been added to the analogue electrical switching mechanism, in order to help control arching, see Company Manual Ref #1 p.42
– These embryonic, electric automated systems were representative of the earliest introduction of complex systems into the Canadian home. See Note #2

Industrial Significance:
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., would launch a new generation of combustion control and safety technology with their “Locksmith” system. Compact and elegant in concept, design and construction it would prove to be the market leader. Later Time-O-Stat would be bought out by Honeywell to carry on in the position of widely acknowledged industry leader in HVACR automation and control
– Time-O-Stat Lockswitch and Stack Switch technology was widely used on both mechanical atomizing [See collection display item H2] and pressure atomizing [See collection display item H4] automatic oil heating systems in Canada throughout the early years of the industry.
– These control systems were a source of wonderment and no little fear for the Canadian public, as well as for many of the tradesmen who were called upon to understand, install and repair them, as well as to advise the homeowner on their proper, satisfactory operation.
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., would be among the first technology suppliers to the HVACR field, who understanding the increasing complexity of their automation technology, would provide service, installation and logic, trouble shooting guides.


Combustion controller for oil

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.108
Exhibit: Heating

A late 1920’s, one-piece, trend setting, automated combustion controller for oil fired, home heating systems, elegantly named the “Pyrotherm”, it was unitary in design, stack mounted, helical bimetal heat actuated, performing essentially the same functions as the earlier two-piece technology [See ID#231 and ID#229], but with greater precision. The device was a marvel of inter-connected mechanical, electrical and electro-magnetic components, operating three mercury bulb switches; Mercoid, Type 8M, Circa 1930.



Item: Combustion controller for oil
Manufacturer: The Mercoid Corp.,Chicago
Make: Mercoid
Model: Type 8M

Technical Significance:
– The “Pyrotherm”, introduced by Mercoid, an early innovator in the field of heating and refrigeration controllers, would trigger a world change, setting the stage for much of the next 30 years of combustion, safely control engineering
– The device was a marvel of inter-connected mechanical, electrical and electro-magnetic components, operating three mercury bulb switches
– A significant design consideration in the development of unitary, stack-mounted controls was the high ambient temperatures to which they were subjected. High temperature wiring and heat shielding were new design requirements to be dealt with.
– These embryonic, electric automated systems were representative of the earliest introduction of complex systems into the Canadian home. See Note #2

Industrial Significance:
– By the standards of that day the introduction of one-piece, compact, electro-magnetic combustion controllers represented a world change in precise engineering design and manufacture, requiring new materials and engineering know how.
– These control systems were a source of wonderment and no little fear for the Canadian public, as well as for many of the tradesmen who were called upon to understand, install and repair them, as well as to advise the homeowner on their proper, satisfactory operation.
– Mercoid, a name no doubt derived from the company’s reliance on mercury bulb switching, would prove to be a time honoured one in the HVACR field, as it evolved over the 20th century and into the next – see Dwyer Instruments web site


Radiant heat sensor

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.109
Exhibit: Heating

The “Protectostat”, a late 1940’s radiant heat sensor for combustion safety control. It would set new standard for combustion safety for higher firing rate, oil atomizing heating systems found in large Canadian estate homes, institutions and small industrial applications. Sited directly on the fire, it used a black metal diaphragm to mechanically actuate a low voltage control system through a Minneapolis Honeywell “Protectorelay”, Minneapolis Honeywell, Type A, Circa 1948.



Item: Radiant heat sensor
Manufacturer: Minneapolis Honeywell Regulator Co.
Make: Minneapolis Honeywell
Model: Type A
Features:
– Handsome corporate name plate and logo in red, black and chrome

Technical Significance:
– Mounted adjacent to the burner fire tube, the device immediately sensed the radiant heat of combustion, providing here-to-for unheard of rapid response needed for the safe and satisfactory operation of larger oil fired boilers and furnaces, operating in the range of 3 to 12 gallons per minute of number 2 or 3 fuel oil.
– The Protectostat operated a Minneapolis Protectorelay, consisting of electro-magnetic switches and a thermal safety, automatic cut out timing device.
– The Protectostat with Protectorelay would become the standard of the industry for institutional and small commercial and industrial, automatic oil fired systems until the introduction of photo-electric eye, electronic sensing technology in the 1950’s, see reference.
– These embryonic, electric automated systems were representative of the early introduction of complex systems into Canadian homes and places of business. See Note #2

Industrial Significance:
– The potential explosive power of several gallons per minute of high pressure vapourized fuel oil being sprayed into a combustion chamber is awesome and a source of fear to system owners, operators and service people alike. The importance of fast response for safety shut down in case of delayed ignition on unattended, automatic systems is paramount. The development of the radiant heat sensor opened up new applications for automatic operation of boilers, where operating engineers in constant attendance became unnecessary under certain conditions.


Combustion controller ‘Honeywell’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.110
Exhibit: Heating

An example of innovative, mid 20th century combustion safety control technology that would dominate the field of household automatic oil heating through much of the balance of the century; stack mounted, bimetal heat actuated safety switching, electro-magnetic relay controlled; equipped for intermittent ignition, heat anticipation, 3 wire room thermostat, Type RA117A, 25 cycle, Minneapolis Honeywell, Toronto Circa 1945. [See also ID#235]



Item: Combustion controller ‘Honeywell’
Manufacturer: Minneapolis Honeywell Regulator Co.
Make: Minneapolis Honeywell
Model: RA117A
Features:
– Pristine enclosure in high gloss grey, a break in tradition with the “black look” of heating control devices
– Handsome corporate monograph in distinctive Minneapolis Honeywell red
– Original wiring diagram on inside of cover

Technical Significance:
– Of special significance is the 25cycle engineering of this controller, built for the Ontario market in the period prior to frequency standardization, which took place in the closing years of the 1940’s in much of the province. These devices being electro-magnetic were frequency sensitive. The large rear mounted transformer used to provide control circuit power tells the story. The 6o cycle equivalent is shown on item ID#235.
– With the introduction of new generation of integrated, relatively reliable control systems for household heating in the early 1940’s a new era of mass produced technology had arrived, setting the stage for a new, Canadian mass market.
– It combined up-dated, bimetal combustion control technology with the three wire, heat anticipating thermostat, – providing comfort, safety and reliability levels unheard of a decade earlier.
– By the early 1940’s Minneapolis Honeywell’s unitary designed, combustion controller, the RA117A Protectorelay, had arguably become a kind of standard of achievement for the home, automatic, oil heating industry in much of Canada.
– The fragile and potentially poisonous mercury bulb switching of earlier combustion controls was replaced here with quiet, reliable, electro-magnetic and bimetal driven snap action contacts,
– A significant design consideration in the development of unitary, stack-mounted controls was the high ambient temperatures to which they were subjected. High temperature wiring and heat shielding were new design requirements to be dealt with.
– These embryonic, electric automated systems were representative of the earliest introduction of complex systems into the Canadian home. See Note #2

Industrial Significance:
– This pristine control, un-used, was a factory reconditioned, control by Minneaplolis Honeywell, Toronto. It exemplifying the great care taken in recycling of equipment, part of the practice and conservation ethic of the day, delivering
reliable reconditioned equipment to a market that desperately needed it .
– It was a period quite different from that which would exist towards the end of the century, where damaged and un-reliable equipment would be declared expendable, too costly or superseded, as a result of rapid technological, design or manufacturing changes.
– By the mid 1940’s the HVACR industry recognized that a new era in the popularization of automatic home heating equipment was under way. Unitary designed, oil home heating equipment had evolved into a “home appliance”, on which many householders would now become heavily dependent.
– This new, widespread dependency on automatic heating, throughout Canada’s long cold winters, would require the industry to strive for enhanced performance in matters of reliable, maintainable and readily serviceable equipment, with readily obtainable replacement parts.
– Public expectations for 24 hour emergency service was part of the new world of popular technology that had been created. Honeywell and other manufacturers would respond by providing a line of rebuilt controls for field service people to stock for emergency purposes.


Combustion controller ‘Honeywell’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.111
Exhibit: Heating

An example of innovative, mid 20th century combustion safety control technology that would dominate the field of household automatic oil heating through much of the balance of the century; stack mounted, bimetal heat actuated safety switching, electro-magnetic relay controlled; equipped for intermittent ignition, heat anticipation, 3 wire room thermostat, Type RA117, 60 cycle, Minneapolis Honeywell, Toronto Circa 1948. [See also ID#234]



Item: Combustion controller ‘Honeywell’
Manufacturer: Minneapolis Honeywell Regulator Co.
Make: Minneapolis Honeywell
Model: RA117A
Features:
– Cabinet in black “ripple” finish part of the look of the day, based on the metalic coatings technology of the day
– Handsome corporate monograph in distinctive Minneapolis Honeywell Red
– Original instruction sheet
– Original field installed wiring ends
– Original porcelain cable box connector
– Original wiring diagram on inside of cover

Technical Significance:
– Of special significance is the 60 cycle engineering of this controller, built for the Ontario market following frequency standardization, which took place in the closing years of the 1940’s in much of the province. These devices, being electro-magnetic, were frequency sensitive. The much smaller rear mounted transformer used to provide control circuit power tells the story. The 25 cycle equivalent is shown on item ID#234.
– With the introduction of new generation of integrated, relatively reliable control systems for household heating in the early 1940’s a new era of mass produced technology had arrived, setting the stage for a new, Canadian mass market.
– It combined up-dated, bimetal combustion control technology with the three wire, heat anticipating thermostat, – providing comfort, safety and reliability levels unheard of a decade earlier.
– By the early 1940’s Minneapolis Honeywell’s unitary designed, combustion controller, the RA117A Protectorelay, had arguably become a kind of standard of achievement for the home, automatic, oil heating industry in much of Canada.
– The fragile and potentially poisonous mercury bulb switching of earlier combustion controls was replaced here with quiet, reliable, electro-magnetic and bimetal driven snap action contacts,
– A significant design consideration in the development of unitary, stack-mounted controls was the high ambient temperatures to which they were subjected. High temperature wiring and heat shielding were new design requirements to be dealt with.
– These embryonic, electric automated systems were representative of the earliest introduction of complex systems into the Canadian home. See Note #2

Industrial Significance:
– The control cabinet cover in black “ripple” finish is representative of the trendy look of the day, based on the new, metallic coatings technology of the period
– By the mid 1940’s the HVACR industry recognized that a new era in the popularization of automatic home heating equipment was under way. Unitary designed, oil home heating equipment had evolved into a “home appliance”, on which many householders would now become heavily dependent.
– This new, widespread dependency on automatic heating, throughout Canada’s long cold winters, would require the industry to strive for enhanced performance in matters of reliable, maintainable and readily serviceable equipment, with readily obtainable replacement parts.
– Public expectations for 24 hour emergency service was part of the new world of popular technology that had been created. Honeywell and other manufacturers would respond by providing a line of rebuilt controls for field service people to stock for emergency purposes.


Flame monitoring device ‘Time-O-Stat’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.112
Exhibit: Heating

A 1920’s high tech, automated, flame monitoring device for oil fired, home heating systems. Paired with the manufacturer’s “Locksmith” electromagnetic combustion controller [see ID#228], it operated using a helical bimetal spring to actuate twin mercury bulb switches, in order to control starting and running operations, ignition duration, flame failure and safety recycling time, Model 48H, Time-O-Stat Controls Co., Elkhart Ind. [I of 2, see ID# 229]



Item: Flame monitoring device ‘Time-O-Stat’
Manufacturer: Time-O-Stat Controls Co., Elkhart Ind.
Make: Time-O-Stat Controls
Model: Model 48H
Features:
– Gloss black, pressed steel cabinet with built in electrical junction box
– Sophisticated name plate and logo in black, red and chrome
– Instructions stencilled to the inside of cover is a reminder of the complexity of the system, the dangers and risks of malpractice and the need for informed owners and operators

Technical Significance:
– The controller, with twin, tilting mercury bulb switches, stands as a marker of the period in the development of early line voltage automated, alternating current switching devices for inductive loads [electric motors]. Here the mercury tube became the preferred switching medium.
– The charred inside surface of the control cover shows the effect of an electrical fire at one point, not uncommon in early switching devices used on high starting current A.C. induction loads [electric motors]
– With the “Locksmith” system, and stack located heat monitor, compact and elegant in concept, design and construction the Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co. would introduce a new generation of advanced engineered combustion safety controls [c.f., ID # 226 and 227] and take over acknowledged leadership in the field of automatic oil heating for the Canadian home.
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp, later Time-O-Stat Controls Co.moved to adopt an integrated systems approach, with its companion stack mounted heat sensor [ID # 229] and room thermostat [ID #215. The system stopped and started the oil burner, on call from the room thermostat, through a line voltage, electric solenoid actuated mercury bulb switch. New for the times, a compact thermally timed interlock, with manual reset performed the safety protection function.
– While simple, by contrast to the next generation of combustion controllers [See 234], these automated, electrical control devices were non-the-less something of a marvel, given the embryonic nature of engineering systems know-how of the times.
– These embryonic, electric automated systems were representative of the earliest introduction of complex systems into the Canadian home. See Note #2

Industrial Significance:
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., would launch a new generation of combustion control and safety technology with their “Locksmith” system. Compact and elegant in concept, design and construction it would prove to be the market leader. Later Time-O-Stat would be bought out by Honeywell to carry on in the position of widely acknowledged industry leader in HVACR automation and control
– Time-O-Stat Lockswitch and Stack Switch technology was widely used on both mechanical atomizing [See collection display item H2] and pressure atomizing [See collection display item H4] automatic oil heating systems in Canada throughout the early years of the industry.
– These control systems were a source of wonderment and no little fear for the Canadian public, as well as for many of the tradesmen who were called upon to understand, install and repair them, as well as to advise the homeowner on their proper, satisfactory operation.
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., would be among the first technology suppliers to the HVACR field, who understanding the increasing complexity of their automation technology, would provide service, installation and logic, trouble shooting guides.


Double function temperature control

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – High Temperature Limit Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.113
Exhibit: Heating

A mid 20th century, state-of-the-art, double function, adjustable temperature control for home “winter air conditioner”. Used for automatically shutting down the system to prevent over heating, as well as to star and stop the furnace fan at air temperatures that would help ensure draft free comfort; equipped with helical bimetal heat sensor, twin, tilting mercury bulbs, mechanical brass linkage and manual fan on-off switch, fan and limit control, Type M80, Mercoid, 1938.



Item: Double function temperature control
Manufacturer: Mercoid Corporation, Chicago Ill.
Make: Mercoid
Model: Type M80
Features:
– Temperature calibration dial in red and gold
– Operating, adjustment instruction etched in gold on twin fibreboard insets
– Glass bezel
– Original wiring stubs with steel sheathed cable [BX] and heavy duty L box connectors

Technical Significance:
– A mid 20th century, dual function temperature controller, exquisitely crafted using the materials and engineering know-how of the immediate pre W.W.II years
– Designed for a new, emerging, yet still elite market for winter comfort, the “winter air conditioner”. Mercoid went to great lengths to show off its new, elite, automatic, dual temperature control technology, beautifully crafting with showy glass front panel and mechanical operating mechanism crafted in brass. It was to be a prestigious controller for the homeowner anxious, and able to afford the best that the HVACR industry of the times could provide, anxious too to be able to show it off for what it was, a piece of new technology ahead of its times.
– Air circulation was a matter of engineering concern, ensuring draft free comfort for homeowners not at all used to constantly moving air in the home. The key was the temperature at which the winter air conditioner’s fan would start circulating the pre-warmed air, and at what air temperature would the fan stop
– The manual fan switch was an important sales feature, too, allowing the homeowner to manually turn the system on in the summer time to circulate filtered air throughout the home [For an account of recommended industry practices of the time operation See, “Winter Air Heating and Winter Air conditioning”, John Norris McGraw-Hill 1950.
– It would be a period characterised by much research in the field of human comfort. its necessary and sufficient conditions and the means of creating it in Canada’s climate of weather extremes. Warm air heating research would become a legitimate topic for university, as well as industrial research with technical papers and how-to-do-it manuals to follow.
– Characteristic of the period and the emerging market for winter comfort was the creation of the National Warm Air Heating and Air Conditioning Association of Canada [forerunner of the Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Institute of Canada]. Their extensive set of engineering manuals produced through the 1950’and 60’s would be the standards of the field

Industrial Significance:
– The control of air movement in forced air, residential systems, to ensure safe comfortable conditions was and continues to be a challenge. With fixed, non modulating, forced air heating equipment, which characterizes the residential field, the control of air movement through the furnace and the home was accomplished with on-off switching of the fan motor. The goal is to ensure the furnace doesn’t over heat, as a result of low air quantity, but at the same time, the householder is not subject to the movement of unheated air through the house causing drafts.
– For the purpose of initially balancing the system, variable speed fan pulley drives were widely used to adjust fan speeds [see collection Group 12.11], until electrically variable speed, digital motor control technology became available.
– Two speed motors with double windings were also used in the 1950′ through 80’s, with two step controller to reduce air flow at low during start up and shut down.


Single function temperature control

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – High Temperature Limit Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.114
Exhibit: Heating

A mid 20th century, single function, adjustable temperature safety control for home “winter air conditioner”. Used for automatically shutting down the system to prevent over heating if, for example, the fan failed to come on allowing heat to build up in the furnace plennum beyond the safe operating point; equipped with helical bimetal heat sensor, single tilting mercury bulb line voltage switch, LA419, Minneapolis Honeywell, 1946. [1 of 2, similar to ID#239]



Item: Single function temperature control
Manufacturer: Minneapolis Honeywell Regulator Co. Toronto 17
Make: Minneapolis Honeywell
Model: LA419A1X
Features:
– Complete with original T. H. Oliver tag, marketed used LA419, H limit, operation OK
– Original label with wiring diagram and specifications
– With original swivel compression mounting device allowing the postioning of the temperature sensor in the furnace hot air plennum

Technical Significance:
– A mid 20th century, single function temperature limit safety controller exemplifying the materials and engineering know-how of the immediate pre W.W.II years.
– The Post W.W.II market for “winter air conditioning” was enormous and the industry sensed the potential, but there was still the public concern over the safety of all automatic equipment operating unattended in the home.
– The development of affordable, reliable high temperature limit automatic shut off control was a key to achieving market potential. Sales people, installers and service people would make a point of pointing out the safety features, why and how they worked. Some sales people would carry one of these safety controllers with them to clinch a sale.

Industrial Significance:
– The simplicity of the controller is surely a hallmark of the times, reflecting sophisticated engineering and manufacturing methods, as well as the availability of the engineering materials needed
– This controller may be one of the first class of products to be built in Canada by Minneapolis Honeywell, for the then rapidly growing market – see dateline in side cover “Toronto 17”
– Also made as a fan on-off controller, this series of limit safety controls by Honeywell would become the work horse of the industry throughout the major growth years of the winter air conditioner market in Canada, from the 1940’s through 60’s
– The original tag on the control tells the stories of the time, where controls were repaired and held in stock by service shops for quick replacement as needed.


Single function temperature control

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – High Temperature Limit Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.115
Exhibit: Heating

A mid 20th century, single function, adjustable temperature safety control for home “winter air conditioner”. Used for automatically shutting down the system to prevent over heating if, for example, the fan failed to come on allowing heat to build up in the furnace plennum beyond the safe operating point; equipped with helical bimetal heat sensor, single tilting mercury bulb line voltage switch, LA419, Minneapolis Honeywell, 1946. [1 of 2 similar to ID#238]



Item: Single function temperature control
Manufacturer: Minneapolis Honeywell Regulator Co. Toronto 17
Make: Minneapolis Honeywell
Model: LA419A1X
Features:
– Original cable connector
– Original wiring harness stubs
– Original label with wiring diagram and specifications
– With original swivel compression mounting device allowing the postioning of the temperature sensor in the furnace hot air plennum

Technical Significance:
– A mid 20th century, single function temperature limit safety controller exemplifying the materials and engineering know-how of the immediate pre W.W.II years.
– The Post W.W.II market for “winter air conditioning” was enormous and the industry sensed the potential, but there was still the public concern over the safety of all automatic equipment operating unattended in the home.
– The development of affordable, reliable high temperature limit automatic shut off control was a key to achieving market potential. Sales people, installers and service people would make a point of pointing out the safety features, why and how they worked. Some sales people would carry one of these safety controllers with them to clinch a sale.

Industrial Significance:
– The simplicity of the controller is surely a hallmark of the times, reflecting sophisticated engineering and manufacturing methods, as well as the availability of the engineering materials needed
– This controller may be one of the first class of products to be built in Canada by Minneapolis Honeywell, for the then rapidly growing market – see dateline in side cover “Toronto 17”
– Also made as a fan on-off controller, this series of limit safety controls by Honeywell would become the work horse of the industry throughout the major growth years of the winter air conditioner market in Canada, from the 1940’s through 60’s
– The original cable connector and wiring stubs tells the stories of the trade practices and materials of the times.


Room thermostat ‘Mercoid’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Room Temperature Thermostats

Accession # HHCC.2006.089
Exhibit: Heating

An early, automatic room temperature control device, using an hydraulic bellows, temperature sensor, with mercury bulb, line voltage switching, stencilled for Williams-Oil-Matic Heating, Bloomington, Ill., promoted as “the world’s largest producer of automatic oil burners”. Temperature control devices of this genre, would introduce automation into the Canadian house hold and become markers of profound social and cultural change; Type 0104111, Mercoid Corp., Circa 1927.



Item: Room thermostat ‘Mercoid’
Manufacturer: Mercoid Corp., Chicago, Federal Warranted
Make: Mercoid for Williams Oil-0-Matic
Model: Type 0104111
Features:
– built in line voltage connection junction box

Technical Significance:
* The competing, thermostat, technologies of the day were helical bimetal spring temperature and hydraulic bellows designs. The copper bellows with heavy spring ballast appears to be less responsive for household home applications, possibly better suited to commercial situations in which Mercoid had made its name. [See ID 215]
* Equipped with a finely calibrated scale, locking adjustment lever, and leveling adjustment screws, it uses a large, commercial type, 3″ mercury tube switch.
* Much larger and much less finely sculptured than its Time-O-Stat counterpart, and without the sales appeal, it appears to be targeted on a different market segment.
* Requiring a robust contact structure,capable of handling motor starting current, would make the device much less responsive to temperature changes than later developments would allow, see for example #ID 217 and 220

Industrial Significance:
* Mercoid’s concept of what a room thermostat should look like, in order to please the tastes of the well-to-do marketplace appears well behind those of their competitor, Time-O-Stat [See ID # 215].
* Considerably less elegant in appearance, this thermostat mirrors Mercoid’s experience in commercial and industrial controls of the period. It could well be the company’s initial foray into the residential, room thermostat market, where it would find that appearance was everything.


Room thermostat ‘Penn’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Room Temperature Thermostats

Accession # HHCC.2006.090
Exhibit: Heating

An early, automatic room temperature control device, using an hydraulic bellows, temperature sensor, with open contact, line voltage switching. Temperature control devices of this genre, would introduce automation into the Canadian household, set new standards of winter comfort and convenience for Canadians, and in so doing become markers of profound social and cultural change; Type A, Penn, Circa 1930.



Item: Room thermostat ‘Penn’
Manufacturer: Penn Electric Switch Co., Des Moines, Iowa
Make: Penn
Model: Type A

Technical Significance:
* The competing thermostat technologies of the day were helical bimetal spring [See ID 215] and hydraulic bellows designs, shown here.
* Much larger and much less finely sculptured than its Time-O-Stat counterpart [See ID#215], without the sales appeal, it appears to be targeted on a different market segment.
* While similar in many ways to the engineering and construction of the Mercoid thermostat [See ID #213], the Pen model employed open contact switching, a break with much of the practice of the field in this period.
* Requiring a robust contact structure, capable of handling motor starting current, would make the device much less responsive to temperature changes than later developments would allow, see for example #ID 217 and 220

Industrial Significance:
* Penn’s concept of what a room thermostat should look like, in order to please the tastes of the well-to-do marketplace appears well behind those of their competitor, Time-O-Stat [See ID # 215]. It could well have been the company’s initial foray into the residential, room thermostat market, where it would find that appearance was everything.
* Pen Electric, much like the Mercoid Company, came into the market with a hydraulic bellows, actuated room thermostat, hoping to capture a portion of the then rapidly expanding, household, automatic, oil heating business. But even in the early 1930 the automatic heating industry was entering an increasingly competitive market, although it likely appeared at the time to be almost unlimited.
* The competing thermostat designs of the 1920’s and early 30’s [See ID #213, 214, 215] amply demonstrate the immense inventiveness of the period in which a range of technologies were being experimented with for automating home heating systems.
* Simple devices, by 21st century standards, they were non-the-less products of great engineering ingenuity for their times. They required materials and manufacturing techniques and expertise, which challenged the best engineering minds of the day.


Room thermostat ‘Time-O-Stat’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Room Temperature Thermostats

Accession # HHCC.2006.091
Exhibit: Heating

An eye appealing, early automatic room temperature control device, using a helical by-metal spring temperature sensor, with mercury bulb, line voltage switching. Temperature control devices of this genre, would introduce automation into the Canadian household, set new standards of winter comfort and convenience for Canadians, and in so doing become markers of a new technology-based consumerism and thus of profound, Canadian, social and cultural change; Cat. No 135, Time-O-Stat, Circa 1928. [See also ID# 218]



Item: Room thermostat ‘Time-O-Stat’
Manufacturer: Time-O-Stat Controls, Elkhart, Ind.
Make: Time-O-Stat
Model: Cat No. 135

Technical Significance:
* The competing thermostat technologies of the day were helical bimetal spring, shown here, and hydraulic bellows designs, [See ID 214].
* Much smaller and more finely sculptured than its competitors [Penn and Mercoid] the Time-O-Stat would have greater eye appeal and potential sales appeal, as a result.
* Actuated by a hefty, eight turn, 3/8″, 1 13/16″ OD, helical bimetal, this control can be expected perform only modestly well. With substantial inertia, and with out heat anticipation features of future generations of such devices, the home owner will experience significant over and under run and slow system response. The good news is that, with a 2 degree operating differential, it will provide comfort home conditions unparalleled for its times.
* In an astonishingly simple configuration, a 3/8″ dia. x 1 3/4-mercury bulb is attached to the floating, rear centre point of the bimetal, to which a delicately shaped brass adjustment lever is also attached. This allowing the householder to set the desired home temperature by tipping the switch bulb manually to the desired temperature.

Industrial Significance:
* An elegant room thermostat that would be seen on the walls of the drawing rooms of the Canadian well-to-do in the 1920’s.
* Tastefully and delicately proportioned, in a modest, brown, molded Bakelite case, it was a masterpiece of industrial design, instantly attracting homeowners of the period to a new, modern lifestyle of comfort and convenience.
* With patent numbers shown in the manufacturers catalogue from 1918 to 1928, Time-O-Stat must surely be accorded the position of HVACR market leader in the development of electric, room thermostatic controls for automatic, oil-fired heating systems found in Canadian homes.
* Time-O-Stat would quickly become the market leader in the new Canadian consumer culture of the 20th century, where the company would find that appearance was everything.
* Time-O-Stat products would soon appear in the catalogues of a new industry leader, Minneapolis Regulator Co. under that company’s name.
* The competing thermostat designs of the 1920’s and early 30’s [See ID #213, 214, 215] amply demonstrate the immense inventiveness of the period in which a range of technologies were being experimented with for automating home heating systems.
* Simple devices, by 21st century standards, they were non-the-less products of great engineering ingenuity for their times. They required materials and manufacturing techniques and expertise, which challenged the best engineering minds of the day.
* The attention given by Time-O-Stat to the market place and to the consumer’s appetite for the new, novel, attractive and prestigious was seen in their portable “Thermoswitch”. It was configured in the form of a minature, classic mantel clock of the period. It was inteded to stand out in the living rooms of the well-to-do, as a conversation piece and object of desire [See cat F.277-15.429, Page 12]
* Time-O-Stat’s pension for innovation was also marked a nigh-time clock operated temperature set back control, likely the first of its kind [See cat F.277-15.429, Page 11], and an early forerunner of the classic Minneapolis Honeywell Chronotherm [See ID # 216.
* Time-O-Stat would be unique in its times, bringing to the market a systems approach, providing a comprehensive, integrated set of controls for residential and commercial heating applications. “Lockswitch” safety combustion control engineering by Time-O-Stat would be the standard of the industry throughout the 1920’s and early 30’s [ See series 12.8 artifacts]


“Chronotherm” room thermostat

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Room Temperature Thermostats

Accession # HHCC.2006.092
Exhibit: Heating

The “Chronotherm” room thermostat with “Telechron”, synchronous, electric motor driven automatic night set-back, helical bimetal temperature sensor, low voltage, snap action, open contact switching, and mercury glass stem thermometer, would prove to be iconic in its times, a precursor of much to come in layered, multi-functional, consumer technology for the Canadian home, Type T12, Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co, Minneapolis, Minn., Circa 1934.



Item: “Chronotherm” room thermostat
Manufacturer: Minneapolis Honeywell Regulator Co., Minneapolis
Make: Minneapolis Honeywell
Model: Type T12, See Note

Technical Significance:
* The T12 makes use of Series 10, three-wire thermostat circuitry with heat anticipator, bringing the heating system on sooner than otherwise, in order to reduce the thermal lag in the heating system.
* The introduction of the automatic, time/temperature actuated control systems for home heating was as much a marker of profound technologic change as it was socio-cultural change [see below]. They introduced layered, multi-functional, consumer technology to the Canadian home [devices that would perform more than one function].
* Such devices were iconic in their impact and consequences for Canadians, beginning to suggest the power of technology and its potential for shaping and constantly re-shaping the life of Canadians throughout the balance of the 20th century.
* With the introduction of automatic night set-back thermostats in the late 1920’s through early 30’s, by both Time-O-Stat and Honeywell, the automation of the Canadian household was ratchet up one more notch, It would seem, at the time, that the automation of home heating comfort, by the HVACR industry, had gone as far as it was likely to go. Such, however was not the case, however, with a myriad of new consumer devices to follow, with for example automatic: heat anticipation [See ID 220], humidity control [See ID 222], air filtration [See series 15.06, early air filtration technology, area temperature zone control and integrated heating/cooling controllers [See ID 217].

Industrial Significance:
* Earlier versions of the technology, using an 8-day wind-up clock, are shown in Time-O-Stat’s product catalogue with patent numbers sited back to 1928.
* The development of the miniature, self starting, synchronous, alternating current motor technology by Telechron, and the mass production of motors for electric clocks and timing devices, was in itself an significant scientific, engineering and manufacturing accomplishment for the period – with applications and benefits which would be far reaching.
* Following the introduction of small synchronous type motors for electric clocks in the early 1930’s Minneapolis-Honeywell introduced their “Chronotherm”, a basic technology that would appear in various forms through to the introduction of digital control technology in the 1990’s.


Room thermostat ‘Honeywell – 87F’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Room Temperature Thermostats

Accession # HHCC.2006.093
Exhibit: Heating

A room heating-cooling thermostat in the Honeywell classic round configuration popular throughout the latter 20th century; high style, gold plastic body, helical bimetal activated, low voltage, miniature mercury bulb switch, adjustable heat anticipator, with helical bimetal thermometer and heat-cool, fan on-off switch base, Type 87F, Honeywell, Circa 1975. [See also ID #220]



Item: Room thermostat ‘Honeywell – 87F’
Manufacturer: Honeywell Controls Limited, Toronto
Make: Honeywell
Model: T87F

Technical Significance:
* Household temperature control technology, analogue and largely electro- mechanical and electro-magnetic in character, had reached its highest point of development by the mid 20th century, as represented here by the Honeywell T87F.
* The stage had been set for the progressive evolution of solid state, digital control HVACR control technology, which would soon dominate the field.

Industrial Significance:
* With the development of packaged mechanical cooling equipment for residential and commercial applications, the thermostat would become a multi-functional device, controlling room temperature during the heating cycle, as well as the cooling cycle and allowing switching between heating and cooling, in addition to the control of the air circulating fan on forced air systems. All this was to be accomplished within a single integrated device – to be popularly affordable and mass-produced.
* The miniaturized, single pole, double throw, mercury bulb switch required for cooling as well as heating was a masterpiece of design and mass production engineering, as was the entire configuration with small helical, bimetal, actuator and adjustable heat anticipator. It was executed in an attractive, moulded plastic, round, gold-colored format.
* A series of matching, optional, switch bases was provided by the manufacturer, in order to accommodate various switching functions, here heating/cooling on-off, fan on/automatic, part of the movement of equipment manufacturers to a comprehensive systems approach required of the times.
* The development of quiet, hermetic compressors in large capacities needed for home air conditioning applications, as well as the production and successful marketing of attractive packaged condensing units and evaporator coils for residential use contributed to the significant growth of the Canadian HVACR industry starting in the 1960’s


Room thermostat ‘Time-O-Stat’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Room Temperature Thermostats

Accession # HHCC.2006.094
Exhibit: Heating

An eye appealing, earlyau tomatic room temperature control device, using a helical by-metal spring temperature sensor, with mercury bulb, line voltage switching. Temperature control devices of this genre, would introduce automation into the Canadian household, set new standards of winter comfort and convenience for Canadians, and in so doing become markers of a new technology-based consumerism and thus of profound, Canadian, social and cultural change; with original shop tag, Cat. No 135, Time-O-Stat, Circa 1928. [See also ID# 215]



Item: Room thermostat ‘Time-O-Stat’
Manufacturer: Time-O-Stat Controls, Elkhart, Ind.
Make: Time-O-Stat
Model: Cat No. 135

Technical Significance:
* The competing thermostat technologies of the day were helical bimetal spring, shown here, and hydraulic bellows designs, [See ID 214].
* Much smaller and more finely sculptured than its competitors [Penn and Mercoid] the Time-O-Stat would have greater eye appeal and potential sales appeal, as a result.
* Actuated by a hefty, eight turn, 3/8″, 1 13/16″ OD, helical bimetal, this control can be expected perform only modestly well. With substantial inertia, and with out heat anticipation features of future generations of such devices, the home owner will experience significant over and under run and slow system response. The good news is that, with a 2 degree operating differential, it will provide comfort home conditions unparalleled for its times.
* In an astonishingly simple configuration, a 3/8″ dia. x 1 3/4-mercury bulb is attached to the floating, rear centre point of the bimetal, to which a delicately shaped brass adjustment lever is also attached. This allowing the householder to set the desired home temperature by tipping the switch bulb manually to the desired temperature.

Industrial Significance:
* An elegant room thermostat that would be seen on the walls of the drawing rooms of the Canadian well to do in the 1920’s.
* Tastefully and delicately proportioned, in a modest, brown, molded Bakelite case, it was a masterpiece of industrial design, instantly attracting homeowners of the period to a new, modern lifestyle of comfort and convenience.
* With patent numbers shown in the manufacturers catalogue from 1918 to 1928, Time-O-Stat must surely be accorded the position of HVACR market leader in the development of electric, room thermostatic controls for automatic, oil-fired heating systems found in Canadian homes.
* Time-O-Stat would quickly become the market leader in the new Canadian consumer culture of the 20th century, where the company would find that appearance was everything.
* Time-O-Stat products would soon appear in the catalogues of a new industry leader, Minneapolis Regulator Co. under that company’s name.
* The competing thermostat designs of the 1920’s and early 30’s [See ID #213, 214, 215] amply demonstrate the immense inventiveness of the period in which a range of technologies were being experimented with for automating home heating systems.
* Simple devices, by 21st century standards, they were non-the-less products of great engineering ingenuity for their times. They required materials and manufacturing techniques and expertise, which challenged the best engineering minds of the day.
* The attention given by Time-O-Stat to the market place and to the consumer’s appetite for the new, novel, attractive and prestigious was seen in their portable “Thermoswitch”. It was configured in the form of a minature, classic mantel clock of the period. It was inteded to stand out in the living rooms of the well-to-do, as a conversation piece and object of desire [See cat F.277-15.429, Page 12]
* Time-O-Stat’s pension for innovation was also marked a nigh-time clock operated temperature set back control, likely the first of its kind [See cat F.277-15.429, Page 11], and an early forerunner of the classic Minneapolis Honeywell Chronotherm [See ID # 216.
* Time-O-Stat would be unique in its times, bringing to the market a systems approach, providing a comprehensive, integrated set of controls for residential and commercial heating applications. “Lockswitch” safety combustion control engineering by Time-O-Stat would be the standard of the industry throughout the 1920’s and early 30’s [ See series 12.8 artifacts]


Room thermostat ‘Mercoid’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Room Temperature Thermostats

Accession # HHCC.2006.095
Exhibit: Heating

An early, automatic room temperature control device, in large, decorated brass enclosure, using an hydraulic bellows, temperature sensor, with large mercury bulb, line voltage switching, and calibrated scale 60 to 80 degrees F. Temperature control devices of this genre, would introduce automation into the Canadian house hold and become markers of profound social and cultural change; Type 0104111, Mercoid Corp., Circa 1927. [See also ID # 213]



Item: Room thermostat ‘Mercoid’
Manufacturer: Mercoid Corp., Chicago, Federal Warranted
Make: Mercoid
Model: Type 010426
Features:
– built in line voltage connection junction box
– original box connector for shielded cable, used in the period
– original 3 inch toggle bolt used for mounting on lath and plaster walls of the period

Technical Significance:
* The competing, thermostat, technologies of the day were helical bimetal spring temperature and hydraulic bellows designs. The copper bellows with heavy spring ballast appears to be less responsive for household home applications, possibly better suited to commercial situations in which Mercoid had made its name.
* Equipped with a finely calibrated scale, locking adjustment lever, and leveling adjustment screws, it uses a large, commercial type, 3″ mercury tube switch.
* Much larger and much less finely sculptured than its Time-O-Stat counterpart, and without the sales appeal, it appears to be targeted on a different market segment.
* Requiring a robust contact structure, capable of handling line voltage motor starting current, would make this device much less responsive to room temperature changes than later, low inertia devices with heat anticipation features, see for example #ID 217 and 220

Industrial Significance:
* Mercoid’s concept of what a room thermostat should look like, in order to please the tastes of the well-to-do marketplace appears well behind those of their competitor, Time-O-Stat [See ID # 215].
* Considerably less elegant in appearance, this thermostat mirrors Mercoid’s experience in commercial and industrial controls of the period. It could well be the company’s initial foray into the residential, room thermostat market, where it would find that appearance was everything.


A/C room thermostat ‘Honeywell – 87C’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Room Temperature Thermostats

Accession # HHCC.2006.096
Exhibit: Heating

A summer air conditioning, room thermostat, in the Honeywell classic round configuration, popularly found in the mid and latter 20th century on residential oil heating systems with add-on summer cooling; high style, gold coloured plastic body, helical bimetal temperature activated, low voltage, miniature mercury bulb switch, with helical bimetal thermometer, Type 87C, Honeywell, Circa 1964 [See also ID #217]



Item: A/C room thermostat ‘Honeywell – 87C’
Manufacturer: Honeywell Controls Limited, Toronto
Make: Honeywell
Model: T87C

Technical Significance:
The significance of the Honeywell T87 lay in a number of directions:
* It was representative of a new, exciting era, the early years of residential, year around air conditioning in Canada.
* While at the same time it marked the end of an era of household temperature control technology, which was analogue and largely electro- mechanical and electro-magnetic in character. This modus operandi had reached its highest point of development by the mid 20th century, as represented here by the Honeywell T87C. The stage had been set for the progressive evolution of solid state, digital control HVACR control technology, which would soon dominate the field.
* It would represent, too, a simplicity and precision only made possible, for the first time, by the cumulative engineering design, manufacturing and mass production experience and knowledge of the middle years of the 20th century.
* As well, there was in the Honeywell round a sophistication, maturity in styling and commitment to form, function and color that would set standards and turn heads in the field of industrial design.

Industrial Significance:
* The development of packaged, add-on, mechanical cooling equipment for residential and small commercial applications, triggered a new Canadian market starting in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s. The market targeted on those that already had an up-to-date forced air oil heating system.
* This then was the new “conversion market”, a market place which would be worked by much of the industry, very much as the industry had cut its teeth on the conversion business in the 1920’through 40’s. Then it sold oil burners and forced air fans for conversion of gravity, coal fed furnaces, making them into modern forced air automatic home heating systems.
* The movement triggered the demand for cooling thermostatic controls, as add-on’s to the existing heating system, already equipped with its own heating thermostat. The result was a hearing cooling, year round, elemental air conditioning system without the benefit of interlocks and automatic transfer function from heating to cooling. Honeywell responded to the market with the T87C, using the same thermostatic platform developed for their heating thermostat the T86A.
* A series of matching, optional, switch bases would also be made available from the manufacturer, in order to accommodate various switching functions, as needed, part of the movement of equipment manufacturers to a comprehensive systems approach required of the times.


Home humidistat

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.098
Exhibit: Heating

A mid 20th century, humidity controller, “humidistat”, for the Canadian home. A “low tech” device, using materials found in nature, it employed treated human hair for its actuating element. Stencilled for “RP”, Research Products, a leading manufacturer of humidifiers for forced air, oil fired heating applications in the post W.W.II years, it tells many stories of emerging humidification technology, through to the introduction of solid state humidity sensors, Penn, Type 842, circa 1952.



Item: Home humidistat
Manufacturer: Pen Electric Switch Co. Goshen, Ind.
Make: Pen for RP
Model: Type 842, Model1024
Features:
– actuating element of treated human hair
– classic gold metal sheath with RP, Aprilaire monograph, and
– customer recommended temperature humidity guide

Technical Significance:
– A mid 20th century, humidity controller, “humidistat”, for the Canadian home, developed in a period when engineers, without the range of high tech materials available at century’s end, would look to natural materials with the needed properties, and performance characteristics – here human hair
– Stencilled for “RP”, Research Products, a leading manufacturer of humidifiers designed for forced air, residential oil fired heating applications in the post W.W.II years through to the end of the century, it tells many stories of the emerging humidification technology of the mid 20th century, through to the introduction of solid state humidity sensors.
– It would be a period characterised by much research in the field of human comfort. its necessary and sufficient conditions and the means of creating it in Canada’s climate of weather extremes. Warm air heating research would become a legitimate topic for university, as well as industrial research with technical papers and how-to-do-it manuals to follow. In the field of winter humidity control, for example, see “Winter Air Heating and Winter Air conditioning”, John Norris McGraw-Hill 1950, Chapter 9, Humidity and the properties of Air.
– Characteristic of the period and the emerging market for winter comfort was the creation of the National Warm Air Heating and Air Conditioning Association of Canada [forerunner of the Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Institute of Canada]. Their extensive set of engineering manuals produced through the 1950’and 60’s would be the standards of the field

Industrial Significance:
– With the development of the forced air furnace “the winter air conditioner” came many new possibilities for winter comfort, automatic combustion control for solid and liquid fuels [coal and oil], automatic room temperature control, air distribution [well beyond that possible with natural convection], constant air circulation. air filtration, as well as automatic humidification . These features would be promoted by the warm air sector of the industry, as a competitive edge, over the “hot water heating systems [hydronic systems] of the times, once considered the preferred type of central heating for all that could afford it.
– During the 1940’s and 50’s the Howard Furnace Co of Toronto would be an acknowledged leader in the field of winter air conditioning equipment for the Canadian market, see reference. There promotion would read “Enjoy filtered, humidified, gently moving air throughout every part of your home”, “Have even temperature maintained in all rooms with lowest possible fuel costs and little attention”. This was surely new world experience for Canadians in the middle years of the 20th century


Temperature / humidity gauge

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.099
Exhibit: Heating

A pair of mid 1930’s room temperature and humidity dial read-out devices for locating around the home. With the promotion of coal and oil “winter air conditioning”, new expectations had been established by the Canadian HVACR industry about the winter human “comfort zone” now made possible [See ID#222]. It was a period, too, in which the popular mind was being increasingly bombarded with information on the wonders of modern science and the importance of scientific measurement – if you can’t measure it you can’t control it, Taylor, 1936.



Item: Temperature / humidity gauge
Manufacturer: Likely Taylor Instrument Co. Rochester N.Y.
Make: Taylor
Features:
– Modern styling reflecting the new modernism of the 1930’s, executed in black, red and chrome

Technical Significance:
– The immediate pre W.W.II years was a period of ever increasing expectations about the winter comfort that was now available for the Canadian home – for all those that could afford it. With the development of the forced air furnace, “the winter air conditioner”, came many new possibilities for winter comfort. Included were, automatic combustion control for solid and liquid fuels [coal and oil], automatic room temperature control, air distribution [well beyond that possible with natural convection], constant air circulation. air filtration, as well as automatic humidification. These features would be promoted with great success by the warm air sector of the industry, as a competitive edge, over the “hot water heating systems [hydronic systems] of the times – once considered the preferred type of central heating for all that could afford it.
– By the mid 1930’s many Canadians had become used to the new automated, in-door comforts now possible for the home. They had become used, also, to the glass stem thermometer conspicuously mounted on the wall thermostat and would check it regularly to make sure their heating system was operating properly. But what was new, here, with the advent of the “winter air conditioner”, with forced air circulation, was the suggestion that temperature and humidity conditions should be more or less uniform throughout the entire home, not merely at the thermostat.
– With the marketing and popularization of such remote temperature and humidity measuring devices, homeowners were being invited to check it out for themselves. They were encouraged to purchase a set of scientific air temperature and humidity measuring instruments, make their own scientific measurements and consequently make such changes in the operation of the system, largely by opening and closing registers and dampers, as needed to bring the entire home into one uniform comfort zone. Needless to say many would quickly find the limitations of the new technology – for automatic zone control was still several decades away for most Canadian’s with forced warm air heating systems.
– There was a sense that local heating technicians, such as Howard Oliver, Aurora, in marketing temperature and humidity, dial read-out devices such as these, was inviting the home owner to be part of a new “do it yourself generation”. They were invited to take their own scientific measurements and make their own adjustments, within their own ability and that of the system to respond.

Industrial Significance:
– The 1930’s and 40’s would be a period characterised by much research in the field of in-door human comfort, its necessary and sufficient conditions and the means of creating it in Canada’s climate of weather extremes. Warm air heating research would become a legitimate topic for university, as well as industrial research with technical papers and how-to-do-it manuals to follow. In the field of winter humidity control, for example, see “Winter Air Heating and Winter Air conditioning”, John Norris McGraw-Hill 1950, Chapter 9, Humidity and the properties of Air.
– Characteristic of the period and the emerging market for winter comfort was the creation of the National Warm Air Heating and Air Conditioning Association of Canada [forerunner of the Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Institute of Canada]. Their extensive set of engineering manuals produced through the 1950’and 60’s would be the standards of the field

– During the 1940’s and 50’s the Howard Furnace Co of Toronto would be an acknowledged leader in the field of winter air conditioning equipment for the Canadian market, see reference. There promotion would read “Enjoy filtered, humidified, gently moving air throughout every part of your home”, “Have even temperature maintained in all rooms with lowest possible fuel costs and little attention”. This was surely new world experience for Canadians approaching the middle years of the 20th century.


Automatic draft stabilizer

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.116
Exhibit: Heating

Employed to automatically bypassing air up the chimney, this automatic draft stabalizer, for use on home heating systems fired with coal, fuel oil or gas was equipped with cast iron frame with sheet metal boot. The brake-formed, pivoted damper blade is decorated in handsome red, wrinkled finish, with balancing weight affixed to a travelling screw, which is manually adjusted with a rotating knurled hand wheel, Draft-O-Stat, circa 1935.



Item: Automatic draft stabilizer
Manufacturer: Hotstream Heater Co, Cleveland, Ohio
Make: Hotstream
Model: Unspecified
Features:
– Equipped with gold lettering Accessories
– Handsome red, wrinkled finish
– Needle point pivot damper mounts
– Original installation instruction sheet

Technical Significance:
– The introduction of automation for home heating systems in Canada brought with it a range of engineering and operational challenges, which were often unexpected. A largely unanticipated requirement, in the early years, was the need for an over-the-fire automatic draft control.
– The performance, safety and efficiency of automated combustion was dependent on reasonably stable draft – not too high not too low. It was a period in which heating systems operated on conventional chimneys, which would produce a great range of draft conditions, depending on height, flue size, wind strength, direction and so forth.
– The simple, weighted, pivoted, bypass damper blade system opened to allow excess air [beyond what was required for clean combustion] to pass up the chimney, rather than be drawn over the fire.
– The system was ideal for the heating applications of the period, which were predominantly of the “conversion” type in which existing furnaces and boilers, operating on conventional chimneys were converted from manual to automated combustion
– The device, in various configurations, would become the standard of the industry for home heating systems, through to the introduction of forced draft and induced draft combustion in the latter part of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– With increasing sophistication in system design came the need for greater precision in the setting of draft regulators. The draft gauge and combustion efficiency test kit would become an essential tools in the installers and service technicians tool box [see Collection Group 12.12]
– An exemplary “Cadillac” version of the draft stabilizer, this device by Draft-O-Stat, decorated in black, red and gold, would soon appear in much lower cost versions, as the pressure for cost reduction and market forces began to be key factors in the development of automatic home heating equipment.


Oil furnace panel board

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.117
Exhibit: Heating

A 1920’s, field assembled panel board, typically found in homes equipped with automatic, oil heating of the period, used for mounting of manual disconnect switch and other controllers at the entrance to the furnace or boiler room. Crudely made of pine board with walnut finish and fire protective covering; an icon of its times reflecting something of the trade practices and the attention given to public appearance and safety, Circa 1929. [See also ID#230]



Item: Oil furnace panel board
Manufacturer: Unknown, Possibly Howard Oliver Aurora Ontario
Make: Shop fabricated

Technical Significance:
– The panel board is an icon of its time, reflecting something of electric trade practices and public expectations for craftsmanship in the early years of the 20th century, an embryonic period in the electrification of Canadian homes and the installation of electric equipment.


Safety disconnect switch

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.118
Exhibit: Heating

A 1920’s automatic oil heating, safety, disconnect switch, in heavy steel, 4 pound enclosure, telling many stories around a master narrative, dominant in the times. The prospect of home electrification brought with it widespread concern for public safety with steps taken by authorities to help ensure safe practice and to ally unnecessary public apprehension, Square D, Circa 1928 [See also ID#230]



Item: Safety; disconnect switch
Manufacturer: Square D Company Canada Ltd., Walkerville Ontario
Make: Square D
Model: Cat 96211
Features:
– Brass name plate, decorated in black with safety instructions
– Blue and white seal of the Hydro Electric Power Commission of Ontario, aproval No. 634
– Original box connector
– Field installed dual knock out cover in galvanized sheet metal stock, screwed in place with 2 no 8-32 x 3/4 inch machine screws, illustrates the adherence to the electrical code requirements of the day
– External # 8 solder lug affixed to the box, illustrates the grounding practice of the day in which much cable was not grounded and required a separate grounding network.

Technical Significance:
– The danger of fire and electrocution were matters of wide spread public concern in the 1920’s through 30’s. Robustly designed equipment, evidence of government certification and equipment testing standards, as well as evidence of competent field practices and craftsmanship were all-important indicators intended to demonstrate due care, caution and respect for public safety.
– Approved field practice, enforced by electrical inspectors, required that such panel boards be installed at the entrance to the furnace or boiler room within easy reach, allowing the homeowner full control and access, in order to shut down the system manually in the case of emergency [see ID#230].
– The switch provides an example of the use of terminology in the description and specification of safety switches in the early years of home electrification technology. The device is described prominently on the cover as “single throw fused bottom’.
– Of technological significance, in the history of emerging technology of home electrification , is this 120 volt, fused, disconnect switch designed with a fused neutral – a practice which would be rethought a few years later, and abandoned.

Industrial Significance:
– The device tells the stories of the widespread apprehension over the coming of home electrification and the steps taken by the underwriters, regulators [codes and practices], electric utilities and equipment manufacturers to ally public fears over home electrification – and in fact ensure public safety in an embryonic and rapidly developing field where there was little practical experience to draw on.
– The embryonic HVACR industry of the times was anxious to work with the electrical equipment manufacturers, regulators and underwriters in publishing re-assuring information on the many benefits and safety of home electrification, as well as educating the tradesmen of the day on electrical codes and safe practices. For these were seen as necessary prerequisites for the sale of automatic home heating equipment.


Hard fire brick

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.119
Exhibit: Heating

In the embryonic and early development years of automatic, oil heating systems in Canada, high temperature fire brick were the building blocks of the “fire box” [combustion chamber]. The firebox, holding a 2.600 degree F. flame in check, was a critical component, determining both system safety and performance. It would be skilfully crafted on-the-job, according to the size of the fire chamber, the combustion rate and the unique flame configuration of the oil burner, hard fire brick, A P Green, Circa 1938.



Item: Hard fire brick
Manufacturer: A P Green, Toronto
Make: A P Green
Model: A – Empire DP

Technical Significance:
In the embryonic and early development years of automatic, oil heating systems in Canada, high temperature “Hard” fire brick were the building blocks of the “fire box” [combustion chamber]. Shaped much like regular bricks, but made from clays withstanding high temperature.

The firebox, holding a 2.600 degree F. flame in check, was a critical component, determining both system safety and performance, a matter of concern for the installer and technician.

It would be skilfully crafted on-the-job, according to the combustion rate and the unique flame configuration of the oil burner the size of the fire chamber and the gut feel of the installer.

Industrial Significance:
The construction of fireboxes was an art form of the day, with all to often little for the installer to guide him in a wide range of decisions to be made, effecting the performance of the oil burner and the safety of the system see references.

Most heating automatic oil heating systems of the 1920’s on into the 40’s in Canada were of the “conversion” type, typically coal and wood fired furnaces and boilers in which oil burners were installed. Wood and coal grates were removed and firebrick used to build a box like configuration, typically, but not always, with a hole at one end to receive the blast tube of the oil burner.

With the evolution of the industry came softer lighter fire brick, see ID#244, as well as pre-cast moulded refractory materials, in a range of sizes, pre-shaped for certain firing rates and fire chambers, see ID#245.

The significant developments in ceramics engineering, reflected in the refractory materials of the period, should not be understated, for they made possible the evolution of automatic home heating and its seminal contribution to life in Canada. An unobtrusive technology in the public eye, the accomplishments in ceramics engineering tend to get lost in the midst of the Gee-Whiz technological achievements in combustion and electric control engineering of the 1920’s and 30’s.

By the 1960’s much ceramic-based combustion chamber engineering would give way to light weight stainless steel configurations, considered preferable for the new world of unitary equipment, pre-tested and shipped to the job site ready for installation.


‘Soft’ fire brick

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.120
Exhibit: Heating

In the embryonic and early development years of automatic, oil heating systems in Canada, high temperature fire brick were the building blocks of the “fire box” [combustion chamber]. The firebox, holding a 2.600 degree F. flame in check, was a critical component, determining both system safety and performance. It would be skilfully crafted on-the-job, according to the size of the fire chamber, the combustion rate and the unique flame configuration of the oil burner, “soft” fire brick, A P Green, Circa 1940.



Item: ‘Soft’ fire brick
Manufacturer: A P Green, Toronto
Make: A P Green

Technical Significance:
With the evolution of the industry came soft light weight fire brick, as well as pre-cast moulded refractory materials, in a range of sizes, pre-shaped for certain firing rates and fire chambers, see ID#245

In the embryonic and early development years of automatic, oil heating systems in Canada, high temperature fire brick were the building blocks of the “fire box” [combustion chamber]. Shaped much like regular bricks, but made from clays withstanding high temperature

The firebox, holding a 2.600 degree F. flame in check, was a critical component, determining both system safety and performance, a matter of concern for the installer and technician.

It would be skilfully crafted on-the-job, according to the combustion rate and the unique flame configuration of the oil burner the size of the fire chamber and the gut feel of the installer.

Industrial Significance:
The construction of fireboxes was an art form of the day, with all to often little for the installer to guide him in a wide range of decisions to be made, effecting the performance of the oil burner and the safety of the system see references

Most heating automatic oil heating systems of the 1920’s on into the 40’s in Canada were of the “conversion” type, typically coal and wood fired furnaces and boilers in which oil burners were installed. Wood and coal grates were removed and firebrick used to build a box like configuration, typically, but not always, with a hole at one end to receive the blast tube of the oil burner.

The significant developments in ceramics engineering, reflected in the refractory materials of the period, should not be understated, for they made possible the evolution of automatic home heating and its seminal contribution to life in Canada. An unobtrusive technology in the public eye, the accomplishments in ceramics engineering tend to get lost in the midst of the Gee-Whiz technological achievements in combustion and electric control engineering of the 1920’s and 30’s.

By the 1960’s much ceramic-based combustion chamber engineering would give way to light weight stainless steel configurations, considered preferable for the new world of unitary equipment, pre-tested and shipped to the job site ready for installation.


Fire box sections

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.121
Exhibit: Heating

Pre-cast, sectional, circular, high temperature refractory sections, made in a range of sizes and compositions, became widely used starting in the 1940’s for the construction of “fire boxes” [combustion chambers]. The firebox, holding a 2.600 degree F. flame in check, was a critical component, determining both system safety and performance, 2 sections, model 424, A P Green, Circa 1945.



Item: Fire box sections
Manufacturer: A P Green, Toronto
Make: A P Green
Model: 424

Technical Significance:
With the evolution of the industry came pre-formed, sectional, circular refractory sections in a range of sizes, pre-shaped for certain firing rates and fire chambers

The evolution of pre-formed, sectional, circular refractory was hastened by the development of unitary, factory made and assembled warm air furnaces, winter air conditioners and hot water home heating boilers. Shipped to the job site this equipment came complete with oil burner, refractory and control system reedy for installation.

Industrial Significance:
With the evolution of unitary equipment for residential heating in Canada came generally higher levels of system performance, reliability and safety, with much of the guess work required with the conversion of hand fired wood and coal fired systems gone.

The significant developments in ceramics engineering, reflected in the refractory materials of the period, should not be understated, for they made possible the evolution of automatic home heating and its seminal contribution to life in Canada. An unobtrusive technology in the public eye, the accomplishments in ceramics engineering tend to get lost in the midst of the Gee-Whiz technological achievements in combustion and electric control engineering of the 1920’s and 30’s.

By the 1960’s much ceramic-based combustion chamber engineering would give way to light weight stainless steel configurations, considered preferable for the new world of unitary equipment, pre-tested and shipped to the job site ready for installation.


Furnace air filter

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.122
Exhibit: Heating

Two inch air filter for winter air conditioner, in black heavy card board frame with decorative grill patterning and oil treated steel wool filler, set of four, Howard Furnace Company, Toronto, circa 1939.



Item: Furnace air filter
Manufacturer: Howard Furnace Company, Toronto
Make: Howard Furnace
Features: Decorated and imprinted in silver on black; With self contained user instructions for cleaning and replacing

Technical Significance:
Winter air conditioning was new for the Canadian home, in the late 1930’s. It was for the Canadian consumer, seen as one of the “big’ technologies of the day, like the radio and the automobile, for it would come to change the lives of people, what they did in the course of the day, the way they lived and went about there lives, as well as their expectations of the comforts, amenities, which life had in store for them

From the perspective of the early 21st century it would be difficult to imagine the euphoria with which these technologies were viewed, by those who could afford to dream about the joys and benefits they held for life and life’s ways.

The air filter was front and centre in the promotion of the winter air conditioner technology, an important component of the hyperbola used. What was new was not so much the promise of a warm home for a cold Canadian winter, but filtered, dust free air, circulated through the home at 1000 cubic feet per minute. See sales material by Howard furnace reference below

See also ID # 222 and 223 for companion technologies, targeted on improvements in air quality, humidification for the winter air conditioner in Canada

Industrial Significance:
The Howard Furnace Company of Toronto would be a widely acknowledged Canadian market leader in the field of winter air conditioning in the 1930’s through 50’s, setting industry design and innovative development standards.

The promise of filtered air would open up a massive market segment in Canada that would continue to grow, part of the promotion for both winter and summer air conditioning equipment, through to the early years of the 21st century.


Motor drive pulley

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.123
Exhibit: Heating

The variable speed motor drive pulley would be a hero of the moment, a simple, unobtrusive, “low tech” means for controlling air quantity, temperature, and distribution velocity, on which much of the customer acceptance of forced warm air heating and winter air conditioning sales would rest in Canada, starting in the late pre W.W.II years; set of three pulleys in various design configurations, Circa 1945.



Item: Motor drive pulley
Features: Each showing different signs of use and misuse, telling stories of application, including patterns of ware, over painting and corrosion

Technical Significance:
The variable speed motor drive pulley was a “low tech”, solution for adjusting fan speed, on belted fan drives, used for balancing air volume circulated by winter air conditioners, starting in the late 1930’s through the introduction of direct drive centrifugal fans employing electrical motor speed adjustment technology.

The successful development and wide spread adoption of the winter air conditioner and forced warm air heating in the Canadian, starting in the late pre W.W.II years, brought with it a wide range of engineering and manufacturing challenges, Those related to combustion management and control [see historic artifacts of the period, Group 12.05 to 12.07], automatic temperature and safety control [Group 12.09 to 12.10] and air flow and air quality control [see Group 12.11]. Prior the development of forced air systems, a flow technology and controlwas of little consequence, the focus being on combustion systems and automatic safety control technology. But all that would quickly change as the 1940’s emerged.

Air quality and movement throughout the home and the technologies required to control and regulate it, including air quantity, temperature, humidity and draft free air distribution, quickly became a significant factors in ensuring customer comfort, product satisfaction and wide spread market acceptance.

The development of centrifugal fan and related drive technology, as well as manufacturing methods needed to help ensure affordability, high performance, efficient and reliable air handling were central factors in the race for market share.

It was the early years of fractional horse power electric motor development, suitable for reliable use on automatic home heating equipment, where fail could quickly produce hazardist conditions [see Group 16.00 artifacts]. The motor and drive for centrifugal fan application was a special challenge, met in part through the use of belted drive systems.

A system was urgently required to adjust fan speed and thus air volume, temperature and velocity for belted fan applications, in order to ensure comfort conditions, which were largely idiosyncratic, dependent on home configuration and occupancy response – the latter, often on an illusive sense of human comfort and well being. Home owners used to static air environments would be critical of spaces with rapid air change rates and accompanying drafts.

The variable speed pulley became the hero of the moment, a simple, unobtrusive, low tech solution, on which much of the customer acceptance of forced warm air heating and winter air conditioning equipment sales would rest in those early development years

See also ID # 222 and 223 for companion technologies, targeted on improvements in air quality, humidification for the winter air conditioner in Canada

Industrial Significance:
Practice of balancing forced air heating systems, to ensure customer comfort and satisfaction, evolved on trial and error basis. By the late 1940’s field manuals became available for the guidance of installers and technicians, for the adjustment and balancing of forced air heating systems. Among them were those produced by the National Warm Air Heating and Air conditioning Association, active in the training field in the 1950’s and beyond, see references.


Electric hot water heater

Electric Heating Equipment – Water Heating

Accession # HHCC.2003.083
Exhibit: Heating

In the early years of household electrification Canadians, next to valuing the benefits of the carbon filament, electric light bulb, would look to electricity to provide a constant, reliable flow of hot water for personal and domestic purposes. The Hotpoint, electric circulating, hot water heater would become a ubiquitous fixture in the homes of the nation, for all those who could avail themselves of this new found luxury, Canadian General Electric, Hotpoint, 1929.



Item: Electric hot water heater
Manufacturer: Canadian General Electric
Make: Hotpoint
Model: 2W25

Electric simulated fireside

Electric Heating Equipment – Space Heating

Accession # HHCC.2003.084
Exhibit: Heating

A quite remarkable piece of early 20th century styling and engineering of an electrical, room heating appliance by a small, uniquely Ontario, foundry company, branching out into the electric, home equipment business. Canadians, it is said, value their quintessential, winter, fireside, experience above all, So the electric, simulated fireside, with electric heating coils and flickering lights, filtered through amber chunks of glass was seen as a market winner in the early1930’s, Renfrew Electric Products, Renfrew Ont, 1935.



Item: Electric simulated fireside
Manufacturer: Renfrew Electric Products ltd., Renfrew Ont
Make: Renfrew
Model: 65B


Electric baseboard heater

Electric Heating Equipment – Space Heating

Accession # HHCC.2006.100
Exhibit: Heating

An electric baseboard style room heater, a marker of what would prove to be a relatively short blip in time when electrical energy in much of Canada was perceived as plentiful and highly promoted for residential space heating. Here shown in a 42 inch unit with simulated walnut metallic finish, built in thermostat and line cord, 1200 w, 120 volts; HeatFlo, Canada, Cat PB414, circa 196.0 [See also ID # 221]



Item: Electric baseboard heater
Manufacturer: Heatflo, Canada
Make: Heatflo
Model: Cat. PB414
Features:
– Company name on black on gold background, on inexpensive adhesive label

Technical Significance:
The significance of this artifact is two fold:
– First, as a representative of the class of portable room heaters that emerged in the late 1950’s and 1960’s, piggy backing on the popularity of central system, electric, resitance, base-board home heating. It would be a trend relatively short lived, as other forms of portable electric space heaters came along more convenient, compact, safer and with more inherent market appeal.
– Second, as a representative of the form and construction of the baseboard units used as components in central systems of the times.

Industrial Significance:
– As in any new, rapidly expanding field of engineering and production of consumer goods many new players are attracted to the field. Many hope to turn a quick profit under the market conditions of the moment, with a minimum investment, but often without the staying power needed for long term growth and participation in the field. “Heatflo” appears to have been of that nature, using very conventional low-tech cabinet manufacturing and assembly techniques, possibly purchasing their electric heaters from another major supplier of the period.


Electric space heating thermostat

Electric Heating Equipment – Room Temperature Thermostats

Accession # HHCC.2006.097
Exhibit: Heating

An electric space heating thermostat, a marker of what would prove to be a relatively short blip in time when electrical energy in much of Canada was plentiful and highly promoted for residential space heating. With 21 ampere capacity, conveniently configured for mounting on a standard electrical wall box, it is decorated with red logo and stencilled “Electric Heating”, in Honeywell’s then well known, high style gold-look, Honeywell T46, circa 1959. [See also ID # 224]



Item: Electric space heating thermostat
Manufacturer: Minneapolis Honeywell, Regulator Co
Make: Minneapolis Honeywell
Model: T460A or B
Features:
– decorated in the then familiar, sophisticated, high style gold-look established by Honeywell in their round series of thermostats,
– handsome Honeywell logo in red, and
– marked “Electric Heating”, a social prestige symbol of the period

Technical Significance:
– With high capacity 21 ampere, non inductive load rating, built on a simple all plastic platform, the thermostat exemplifies the sophistication of engineering and manufacturing methods achieved in the period.

Industrial Significance:
– The line voltage, electric space heating thermostat would be popular in many of the housing developments of the period. Much less costly then the low voltage counterparts, it would become a common place in the electrically heated housing developments of 60’s through 80’s, as well as in some custom building.


Single phase, 25 cycle motor motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.169
Exhibit: Ventilation

A rare, early 20th century, commutating, single phase, 25 cycle, alternating current motor, likely of the repulsion type, an early marker of vastly changing times to come, following the first wave of home electrification. It would herald the coming invasion of the Canadian home by electro-motive technology, manufacturer’s name partially obliterated, date unknown. [se also ID# 304]



Item: Single phase, 25 cycle motor motor
Make: Manufacturer’s name partially obliterated
Features:
– Oiler cap marked “The OK Mfg Co. Dayton O.”
– 6 inch pig tail leads illustrating electrical wiring practice of the times

Technical Significance:
– A rare example of an early communtating, alternating current motor design, engineering and manufacture, likely of the repulsion motor genre. See references 1, 2 and 5 for discussion of design and operation of early 20th century communtating AC motors.
– An early marker of vastly changing times to come, following the first wave of home electrification technology. An icon, it would herald the coming invasion of the Canadian home by electro-motive technology, starting in central Canada in the 1920’s.


Repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.170
Exhibit: Ventilation

Classic mid 20th century, heavy duty, repulsion induction, brush lifting motor, dual voltage and mechanically reversible. Canadian made, it would characterize much of the Canadian experience through middle and latter years of the century, a period which saw massive growth in the demand for such high torque motors following W.W.II and frequency standardization. Yet, paradoxically, the period also witnessed the progressive demise of the technology, Leland [new and unused], Circa 1960. [See also ID# 308]



Item: Repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric Canada Limited, Guelph Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: Form AKWJH, Type R
Features:
– Built-in well for the possible installation of “Klixon” motor overload protector with automatic reset.
– Shop tag in Howard Oliver’s hand writing, “checks OK, Jan 1975”

Technical Significance:
– With a built-in “well” making provision for “Klixon” inherent motor overload protector technology, this artifact is a marker of the advances made by mid century in personal and property protection for the FHP motor owners. By then, the inherent, automatic overload projector with automatic reset had become a mainstream technology, for which provisions were being built into the motor body, whether the particular application required it or not. Inherent, automatic overload motor protection was a universal truth for FHP motor design by the middle of the 20th century. It was yet another indicator of the new world of advances made through automation – as it existed in the mid 20th century.
– Canadian made, this motor would characterize much of the Canadian experience through middle and later years of the century, in high torque, FHP motor development. A period which saw massive growth in the demand for such high starting torque motors, typically for use on refrigeration equipment, which flooded the market in those years, following W.W.II and frequency standardization.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology,throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– For the Canadian household and commercial refrigeration industry, pioneered by Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it would be a “just-in-time” technology, as well as an immensely enabling one – and what it enabled was considerable. Sir William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, had just set out the theoretical principles of the compression refrigeration, Carnot cycle [see Note #1]. But there existed no electro-motive devices with sufficient starting torque able to drive the compressor, making mechanical cooling practical for household and commercial uses – even for those who were otherwise able to enjoy the benefits of electrification. The push was on to develop such a device, the repulsion induction, single-phase motor would quickly follow.
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Well recognized for their performance, reliability and maitainability, the repulsion induction engineering designs employed by Leland Electric, Quelph Ontario, along with Wagner Electric Leaside would in many ways serve to characterizing best Canadian practice through middle and later years of the century.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


Variable speed repulsion motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.171
Exhibit: Ventilation

A rarity, a variable speed repulsion motor, with mechanical speed, forward and reverse control lever. A classic, mid 20th century piece of speciality, repulsion induction technology, marking the apogee of the genre – in a period when the genre was still the wonder-boy of single phase, electric motor engineering. Canadian made, it would stand as a special time piece, marking the achievements and sophistication of the Canadian electric motor engineering and manufacturing, part of the “golden years” of the industry in Canada, Leland, 1948.



Item: Variable speed repulsion motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric Canada Limited, Quelph Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: Form BOWJH, Type RV
Features:
– 6 inch pressed steel V pulley for B and C-section belts. The pulley, now badly out of alignment, and showing the signs of rusting, as a result of normal ware and tar, marks these pulleys, fabricated in pressed steel, as best for light duty applications

Technical Significance:
– Variable speed repulsion motor with mechanical speed, forward and reverse control lever.
– A classic, mid 20th century piece of speciality, repulsion induction technology, marking the apogee of the genre – in a period when the genre was still the wonder-boy of single phase, electric motor engineering. For it would be another half century before capacitor start, electronic, digital speed control would be popularly available.
– Canadian made, it would stand as a special time piece, marking the achievements and sophistication of the Canadian electric motor engineering and manufacturing, part of the “golden years” of the industry in Canada,
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Well recognized for their performance, reliability and maitainability, the repulsion induction engineering designs employed by Leland Electric, Quelph Ontario, along with Wagner Electric Leaside would in many ways serve to characterizing best Canadian practice through middle and later years of the century.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.172
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, repulsion induction, brush lifting, 25 cycle motor, manufactured in Canada for Kelvinator’s pioneering generation of cabinet refrigerators for the home. With bronze bearings and short, snap cap oilers, open ventilated, cast iron frame, and slotted 4 bolt, rigid steel base, it stands as a rare time piece in the evolution of the Canadian FHP motor and refrigeration industries, Wagner, 1928.



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: Type 66XL7 RA
Features:
– 3 original manufacturers shipping tags

Technical Significance:
– A rare glimpse of the earliest years of Canadian commercial production of repulsion induction, FHP, single phase, motor technology. In spite of the engineering and manufacturing challenges faced, the development was spurred on by the promise of ever increasing market demand for high starting torque motors for home and commercial applications.
– The technology, complete with centrifugally operated brush lifters [to reduce wear and noise], and armature short circuiting mechanism [to convert from repulsion start to induction run operation] represented a truly astonishing level of research and development, and manufacturing know how, all in an era with little theory and practical experience to draw on.
– The bearing oiling system, engineered without extended oiler tubes, stands as an example of early consumer product development, with little regard for public safety. Many fingers would get caught in pulleys and fan blades before extension safety oiler tubes would become common place [see for example ID# 301 to 307]. With the ever-increasing range and sophistication of electro-motive devices for home use would come increasingly stringent safety requirements with the regulatory agencies needed to enforce them. By the end of the century substantial space in customer owning and operating manuals would be given over to safety precautions.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– For the Canadian household and commercial refrigeration industry, pioneered by Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it would be a “just-in-time” technology, as well as an immensely enabling one – and what it enabled was considerable. Sir William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, had just set out the theoretical principles of the compression refrigeration, Carnot cycle [see Note #1]. But there existed no electro-motive devices with sufficient starting torque able to drive the compressor, making mechanical cooling practical for household and commercial uses – even for those who were otherwise able to enjoy the benefits of electrification. The push was on to develop such a device, the repulsion induction, single-phase motor would quickly follow.
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Canadian made, this motor would stand as a marker of the earliest years of FHP, single phase, electric motor manufacturing in the country. It would be spurred on by the promise of new market opportunities for electro-mechanical home appliances,
– The oil soaked service tags, still attached to the motor after close to 80 years, tell a number of stories of their life and times:
1. Of constant oil spillage, typically running over the floor of a Canadian kitchen somewhere, the result of over oiling of motor bearings and leaking refrigeration compressor seals. The sealed motor compressor unit could not come too soon for many home owners.
2. Of the 20 some odd service centres across Canada, established to support the service of Wagner motors and Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, as early as 1928
3. Of the four-year replacement program, which Kelvinator maintained to promote the quality and reliability of the cabinet refrigerators they marketed to wary homeowners, as early as the 1920’s.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.173
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with historic innovative, first generation, vibration isolating motor mounts, a significant step in helping to reduce the noise level in the canadian kitchen, resulting from the introduction of motorized machinery, built in Canada for Kelvinator’s cabinet refrigerators introduced in the early 1930’s, Wagner, Circa 1932.



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL22B110K128, Type SAR
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– With original shop tag, T.H. Oliver, Refrigeration and Electric Service, marked “salvage …..”

Technical Significance:
– An artifact of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology for the Canadian home:
1. An early Canadian made FHP motor for an early Canadian refrigerator manufacturer, marking the optimism of the times, the capital investment made, in spite of a period of marked economic depression
2. A pioneering step in quieting the Canadian kitchen. The 4 point, rubber vibration insulating base would be an historic step of significant proportion in reducing noise in the kitchen, which followed the introduction of electro-motive powered machinery into the home. It would be the first step in an evolutionary sequence which would result, in the complete disappearance of the noisy, hazards, FHP motor, embedding it within the refrigeration system itself, the hermetic refrigeration motor compressor. [see examples classification code 4.01] [see also Note 1]
3. Part of the historic movement to unitize and package the mechanical refrigeration systems, to be marketed to the Canadian home owner – with all its piping, motor, compressor, valving and so forth. Manufactures understood that the popular acceptance of the technology by homeowners, would increasingly depend on making this mechanical wonder not only quieter, but more reliable and repairable, independent of local highly skilled tradesman. The packaged, factory ready refrigeration replacement system was seen as the answer, although not altogether successful in the earliest attempts of which this motor was part – See Reference 12.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.174
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with historic, innovative, first generation, vibration isolating, rubber motor mounts, a significant step in helping to reduce the noise level in the kitchen, resulting from the introduction of motorized machinery, Delco, Circa 1932. [see also ID# 299, 301, 302]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 5094
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts

Technical Significance:
– Stands as an exemplar of the dissemination of 4 point rubber insulating motor mounting technology in the early 1930’s adopted here by Delco, a division of Frigidaire – see also ID# 297
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.175
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with historic, innovative, two point cradle style, vibration isolating, rubber motor mounting, a significant step in helping to reduce the noise level in the kitchen, resulting from the introduction of motorized machinery, Delco, Circa 1932. [see also ID# 298, 301, 302]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 2144
Features:
– T. H. Oliver service tag in Mr. Oliver’s hand writing, “Mr Dryden, Danels and Dryden”, “25 cycle motor, defective winding”

Technical Significance:
– An example of the innovative engineering of the period working to quiet the cabinet refrigerator in the early 1930’s, adopted here by Frigidaire/Delco, – see also ID# 298
– The cradle mount provided Frigidaire with a dual function of motor quieting, as well as automatic belt tightening, afforded by a spring tension devices operating on the cradle to hold the belt in a taught position – see Reference 12
– The cradle motor mount by Frigidaire/Delco would be one more significant step in an evolutionary sequence which would result, in the complete disappearance of the noisy, hazards, FHP motor, embedding it within the refrigeration system itself, the hermetic refrigeration motor compressor. [see examples classification code 4.01]
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor, 1/4HP ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.176
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, 1/4 HP repulsion induction motor, equipped with rigid base for use on small commercial refrigeration applications, commonly found in Canada on Frigidaire condensing units in small food store and confectionery applications, throughout the pre W.W.II years and beyond to frequency standardization and the birth of the hermetic motor compressor, Delco, Circa 1936.



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor, 1/4HP ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 4394

Technical Significance:
– The physical size and crushing weight of this 1/4 HP motor of the period is a matter of note. The magnetic circuits required for 25 cycle applications, along with the all ferro-magnetic bodies, coupled with the relatively crude engineering designs of the period would lead to massive equipment by future standards. For examples of applications by Frigidaire see Reference No 12
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.177
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor for household cabinet refrigerator with vibration isolating motor mounts, and fusetron holder, two significant innovations, helping to reduce noise in the kitchen, and the risk of property and personal injury due to motor overheating, Delco, Circa 1934. [see also ID# 298, 302]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 4089
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– Fusetron holder now blanked off, early technology for motor overload protection

Technical Significance:
– Represented here are two major innovations in FHP motor technology for the Canadian home, associated with the early 1930’s. One for the reduction of noise [the four-point vibration, rubber mount], the second for reduction of risk of property and personal damage, due to an overheated motor [the fusetron]. Both were crude beginnings, soon to be replaced by more advanced forms of the technology.
– The fusetron [See item code 16.06-5], now removed and opening blanked off, tells important stories of technological evolution and advancement in personal and property protection. The fusetron was a slow blow fuse engineered to take the high starting current associated with inductive loads, but to open circuit in response to prolonged over load conditions. Lacking a recycling capability, it left the homeowner vulnerable. As a consequence many homeowners would find their refrigerator off, with resultant food spoilage. The inherent motor overload protector with an automatic recycling capability would still be another decade in the making. In the meantime many fusetrons were disabled by local refrigeration service technician, on the request of angry homeowners. [see ID#294 for example of “Klixon” inherent, automatic overload protection]
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.178
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor for household cabinet refrigerator with vibration isolating motor mounts, and fusetron holder, two significant innovations, helping to reduce noise in the kitchen, and the risk of property and personal injury due to motor overheating, Delco, Circa 1934. [see also ID# 298, 301]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products Corp., Dayton Ohio
Make: Delco
Model: 4093
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– Fusetron holder now blanked off, early technology for motor overload protection

Technical Significance:
– Represented here are two major innovations in FHP motor technology for the Canadian home, associated with the early 1930’s. One for the reduction of noise [the four-point vibration, rubber mount], the second for reduction of risk of property and personal damage, due to an overheated motor [the fusetron]. Both were crude beginnings, soon to be replaced by more advanced forms of the technology.
– The fusetron [See item code 16.06-5], now removed and opening blanked off, tells important stories of technological evolution and advancement in personal and property protection. The fusetron was a slow blow fuse engineered to take the high starting current associated with inductive loads, but to open circuit in response to prolonged over load conditions. Lacking a recycling capability, it left the homeowner vulnerable. As a consequence many homeowners would find their refrigerator off, with resultant food spoilage. The inherent motor overload protector with an automatic recycling capability would still be another decade in the making. In the meantime many fusetrons were disabled by local refrigeration service technician, on the request of angry homeowners. [see ID#294 for example of “Klixon” inherent, automatic overload protection, and ID# 303 for example of early protector by Wagner]
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.179
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early 20th century, 25 cycle, repulsion induction motor with two historic innovations, a first generation, vibration isolating motor mount, and an inherent overload protector with automatic reset, helping to reduce both noise and the risk of personal and property injury in the Canadian kitchen, built in Canada for Kelvinator of Canada’s cabinet refrigerators introduced in the early 1930’s, Wagner, Circa 1936. [see also ID# 297]



Item: Repulsion induction 25 cycle motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL22B55, Type SAR
Features:
– Early 4 point, innovative, vibration isolating motor mounts
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset

Technical Significance:
– An artifact of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology for the Canadian home:
1. An early Canadian made FHP motor for an early Canadian refrigerator manufacturer, marking the optimism of the times, the capital investment made, in spite of a period of marked economic depression
2. A pioneering step in quieting the Canadian kitchen. The 4 point, rubber vibration insulating base would be an historic step of significant proportion in reducing noise in the kitchen, which followed the introduction of electro-motive powered machinery into the home. It would be the first step in an evolutionary sequence which would result, in the complete disappearance of the noisy, hazards, FHP motor, embedding it within the refrigeration system itself, the hermetic refrigeration motor compressor. [see examples classification code 4.01] [see also Note 1]
3. An early historic technology for reducing the risk of personal and property damage due to motor overload, the inherent automatic overload protector – See Note No. 1.
4. A combination compressor drive pulley with condenser fan, a technology widely used in the 1920’s and 30’s, here employed by Kelvinator on a Model J15 condensing unit for a home cabinet refrigerator. The pulley hub performs a dual function, acting also as the drive hub of a four blade, 9 inch propeller style condenser fan blade. Driven at 1440 RPM, the un-guarded blade would represent a significant hazard to the un-wary homeowner [see Reference No. 13, P. 66].
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


Commutating, single phase, 25 cycle motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.180
Exhibit: Ventilation

A rare, early 20th century, commutating, single phase, 25 cycle, alternating current motor, likely of the repulsion induction type, but requires further study. An early marker of vastly changing times to come, following the first wave of home electrification. It would herald the coming invasion of the Canadian home by electro-motive technology, General Electric, date unknown. [see also ID# 293]



Item: Commutating, single phase, 25 cycle motor
Manufacturer: General Electric Co. Schenectady, NY.
Make: General Electric
Model: Type RSA

Technical Significance:
– A rare example of an early communtating, alternating current motor
– Requires further research to document technical significance.
– An early marker of vastly changing times to come, following the first wave of home electrification technology. A cultural icon, it would herald the coming invasion of the Canadian home by electro-motive technology, starting in central Canada in the 1920’s.


1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.181
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, classic 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor with inherent overload protection and automatic reset, part of a rare set of three 25 cycle motors escaping frequency standardization in 1948. They define new standards of practice, telling many stories of the explosion of small commercial refrigeration applications, which were enabled in the 1940’s through 50’s, changing the lives of Canadians forever, Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1947. [see also ID# 306, 307]



Item: 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL26BF1924N, Type RA
Features:
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset
– State of the art, light weight, non-ferro magnetic, alloy end bells

Technical Significance:
– An artifact [artifacts] of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive technology::
1. Marking the immense engineering achievement in the development and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology well before the mid 20th century, paradoxically on the eve of its gradual demise and replacement by capacitor start FHP technology [see code 16.02],
2. Representing a technological achievement that would define the standard of practice for small commercial refrigeration motor applications in the 1940’s through 50’s, prior to the popularization of capacitor start motor technology and the widespread adoption of embedded motor and compressor equipment for commercial applications, the hermetic refrigeration condensing unit,
3. The popularization of small commercial refrigeration applications, enabled by the Wagner Type KA, a growth market in Canada in the post W.W.II years through the 1960’s, including ice cream and frozen food cabinets and merchandizers, reach-in, unitary refrigerators, display cases and merchandizers for small food stores and confectioneries – enabling a veritable explosion of new food products and tastes for Canadians.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.182
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, classic 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor with inherent overload protection and automatic reset, part of a rare set of three 25 cycle motors escaping frequency standardization in 1948. They define new standards of practice, telling many stories of the explosion of small commercial refrigeration applications, which were enabled in the 1940’s through 50’s, changing the lives of Canadians forever, Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1947. [see also ID# 305, 307]



Item: 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL26BF1924N, Type RA
Features:
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset
– State of the art, light weight, non-ferro magnetic, alloy end bells

Technical Significance:
– An artifact [artifacts] of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive technology::
1. Marking the immense engineering achievement in the development and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology well before the mid 20th century, paradoxically on the eve of its gradual demise and replacement by capacitor start FHP technology [see code 16.02],
2. Representing a technological achievement that would define the standard of practice for small commercial refrigeration motor applications in the 1940’s through 50’s, prior to the popularization of capacitor start motor technology and the widespread adoption of embedded motor and compressor equipment for commercial applications, the hermetic refrigeration condensing unit,
3. The popularization of small commercial refrigeration applications, enabled by the Wagner Type KA, a growth market in Canada in the post W.W.II years through the 1960’s, including ice cream and frozen food cabinets and merchandizers, reach-in, unitary refrigerators, display cases and merchandizers for small food stores and confectioneries – enabling a veritable explosion of new food products and tastes for Canadians.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.183
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, classic 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor with inherent overload protection and automatic reset, part of a rare set of three 25 cycle motors escaping frequency standardization in 1948. They define new standards of practice, telling many stories of the explosion of small commercial refrigeration applications, which were enabled in the 1940’s through 50’s, changing the lives of Canadians forever, Wagner, new and unused, Circa 1947 [see also ID# 305, 306]



Item: 1/4 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Electric Mfg. Co. of Canada Ltd., Div. of Sangamo Co., Ltd. Leaside Ont.
Make: Wagner
Model: YL26BF1924N, Type RA
Features:
– Inherent, overload protector with automatic reset
– State of the art, light weight, non-ferro magnetic, alloy end bells

Technical Significance:
– An artifact [artifacts] of Canadian history telling many stories of life and times, including Canadian technological innovation, dissemination and popularization of electro-motive technology::
1. Marking the immense engineering achievement in the development and wide spread application of elegant and affordable, FHP repulsion induction motor technology well before the mid 20th century, paradoxically on the eve of its gradual demise and replacement by capacitor start FHP technology [see code 16.02],
2. Representing a technological achievement that would define the standard of practice for small commercial refrigeration motor applications in the 1940’s through 50’s, prior to the popularization of capacitor start motor technology and the widespread adoption of embedded motor and compressor equipment for commercial applications, the hermetic refrigeration condensing unit,
3. The popularization of small commercial refrigeration applications, enabled by the Wagner Type KA, a growth market in Canada in the post W.W.II years through the 1960’s, including ice cream and frozen food cabinets and merchandizers, reach-in, unitary refrigerators, display cases and merchandizers for small food stores and confectioneries – enabling a veritable explosion of new food products and tastes for Canadians.
4. One of Canada’s truly remarkable, mega-engineering projects of the 20th century, frequency standardization in Ontario a massive, multi-million dollar undertaking affecting every corner and crevice of life in Ontario.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– See also ID# 296

Industrial Significance:
– See also notes ID# 296


1/6 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.184
Exhibit: Ventilation

Classic mid 20th century, repulsion induction high starting torque, 1/6th HP, motor, with inherent automatic overload protection and vibration insulating torsion base, engineered for household cabinet refrigerators. Canadian made by an acknowledged market leader, it would be characteristic of the period of massive growth in the demand for such motors on following frequency standardization, Leland , Circa 1958. [See also ID# 294]



Item: 1/6 HP, repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric Canada Limited, Guelph Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: Form AKWIH, Type R

Technical Significance:
– Canadian made, this motor would characterize much of the Canadian experience through middle and later years of the century, in high torque, FHP motor development. It was a period which saw massive growth in the demand for such high starting torque motors, typically for use on refrigeration equipment, following W.W.II and frequency standardization, prior to the domination of the market by embedded motor compressor technology, the hermetic motor compressor.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology, throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– For the Canadian household and commercial refrigeration industry, pioneered by Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it would be a “just-in-time” technology, as well as an immensely enabling one – and what it enabled was considerable. Sir William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, had just set out the theoretical principles of the compression refrigeration, Carnot cycle [see Note #1]. But there existed no electro-motive devices with sufficient starting torque able to drive the compressor, making mechanical cooling practical for household and commercial uses – even for those who were otherwise able to enjoy the benefits of electrification. The push was on to develop such a device, the repulsion induction, single-phase motor would quickly follow.
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Well recognized for their performance, reliability and maitainability, the repulsion induction engineering designs employed by Leland Electric, Quelph Ontario, along with Wagner Electric Leaside would in many ways serve to characterizing best Canadian practice through middle and later years of the century.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.156
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, an early design engineered for a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with fuse-style, overload protection, and designed for “V” belt drive applications, with pivoted motor mounting and automatic belt tension device, Delco, Circa 1945.



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: McKinnon Industries, St. Catherines Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M1035
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

With a toe crushing weight this 1/6th HP motor weighs in at 35 lbs., illustrating the greater weight of 25 cycle rotating equipment, over 60 cycle a factor in moving to a higher cycle, in order to help reduce equipment costs.

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, a rare example, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

1940’s style, high tech, capacitor-start motor, designed for top mounted electrolytic capacitor [not included]

Representative of a class of innovations introduced by Frigidaire, to provide automatic control of belt tension, using a simple, extension coil spring, with motor pivotally mounted on base plate. Maintaining proper belt tension, on refrigeration compressor drives was a perennial problem, due to close coupling of motor and compressor and large compressor fly wheel diameter.

Includes an early form of overload protector, the fusetron. Socket provided fusetron not included. Over load protection was an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate un-attended in the home – without the attention of skilled work force.

This type of overload operated much like a standard instant blow fuse, but calibrated to carry the high starting current characteristic of induction loads. Its disadvantage was that it was a non-recycling device, which means that the refrigeration system could be off without the homeowner knowing it. Later devices would be automatically recycling [see ID# 281].

Industrial Significance:
The production of FHP electric motors under the Delco name was a marker of the post W.W.II doom in Canada’s appliance industry. Delco was a brand name, held by General Motors, under which auto electric components were manufactured and marketed. McKinnon Industries was a feeder plant to GM, located in St Catherines

The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper and foil style capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.157
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, with light alloy end bells, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, Delco, Circa 1948. [see also 12.02-2B]



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: McKinnon Industries, St. Catherines, Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M1395
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

Oringinal T.H. Oliver shop tag, in Howard Oliver’s writing

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, this motor is a now rare example, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

A truly advanced piece of FHP induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with advanced engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Drive bearing extended, safety oilier; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; high tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset; light weight alloy end bells, taking advantage of new high tech metallurgy

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

This generation of FHP capacitor-start motor technology in many ways would stand as a consummate achievement, a kind of icon of “the art form”, made economically possible by the high market demand for FHP motors in the Post W.W.II period. It was a market, too, that was augmented by the prospects of frequency standardization, and the massive undertaking of replacing all 25 cycle motors with 60 cycle equipment.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount. Other mounting technologies were developed, but of less staying qualities, [See for example item 16.01-10 and 16.01-11].

The race was on, also, to produce an inherently safer motor, safe for the Canadian householder who was required to attend to routine maintenance tasks such as oiling. It was a period well in advance of sealed bearing technology with lifetime lubrication. Wick-oiled bronze bearings of the time required oiling quarterly. In belt driven refrigeration equipment this brought the householder in contact with a moving, compressor drive belt and whirring condenser fan blade. The design of the extended oilier tube would be a simple but significant safety feature, for householder and service man alike, allowing fingers to keep out of danger’s way.


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.158
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, with light weight alloy end bells, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, Delco, Circa 1948. [see also 12.02-2A]



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: McKinnon Industries, St. Catherines, Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M1395
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, this motor is a now rare example, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

A truly advanced piece of FHP induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with advanced engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Drive bearing extended, safety oilier; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; high tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset; Light weight alloy end bells, taking advantage of new hight tech metallurgy; The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely un-attended in the home.

This generation of FHP capacitor-start motor technology in many ways would stand as a consummate achievement, a kind of icon of “the art form”, made economically possible by the high market demand for FHP motors in the Post W.W.II period. It was a market, too, that was augmented by the prospects of frequency standardization, and the massive undertaking of replacing all 25 cycle motors with 60 cycle equipment.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It was the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technolgy that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount. Other mounting technologies were developed, but of less staying qualities, [See for example item 16.01-10 and 16.01-11].

The race was on, also, to produce an inherently safer motor, safe for the Canadian householder who was required to attend to routine maintenance tasks such as oiling. It was a period well in advance of sealed bearing technology with lifetime lubrication. Wick-oiled bronze bearings of the time required oiling quarterly. In belt driven refrigeration equipment this brought the householder in contact with a moving, compressor drive belt and whirring condenser fan blade. The design of the extended oilier tube would be a simple but significant safety feature, for householder and service man alike, allowing fingers to keep out of danger’s way.


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Wagner’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.159
Exhibit: Ventilation

A latter mid 20th century, high tech, 60cycle capacitor-start motor, a new lighter weight, compact generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by a market now standardized on 60cycle power; with electrolytic, chemical capacitor, inherent, heat overload protection, and automatic reset, light weight alloy end bells, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts, and adaptable base plate, Wagner, Circa 1955.



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Wagner’
Manufacturer: Wagner Elecrtric, Div. of Sangamo Electric, Leasid
Make: Wagner
Model: UL14BF4723N; Ty

Technical Significance:
A truly advanced piece of FHP induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding , post W.W.II, 60 cycle, refrigeration equipment market, equipped with advanced engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Drive bearing extended, safety oilier; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; high tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset; Light weight alloy end bells, taking advantage of new high tech metallurgy

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely un-attended in the home.

This generation of FHP capacitor-start motor technology in many ways would stand as a consummate achievement, a kind of icon of “the art form”, made economically possible by the high market demand for FHP motors in the Post W.W.II period. It was now a North American market, largely standardization, on 60 cycle power.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It was the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The capacitor-start, refrigeration motor, and the advanced 20th century electrical technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would soon disappear withnthe advance of hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Industrial Significance:
With the early 1950’s came the opportunity for FHP electric motor manufactures to move too a new generation of designs and styling, as exemplified here. The FHP motor would be smaller and lighter weight technology, made possible by standardisation on 60 cycle power, the development of new more sophisticated engineering design methodologies, new materials and metallurgy, coupled with the economic incentive for development, fostered by a now larger electrically standardized, consumer market place, as well as by a rapidly expanding post W.W.II economy.

The expanding market opportunities of the early 1950’s would attract a new cohort of suppliers to the field. The number of manufactures, working with this basic technology shown here, would increase dramatically throughout the 1950’s, in addition to Delco and Wagner, among many others were: GE [see item 12.06-4], Tamper [see item 12.06-6], Century [see item 12.06-7] and Leland.

This motor stands as a marker of the rapidly expanding, mid 20th century market for FHP motor technology, serving to attract Canadian manufactures. Wagner, a well established US manufacture, like Delco, would find a Canadian manufacturing partner, here the Sangamo Company, Leaside Ontario

Part of the times was also the emergence of a new look and feel for the FHP motor, sleeker more eye appealing, as demonstrated here – less a piece of mere machinery than a mid 20th century, sophisticated piece of electrical apparatus. The new emphasis on styling and eye appeal, along with functionality and performance would reflect the influence of the industrial designer and a new body of industrial styling practice, a development, new, for the mid 20th century.

The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race was on, also, to produce an inherently safer motor, safe for the Canadian householder who was required to attend to routine maintenance tasks such as oiling. It was a period well in advance of sealed bearing technology with lifetime lubrication. Wick-oiled bronze bearings of the time required oiling quarterly. In belt driven refrigeration equipment this brought the householder in contact with a moving, compressor drive belt and whirring condenser fan blade. The design of the extended oilier tube would be a simple but significant safety feature, for householder and service man alike, allowing fingers to keep out of danger’s way.


25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.160
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, high tech, 25cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, all steel body, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, GE, Circa 1948. [see also 12.02-5, for similar 60 cycle design]



Item: 25cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: Canadian General Electric co., Toronto
Make: GE
Model: 11F111BX
Features:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, representative of motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s

Technical Significance:
Built for 25 cycle, 110 volt alternating current, this motor is a now rare example, representative of Canadian General Electric’s motor design used in Ontario prior to frequency standardization in the late 1940’s. See ID #285, Item 16.02-5 for similar motor in 6o cycle. The latter with 1/4 HP rating, has a laminated stack length of 3inches and weights 30 lbs. compared with the former, with only a 1/6th HP rating, with a 4 inch laminated stack length and weighing 35 lbs.

Representative of FHP, capacitor start, induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; High tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset.

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount [see ID # 281]. GE followed Delco’s lead.

The configuration employed by GE lacks some of the advanced features used by Delco in the the same period, including light weight alloy end bells and extended drive end safety oiler [see ID # 281]


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.161
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, high tech, 60 cycle capacitor-start motor, a new generation of high starting torque refrigeration motors made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with advanced, inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset and designed for “V” belt drive applications, all steel body, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount on slotted base for belt tightening, GE, Circa 1955. [see also 12.02-4, for similar 25 cycle design]



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: Canadian General Electric co., Toronto
Make: GE
Model: 11F122B
Features:
Original cable connector illustrating trade practices of the time

Technical Significance:
Provides a graphic contrast between 25 and 60 cycle design practice by GE. See ID #284, Item 16.02-4 for similar motor in 25 cycle. The latter with 1/6th HP rating, has a laminated stack length of 4 inches and weights 35 lbs. compared with the former, with a 1/4 HP rating, with only a 3 inch laminated stack length and a weight of 30 lbs.

Representative of FHP, capacitor start, induction motor technology, built for the then rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; High tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset.

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.

The race to produce a quieter running, vibration free motor was on, a public expectation coming with the rapidly expanding post W.W.II market. Delco would be an acknowledged market leader in the development and production of the isolating torsion mount [see ID # 281]. GE followed Delco’s lead.

The configuration employed by GE lacks some of the advanced features used by Delco in the the same period, including light weight alloy end bells and extended drive end safety oiler [see ID # 281]


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Tamper’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.162
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, high tech, 60 cycle capacitor-start motor, made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor and inherent, heat overload protection, with automatic reset, vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mount, engineered by a small, start-up Canadian Company, it tells many stories of the exceptionalities of its life and times. Tamper, Circa 1955.



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Tamper’
Manufacturer: Tamper Electric, Montreal
Make: Tamper
Model: MPR-1451-15BK
Features:
Carries Ontario Hydro brass identification plate: HEPC Stock NO. P56-02-22-12-308-0002

Technical Significance:
An historical artifact of the post W.W.II years in the evolution of FHP motor technology in Canada, which although un-remarkable in matters of innovation and excellence, tells important stories of the exceptionalities of its times:

Of one of the largest and most sophisticated engineering mega-projects in Canadian history, frequency standardization in Ontario

The remarkable, although short lived period of expansion of the Canadian FHP motor manufacturing industry,

The manner in which the industry attracted new entrance, as small start-up companies, such as Tamper, as well as large manufactures with almost un-limited economic and engineering resources to draw on, such as GE [see ID#285 and 284]

Representative of FHP, capacitor start, induction motor technology, built for the post W.W.II rapidly expanding refrigeration equipment market, equipped with engineering features new for the period, including:

Vibration isolating, rubber, torsion motor mounts; Electrolytic, chemical capacitor technology; High tech inherent, overload, thermal protection with automatic reset.

The motor exemplifies the latest in automatic over load protection, an on-going challenge through the early years in the development of unitary, fully automated refrigeration equipment, designed to operate safely, un-attended in the home.

The motor exemplifies increasingly sophisticated developments in the field of electrolytic condensers, on which the capacitor start motor depended for its performance. Capacitors were getting smaller and more reliable, as well as appearing in more sophisticated, high tensile strength plastic enclosures sealed against moisture and with built-in, easy release, snap mounting brackets

The motor stands as a marker of the golden age in the post W.W.II expansion of the refrigeration industry in Canada, a period which saw the development of the commercial refrigeration market, based on open system refrigeration technology serving food stores, confectioneries, institutions and the like with fractional horsepower belt driven equipment, demonstrating remarkable versatility and inventiveness. It would be the last great period of expansion prior to the rush to re-equip the market with a new generation of hermetic [sealed] motor/compressors. Here the motor and compressor would both disappear from, sight both sealed in a single enclosure. The refrigeration motor, and the technology that made it possible, as it appears here, would disappear forever.

Industrial Significance:
The development and commercial production of the capacitor-start single phase FHP motor, starting in the mid 1940’s was a seminal event in the history of the HVACR field. The capacitor-start motor would come to replace the more costly and complex repulsion induction motor, RI [See Group 16.01], with one with fewer moving mechanical parts, quieter, more reliable and maintainable, typically at lower cost. By allowing for electrical switching between starting and running windings, it would facilitate external relay control, rather than internal mechanical mechanisms, as with the RI motor. It would therefore be amenable for use in hermetically sealed refrigeration systems.

Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]

Conventional industrial practice for refrigeration systems, with compressors operating at conventional speeds, in the 1930’s through 60’s, saw these motors attached by “V” belt drive to the refrigeration compressor with a compressor fly wheel about three times that of the diameter of the motor pulley. [see reference #4]. Maintaining belt alignment and tension was a constant challenge, due to close coupling of motor and compressor for space saving.


60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Century’

Electric Motors – Single Phase Capacitor Start and Capacitor Run Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.163
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, high tech, 60 cycle capacitor-start motor, made possible by the electrolytic, chemical capacitor, equipped with ball bearings, totally enclosed, all steel body with slotted, rigid base for general utility applications in damp environments , Century, Circa 1958.



Item: 60cycle capacitor-start motor ‘Century’
Manufacturer: Century Electric St Louis Mo.
Make: Century
Model: CSH-65L-DHC3-3F
Features:
Original electrical connector illustrating trade practices of the period

Technical Significance:
The motor exemplifies increasingly sophisticated developments in the field of electrolytic condensers, on which the capacitor start motor depended for its performance. Capacitors were getting smaller and more reliable, through the 1950’s.

Exemplifies the design and engineering of general utility, totally enclosed, ball bearing applications engineered for damp locations.

Industrial Significance:
Early experimentation, leading to the eventual commercial development of the FHP, capacitor start-motor, began with the work of Steinnmetz [American engineer and inventor 1865 – 1923], 40 years before. But commercial production had to await the development of practical capacitors of sufficient capacity, the chemical, electrolytic capacitor. Early, paper capacitors, large enough to provide the required phase shift for motor starting, where larger than the motor itself, and were subject to short operating life span [see Reference 3]


Single phase, AC induction motor ‘Apex’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.164
Exhibit: Ventilation

A very early 20th century, single phase, alternating current induction motor, to be found in commercial production, uses the resistance phase splitting principle to produce self-starting, equipped with bronze sleeve bearings with external oil reservoirs and spring loaded wick oilers with snap caps, drip proof steel housing and external electric wiring junction box, for use in Canadian homes of the period on cloths washing machines, Apex, date unknown.



Item: Single phase, AC induction motor ‘Apex’
Manufacturer: The Apex Electric Mfg Co., Cleveland and Toronto
Make: Apex
Model: Type WG
Features:
With original service tag in Howard Oliver’s hand writing “Troyers, Oakridges”, Troyers operated a farm on the Oak Ridges Moraine, an hour north of Toronto in the early years of the 20th century

Technical Significance:
An exemplar of a rare, early 25 cycle, split phase, induction motor production, for home applications, typically in an early electric washing machine

Industrial Significance:
An icon of the earliest years of commercial electric motor design and production for use in the homes, of those that could afford labour saving electric appliances, and living in homes that enjoyed the recognized benefits of home electrification


Split phase, induction motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.165
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early mid 20th century split phase, induction motor with sealed [now pierced] bearings, built for the then rapidly expanding home appliance industry in post WW2 Canada, used on an early cloths drier, it is equipped a twin belt, single piece pulley, part of a drive technology of the period developed by Kenmore and sold by the Robert Simpson Co. one of Canada’s historic department stores of note. GE, Circa 1955.



Item: Split phase, induction motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: Canadian General Electric Co. Toronto
Make: GE
Model: 11F281
Features:
Equipped with an early version of so called “sealed bearings”, which were promoted as life time bearing requiring no oiling

Equipped a twin belt, single piece pulley, part of a drive technology of the period developed by Kenmore

Technical Significance:
Defines the engineering design idiom for split-phase, motor technology employed throughout the middle years of the 20th century, moving through the mature years of this genre towards the end of the century, when a new genre would progressively emerge, smaller, lighter and more energy efficient.

Marked an early attempt by manufacturers to produce a motor with “lifetime” sealed bearings requiring no oiling in the normal course of a lifetime of use. In fact electro-motorized appliance were becoming increasingly compacted, enclosed in high style cabinets which made service all but impossible, except by the trained appliance repair worker. As a result the sealed cap on the bearing became as much a recognition of the fact that the motor would never get oiled, then a marker of any special provisions made for prolonged bearing life. Whether motors made for such applications were equipped with oil caps or not was irrelevant. It would be several decades before a truly lifetime sealed, sleeve bearing would appear on the consumer appliance market.

Representative of a period of increasing innovation in the development of electro- motor enabled, home appliance technology, it is equipped with a twin belt, single piece pulley, part of a cloths drier drive technology for the period developed by Kenmore and sold by the Robert Simpson Co., one of Canada’s historic department stores of note. GE, Circa 1955.

Industrial Significance:
A marker of split phase electric motor production in Canada and the US, in the latter years of the 20th century. Manufactured in the hundreds of thousands, by GE and other manufacturers, it stands as an icon of its times, marking the first great period mass production and marketing of electric, motorized household appliances, now made possible by wide spread home electrification.


Split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.166
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early mid 20th century split phase, induction motor with ball bearings, built for the then rapidly expanding home workshop equipment industry in post W.W.II Canada, equipped with hefty 1/2 horsepower rating and manual reset over load protection, it would be a marker of a significant cultural shift in male leisure time pursuits, Delco, Circa 1958.



Item: Split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Mckinnon Industries St Catherines Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M253901
Features:
Shop service tag in Howard Olivers hand writing “Checks OK Jan, 75

Technical Significance:
Exemplifies the evolution of inherent, automatic overload protection devices with manual reset, a prerequisite requirement for home hobby shop equipment:

Such applications typically rewired low starting torque [as on circular saws, but moderate horse power, current ratings, which could readily lead to burn out under high load conditions

Motors were built for an affordable market and were built inexpensively, with little tolerance for prolonged loading [over loading],

While automatic overload protection was considered an essential safety precaution, both for personal and property reasons, automatic reset would constitute a safety hazard, allowing the equipment to come back on out of control of operator,

Defines the engineering design idiom for split-phase, low starting torque, motor technology employed throughout the middle years of the 20th century in home appliances and hobby shop equipment, moving through the mature years of this genre towards the end of the century, when a new genre would progressively emerge, smaller, lighter and more energy efficient.

Industrial Significance:
The motor stands as a relatively rare marker of a breed of home hobby shop motor which would soon disappear. The stand alone, home hobby shop motor as a product of the post W.W.II market place, would be a relatively short lived phenomena. Early power tools of the period were, designed for the home work shop were of the conventional belt drive type, through the 1950’s to 80’s, but the trend was increasingly to much more integrated designs in which the motor was built into the equipment, itself, as an inherent design component.

A marker of split phase electric motor production in Canada and the US, in the latter years of the 20th century. Manufactured in the hundreds of thousands, by Delco, GE and other manufacturers, it stands as an icon of its times, marking the first great period mass production and marketing of electric, motorized household appliances and hobby shop equipment, now made possible by wide spread home electrification.


Affordable split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.167
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early mid 20th century, split phase, affordable, induction motor, for general utility applications, built for an open, FHP electric motor market for use on light duty power equipment around the house, shop and farm. With hefty 1/3 horsepower rating, it serves as a marker of the vast in roads made by electro motive technology on every nook and cranny of popular Canadian life style by the 1950’s, Delco, Circa 1956.



Item: Affordable split phase, induction motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Mckinnon Industries St Catherines Ont.
Make: Delco
Model: M2480A1
Features:
Shop service tag in Howard Olivers hand writing “Checks OK Jan, 75; Original wiring harness illustrating electrical wiring practices of the period

Technical Significance:
A remarkable, yet un- remarkable piece of electro motive technology of its time. It would be remarkable in the state of motive technology it represented, a level of remarkable achievement in engineering, mass production, and marketing as popular consumer product, all achieved in less then two decades [see ID#280]. Yet built for a low cost market, it would be quite un-remarkable in its lack of function and feature characterizing special purpose motors of the same period, including high starting torque, automatic over heat protection.

It defines the engineering design idiom for split-phase, low starting torque, motor technology employed throughout the middle years of the 20th century, in general utility applications for home, shop and farm, moving through the mature years of this genre towards the end of the century, when a new genre would progressively emerge, smaller, lighter and more energy efficient.


Split phase, induction motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Split Phase

Accession # HHCC.2006.168
Exhibit: Ventilation

An early mid 20th century, split phase, induction motor, speciality engineered, Canadian built for the automatic oil burning, winter air conditioner market, equipped with torsion, vibration rubber insulating mountings, bronze sleeve bearings and characteristic extended oiler tubes with snap caps, it would serve as a marker of best practice in motor production for belted fan applications for the winter air conditioner, heating market during its period of rapid expansion following W.W.II, Leland, Circa 1956.



Item: Split phase, induction motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric, Canada Ltd, Quelph. Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: KS209
Features:
– Original shop repair service tag in Howard Oliver’s hand writing “for sale or service, $20.00”
– Original manufactures instructions.

Technical Significance:
– The Leland KS would model the best in FHP motor engineering design for belted fan duty operations on centrifugal fan applications for winter air conditioners, throughout the 1950’s and 60’s, in Canada. Typically mounted on top of the fan in a floating harass, the motor would be in the cool return air stream, serving to prevent over heating, and allowing relatively compact, heat emitting body designs
– The belted fan configuration with variable speed pulley [see Group 12.11 artifacts] would give way to direct drive, axial mounted motors with electrical speed control for use on centrifugal fans by the end of the century


60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor ‘Delco’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.194
Exhibit: Ventilation

A mid 20th century, 60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor, suspended on three point rubber vibration isolating mount, from two legged pedestal, with 10 inch 4 blade fan, engineered for condenser fan coil applications on hermetic refrigeration units. Used throughout the 1960’s and beyond, it helped to make possible a new generation of quieter more efficient commercial refrigeration equipment and appliances, Delco Circa 1964.



Item: 60 cycle, shaded pole, induction motor ‘Delco’
Manufacturer: Delco Products, General Motors Corp, Dayton
Make: Delco
Model: A7839, Type SST, Universal No. 506035

Technical Significance:
– Representative of a new generation of sleek, compact, more electrically efficient, and customized shaded pole motor technology, for the mid 1960’s.
– With a totally sealed body and bearings, it was a marker of the now rapidly emerging body of engineering and manufacturing practice, moving to a “parts replacement” culture, from the traditional “parts repair” mode of operation.
– The small shaded pole condenser fan motor was a key development in the evolution of the hermetically sealed, commercial refrigeration condensing unit. The refrigeration compressor and drive motor had all of a sudden disappeared, what emerged in its place was a new configuration, with no drive belts, pulleys or drive motor to be seen. The new “hermetically sealed” configuration would be more efficient, quieter, reliable and maintainable. The drive motor was now “unobtrusive” [the motor had disappeared], and “inherent” [part of the compressor], as well as having become “embedded” [in a single envelope} in matters of engineering concept and design. But this new, innovative design concept left behind no compressor motor drive hub on which to mount a fan blade for condenser cooling. Shaded pole motor technology would arrive
– “just-in-time” to take its place and enable a new future for commercial refrigerated appliances and equipment.
– By the 1960’s the success of shaded pole motor technology would help move the Canadian commercial refrigeration industry solidly into a new generation of more compact and efficient forced air cooling units, making possible a wide range of new refrigeration appliances and fresh and frozen food merchandizers.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation and ventilation where imperatives.
– A highly innovative shaded pole motor application by Delco, this configuration would become a classic of the commercial refrigeration industry, found on many refrigeration manufacture’s condensing units, here marked specifically for Universal Cooler Co.


60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.195
Exhibit: Ventilation

A heavy duty, mid 20th century, 60 cycle, 1/20 HP, shaded pole, induction fan motor, custom designed for GE window air conditioner, evaporator and condenser application. Equipped with rubber, torsion 2 point mounting and inherent, automatic overload protection, it helped to make possible a new generation of affordable, larger capacity, quieter more efficient “through-the-wall” [window] air conditioners which changed for ever the expectations of Canadians about what to do about the summer’s heat, GE, Circa 1964. [1 of a set of 3, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, see also ID#320 and 321]



Item: 60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: General Electric, Fort Wayne Ind.
Make: GE
Model: 5KSP21DG1834AS

Technical Significance:
– 1 of a set of 3, shaded pole, custom designed motors, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, in order to fit the specialized requirements of different air conditioner manufacturers, models, and model years, for example in matters of horsepower, starting torque, rotation, inherent automatic thermal protection, etc [see also ID#320 and 321].
– Equipped with torsion, rubber vibration mountings, and automatic, recycling, inherent overload protection, It would be representative of an 1960’s, generation of heavy, fan-duty, customized shaded pole motor technology, for the now rapidly maturing through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market.
– With a totally sealed body and bearings, it was a marker of the now rapidly emerging body of engineering and manufacturing practice, moving to a “parts replacement” culture, from the traditional “parts repair” mode of operation.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation, air conditioning and ventilation where imperatives.
– By the mid 1960’s the through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market was rapidly maturing, providing the Canadian public an affordable solution to spikes in summer heat that her-to-for could not have been imagined. The innovative, unitary engineering concept with cooling and heat rejection equipment all in the same cabinet made it readily installed by the do-it-yourself’s, without special tools and equipment. Air conditioners had become the newest home appliance.


60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.196
Exhibit: Ventilation

A heavy duty, mid 20th century, 60 cycle, 1/20 HP, shaded pole, induction fan motor, custom designed for GE window air conditioner, evaporator and condenser application. Equipped with rubber, torsion 2 point vibration isolating mounting, it helped to make possible a new generation of affordable, larger capacity, quieter more efficient “through-the-wall” [window] air conditioners which changed for ever the expectations of Canadians about what to do about the summer’s heat, GE, Circa 1964. [2 of a set of 3, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, see also ID#319 and 321]



Item: 60 cycle, induction fan motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: General Electric, Fort Wayne Ind.
Make: GE
Model: 5KSP21DG941B

Technical Significance:
– 1 of a set of 3, shaded pole, custom designed motors, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, in order to fit the specialized requirements of different air conditioner manufacturers, models, and model years, for example in matters of horsepower, starting torque, rotation, inherent automatic thermal protection, etc [see also ID#319 and 321].
– Equipped with torsion, rubber vibration mountings, and automatic, recycling, inherent overload protection, It would be representative of an 1960’s, generation of heavy, fan-duty, customized shaded pole motor technology, for the now rapidly maturing through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market.
– With a totally sealed body and bearings, it was a marker of the now rapidly emerging body of engineering and manufacturing practice, moving to a “parts replacement” culture, from the traditional “parts repair” mode of operation.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation, air conditioning and ventilation where imperatives.
– By the mid 1960’s the through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market was rapidly maturing, providing the Canadian public an affordable solution to spikes in summer heat that her-to-for could not have been imagined. The innovative, unitary engineering concept with cooling and heat rejection equipment all in the same cabinet made it readily installed by the do-it-yourself’s, without special tools and equipment. Air conditioners had become the newest home appliance.


60 cycle, 1/15HP induction fan motor ‘GE’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Shaded Pole

Accession # HHCC.2006.197
Exhibit: Ventilation

A heavy duty, mid 20th century, 60 cycle, 1/15 HP, shaded pole, induction fan motor, custom designed for GE window air conditioner, evaporator and condenser application. Equipped with rubber, torsion 2 point vibration isolating mounting, it helped to make possible a new generation of affordable, larger capacity, quieter more efficient “through-the-wall” [window] air conditioners which changed for ever the expectations of Canadians about what to do about the summer’s heat, GE, Circa 1964 [2 of a set of 3, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, see also ID#319 and 320].



Item: 60 cycle, 1/15HP induction fan motor ‘GE’
Manufacturer: General Electric, Fort Wayne Ind.
Make: GE
Model: 5KSP21FG1579A

Technical Significance:
– 1 of a set of 3, shaded pole, custom designed motors, demonstrating the variations and application of the technology, in order to fit the specialized requirements of different air conditioner manufacturers, models, and model years, for example in matters of horsepower, starting torque, rotation, inherent automatic thermal protection, etc [see also ID#319 and 320].
– Equipped with torsion, rubber vibration mountings, and automatic, recycling, inherent overload protection, It would be representative of an 1960’s, generation of heavy, fan-duty, customized shaded pole motor technology, for the now rapidly maturing through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market.
– With a totally sealed body and bearings, it was a marker of the now rapidly emerging body of engineering and manufacturing practice, moving to a “parts replacement” culture, from the traditional “parts repair” mode of operation.
– The single phase alternating current induction motor has a public face of great simplicity – no commutator, brushes, governor nor switching mechanism to get it started, simply a field winding and solid state [squirrel cage] rotor mounted between two bearings. Its “shading pole(s)” consisting of single turn of wire strategically placed around its pole face(s), is all that is required to start rotation. Yet the shaded pole induction motor is a marvel of early 20th century electrical design engineering. [See Reference No. Chapter XIII, P. 297]

Industrial Significance:
– Its low cost and unique speed-torque characteristics made the shaded pole induction motor ideal for small fan applications of 1/20th HP or less. A “one-of-a-kind”, “just-in-time” technology, it quickly found a special place in 20th century appliances and electrical equipment, where air circulation, air conditioning and ventilation where imperatives.
– By the mid 1960’s the through-the-wall [window] air conditioner market was rapidly maturing, providing the Canadian public an affordable solution to spikes in summer heat that her-to-for could not have been imagined. The innovative, unitary engineering concept with cooling and heat rejection equipment all in the same cabinet made it readily installed by the do-it-yourself’s, without special tools and equipment. Air conditioners had become the newest home appliance.


Electric motor sleeve bearings

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.202
Exhibit: Ventilation

Early mid 20th century, bronze alloy, FHP electric motor sleeve bearings, split bearing design, with spiral oil grooves, adapted for automatic wick oiling. A “state-of-the-art”, self oiling bearing developed for electric motors for use in Canadian homes, where long life and reliable performance would be expected, without the constant attention of an “operating engineer” with oil can in hand [set of two], manufacturer unknown, Circa 1948.


Short circuiting ring

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.203
Exhibit: Ventilation

A rare view of an early 1930’s, short circuiting ring [necklace], constructed of copper, stamped and formed, segments, hand strung on fine wire, approximately 40 to the inch, part of the centrifugally operated, automatic short circuiting mechanism, used to convert a high torque, repulsion start, induction run, single phase motors from repulsion start to induction run operation, representative of the complex, innovative engineering, manufacturing and craftsmanship represented in this early technology, [See ID# 296, item 16.01-5], Wagner, Circa 1932].


Electric brush lifter carton

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.204
Exhibit: Ventilation

A Canadian made, mid 20th century, classic Leland Electric brush lifter, carton only, for repulsion induction, single phase motor. A stencilled carton with graphics in blue and yellow, it would be representative of the newly emerging field of industrial graphic design of the times. As well as it would be a marker of the ever increasing importance of the “technology after-market”, supplying Canadian consumers of the new popular technologies invading their homes [post WWII electric and electronic appliances] with the replacement parts needed to help ensure satisfaction, Leland, Circa 1948. [See ID# 308, item 16.01-14]


Rubber equipment mountings

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.205
Exhibit: Ventilation

A collection of rubber mountings for vibration isolating, and quieting of electro-motive equipment. The 13 varieties included are representative of the proliferation and diversity of innovative solutions devised by the middle of the 20th century. Vibration and sound control quickly emerged as a critical engineering requirement for the wide spread acceptance of electro-motive technology by Canadian homes and places of business, manufacturers unknown, Circa 1948.


‘Slow blow’ fuse

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.206
Exhibit: Ventilation

The “fusetat’ [later fusetron] was an early step in the evolution of personal and property damage protection resulting from electric motor overload , on the way to fully automatic, inherent, overload protection for FHP motors used in Canadian homes and commercial establishments. Conceived as a special kind of “slow-blow”, throw-away fuse, it lacked the ability to re-close. As a consequence many owners would find their refrigerator off, with resultant food spoilage. The fully automatic, re-closing overload protector [See ID#331] would still be close to a decade away, before it saw wide spread application, Buss Fusetat, 1934.


Overload protector

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.207
Exhibit: Ventilation

Thermal disk, snap action, automatic re-closing, overload protector mounted on original motor manufacturer’s mounting plate, A key step in the evolution of personal and property damage protection resulting from FHP electric motor overload [over heating]. Overload, safety devices that re-closed automatically after cooling, built into the compressor motor itself, would be the final step in the development of refrigeration equipment that would operate un-attended, fully protected, while cycling automatically to maintain a set refrigerated temperature.


Miniature motor armature

Electric Motors – Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.208
Exhibit: Ventilation

Miniature armature for universal, AC – DC electric motor, equipped with wound rotor, commutator, inherent cooling fan and splined shaft, engineered for custom application, possibly and electric fan, electric drill, vacuum cleaner, or food processor. An engineering and manufacturing wonder of the early to mid 20th century, such technology would help to trigger a “sea change” in Canadian consumer expectations of the good things that the electric appliance industry had in store, manufacturer unknown, circa 1948.


Electric motor test block

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.209
Exhibit: Ventilation

An improvised, FHP, electric motor test block, locally made using standard home electrification hardware components found in the Canadian home of the 1920s to 40’s. Reflecting the ingenuity of HVACR mechanics of the times, the device when connected in series with a potentially faulty motor, limited the current flow, thus protecting the motor and the operator, locally made, circa 1946.


Refrigerator test analyser

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.210
Exhibit: Ventilation

A portable, household refrigerator, electrical test analyser in handsome wooden carrying case, locally made using an assembly of old electrical and radio test gear. Reflecting the ingenuity of an early HVACR mechanic, the device provided for fused fault protection, current limiting load protection and continuity testing, as well as providing for the measurement of applied voltage and load current, locally made, circa 1946.


Run time recorder

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.211
Exhibit: Ventilation

An improvised, cumulative running time operations recorder, making use of an electric, bedroom alarm clock, wiring harness, spring clips and rubber insulating sleeves. Reflecting the ingenuity of HVACR mechanics of the times the device, when connected in parallel with an automatic heating or refrigeration system, effectively measured the total time of operation within a 24 hour period, locally made, circa 1946.


Analogue ammeter

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.212
Exhibit: Ventilation

A portable, induction type, clamp-on, analogue ammeter and voltmeter in hansom, now well used, black leather case with spring clip. Reflecting a new generation of HVACR test equipment emerging in the 1950’s, it measured current on 6 scales from 6 to 300 amps, and voltage on three scales from 150 to 600 volts, Amprobe, circa 1955.


Rotary tachometer

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.213
Exhibit: Ventilation

A portable, hand-held, rotary, tachometer, calibrated from 400 to 4,000 RPM, equipped with rubber friction drive. Among other things the device would be a marker of the increasingly sophisticated test and measurement equipment used by HVACR technicians involved in system applications and equipment re-engineering, as the mid 20th century emerged, Corbin Screw Corp. New Britain, Conn.. Circa 1945.


Set of inside diameter gauges

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.214
Exhibit: Ventilation

Set of 4 telescoping inside gauges, range ? inch to 2 1/8 inches, varying in thousands of an inch. Each is beautifully crafted in machine steel with spring loaded plunger, knurled handle and knurled locking screw embedded in the handle, an example of the precision tools available to Canadian machinists and HVACR mechanics by the 1940’s – on which they would depend. Used, among other things, to measure the inside diameter of electric motor bearings, compressor cylinder displacement etc. In hansom, slide-top, wooden box, Model 229, Starrett, Circa 1942.


Two inch Micrometer calliper

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.215
Exhibit: Ventilation

Two inch Micrometer calliper for measuring by thousandths from one inch to two inches, with ratchet stop, knurled handle, and fraction/decimal equivalent chart engraved on yoke in 32nds and 64ths. An example of the precision tools available to Canadian machinists and HVACR mechanics by the 1940’s – on which they would be dependent. Used, among other things, to measure the diameter of electric motor bearings, compressor pistons, etc. Beranta, Circa 1942.


Bearing scraper

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.216
Exhibit: Ventilation

An 11 inch, narrow, bearing scraper, with 3 inch blade, designed for “modern bearings”, with black, turned, wooden handle and steel furl, an early 20th century tool for hand fitting journal bearings, “VLC4BK” CLEV’D.O., Circa 1930.


4 blade small bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.217
Exhibit: Ventilation

Set of 4 blade, small bearing reamers in sizes from ? to 7/16 inches, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of small, FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1940’s through 1960’s. Set of 7 enclosed in original blue, heavy card, custom case, with Beard logo and name plate stencilled in gold and blue, Circa 1945.


6 blade bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.218
Exhibit: Ventilation

Set of 6 blade, bearing reamers in sizes from 7/16 to 1 1/8 inches, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1930’s through 1960’s. Set of 9 enclosed in original heavy oak, clear varnished, custom case with manufacturer’s label, insignia and specifications in gold and black, Circa 1939.


Long 6 blade bearing reamers

Electric Motors – Installation, Test and Repair

Accession # HHCC.2006.219
Exhibit: Ventilation

Set of 6 blade, extra long, alignment bearing reamers, six in Snap-On, Blue Point case, sizes from ? to 1 1/16; with four supplementary reamers to extend range from 9/16 to 15/16, all with tapered self-alignment pilots, used in HVACR equipment repair shop for the fitting of FHP electric motor bearings, in the 1950’s through 1960’s, Variously made by Snap-On, Joborn and Webco, Circa 1958.


5 cu.ft. household refrigerator

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Cabinet Refrigerators

Accession # HHCC.2003.001
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Five Cubic Foot household, Cabinet Refrigerator With Condensing Unit For Remote Mounting, Kelvinator, Circa 1926.



Item: 5 cu.ft. household refrigerator
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator
Model: See Note #1

Features:
This condensing unit, noisy and dirty, often with the smell of sulphur dioxide was designed for “remote” mounting in the basement of the home, to be reconnected to the refrigerator cabinet with copper tubing

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen: This refrigerator stands as a statement of the earliest, embryonic years of refrigerating technology in Canada. Showing the natural effects of ageing and constant use and repair over its 50 year, active, life span. The condensing unit is in original pristine condition with the exception of the 25 cycle motor replaced at the time of frequency conversion in Ontario in 1948, up to which point the machine had been in constant use. The evaporator is likely not original with this machine, but typical of the brine-tank evaporators used in that period. It was a period in which refrigerators were subject to high maintenance, repair over a long life span.

Industrial Significance:
This specimen tells the stories of the early years of the development of the industry in North America, where the commitment of the Industry was to the inherently noisy, mechanically troubled compression refrigeration cycle, with slow speed, often crudely machined “chunking” compressors, open motor drives and fan cooled “whirring” condensers.The marketing of absorption systems, as an alternative, developed by Electrolux in Europe, and licensed to Servel in Evanseville Ind,. would still be several years away.
The early patent and world-wide registration marks Kelvinator as a pioneer in the field, as well as an aggressive global North American marketer. It had high expectations for industry leadership and domination.


8 cu.ft. household refrigerator

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Cabinet Refrigerators

Accession # HHCC.2003.002
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Household, Eight Cubic Cabinet Kelvinator Refrigerator In All Porcelain Cabinet, Kelvinator,1931.



Item: 8 cu.ft. household refrigerator
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator
Model: PK7 See Note #1
Features:
Sliding crispers, egg racks, butter keepers interior cabinet lights and new easy to operate latching systems were the vanguard of many new amenities which would henceforth drive the field, along with “modern” new styling looks. – An added cabinet feature (not shown in the specification sheet) is an “elbow” operated door latch.

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen: The embryonic and early developmental years behind it, Kelvinator’s PK7 marked the beginning of its early growth years in Canada. By the mid 1930’s, in spite of the depression, electric refrigerator had made its mark on the consumer public. By now the electric refrigerator was more stable and quieter in operation with higher speed compressors and spring mounted condensing units and above all new modern styling befitting the period.

Industrial Significance:
The electric refrigerator was, all of a sudden, more attractive in appearance, with gleaming, easy to clean surfaces and fully rounded corners. It clearly had come into its own with its own unique aesthetic. No longer did it appear to the public as a thinly disguised ice box, an image which the public was, by now, quite happy to leave behind. As symbolised here, the PK7 was an important transition point in the development of the industry. Manufactures could see that their continued success would require more than merely well built, efficient and reliable refrigerating machines.
As an increasing number of manufacturers entered the field, the battle for market share was on; customer appeal and features were to become the key to customer sales. One authoritative source reported in 1933 specifications for 24 national manufacturers of household compression cycle refrigerators along with 5 absorption system manufacturers, including Elecrolux of Evansville Ind (See Ref. No. 3.1).


4 cu.ft. household refrigerator

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Cabinet Refrigerators

Accession # HHCC.2003.003
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Household, Four Cubic Cabinet Refrigerator, Kelvinator 1934.



Item: 4 cu.ft. household refrigerator
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator
Model: N, See Note #1

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen: This machine symbolises a unique period in the development of the industry. It was part of the first growth period of the household refrigerator as a mass consumer good, moving beyond the embryonic years and the exclusive appeal to the elite market – once believed to be the only market. A second significant growth period would follow the pent up consumer demand of the late 1940’s a consequence of the Second World War. At that time, it was a first-time buyer’s market without trade-ins to be contended with. But for now the industry was targeting the first time buyer of modest means. It was a “refrigerator in every kitchen marketing” – following the lead of ther auto industry.

Industrial Significance:
By the early 1930’s it was realized that the much hoped for growth period of the industry, like that of the automobile industry, would come not from the manufacture and sale of high-end products, but also through the production of much more popularly affordable machines for middle class consumption, ones configured much better for the kitchens of the nation. – This refrigerator represents the early 1930’s market response to “the refrigerator in every kitchen” movement, paralleling the “automobile in every garage” movement of the times. It was originally priced at a low of $216.00 (See Ref. 1.2, Section 2, Form, C4916AA, price list dated Feb. 1 1935), for a replacement price in 1996 dollars of $2,650 – yet still a very sizeable investment for most households.


13 cu.ft. household refrigerator

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Cabinet Refrigerators

Accession # HHCC.2003.004
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Household, 13 cubic Foot Refrigerator with Food Freezing Compartment, McClary, 1958.



Item: 13 cu.ft. household refrigerator
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario for General S
Make: McClary,
Model: ZD13-85-1,

Features:
Modern Post World War II design, reminiscent of the design idiom of the day, Moving from the curved lines of the pre-war Art Deco periodNew child-proof safety door lock, response to the loss of life by chidden and the safety promotions taken up by the industry itself ( See early examples of industry safety promotions)

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
As a result, Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen: is an example of a particular genre in the evolution of two temperature refrigeration system engineering for the household. Although the engineering design adopted here would be relatively short lived, it represented a major advance in refrigeration engineering, allowing a full two temperature refrigerator in a single cabinet, with single condensing unit. A a simple, transitional technology, the use of two static evaporators, operating at different temperatures was a major step in the evolution of the home refrigerator.
The advent of the two-temperature refrigerator, one in every kitchen of the nation, would be a goal of the industry, one largely achieved well before the end of the century. The impact on the way Canadians lived and their expectations for daily diet and life style was significant- for it was the “TV dinner” era had arrived along with the TV in the living room and the refrigerator freezer in the kitchen.

Industrial Significance:
An excellent example of the impressive Canadian manufacturing facilities for major appliances that developed in the 1950 to 60 in Ontario, prior to changing markets and increased competition leading to down-sizing, consolidation and globalisation of the industry. This is an icon from the golden age of Canadian appliance manufacturing. The changing market would soon see the demise of Kelvinator of Canada as the pioneer in refrigeration manufacturing in Canada. During the early post WWII years Kelvinator sought to build production capacity in its London Ontario plant by manufacturing for other, “come lately” companies, looking for a share of the post war boom market – such as General Steel Wares and Admiral.


14 cu.ft. household freezer

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Cabinet Refrigerators

Accession # HHCC.2003.005
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Household, 14 cubic Foot, Vertical Freezer, Kelvinator, 1965.



Item: 14 cu.ft. household freezer
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator
Model: KVM 14-R

Features:
Modern Post World War II styling, in keeping with the design idiom of the day, square cornered, a departure from the smoothly rounded corners of the earlier Art Deco perod of the 1940’s

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
As a result, Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen: The advent of the vertical home freezer, as represented here by an acknowledged market leader of the period, Kelvinator, made possible and accelerated a significant movement in the consumer culture of the 1950’s and 60’s. It moved Canadian society and culture solidly into pre-packaged, frozen foods, one of the hall-marks of the dietary and consumer cultures of the last half of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
The long life, trouble and maintenance free, refrigerating technolgy represented in this machine [50 years] and others of the period, marked a plateau in the field, an achievement almost unimagined a decade earlier. This now historic artifact of canada’s material culture of technology stands as a prime offering of Canada’s golden age of appliance manufacturing [See also THOC-HVACR-004]. The engineering and production of this line of consumer products by Kelvinator of Canada would mark the maturity and decline of the company as a pioneer in the Canadian refrigeration and appliance industry. Competitive pressures and the changing nature of the market place would make it difficult for small innovative manufactures like Kelvinator of Canada to survive. Within a few years the company would be sold to a large corporate conglomerate, and the name Kelvinator would soon become a marketing label and little more.


Room air conditioner ‘Frigidaire’

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Air Conditioners

Accession # HHCC.2003.006
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Household, Through-the-Window, Room Air Conditioner, Frigidaire, 1956.



Item: Room air conditioner ‘Frigidaire’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Products Canada Ltd, Scarborough, Ont
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Super 33

Features:
Automatic temperature control, Outside fresh air damper Air filter Complete, original installation kit

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen stands as a marker of the embryonic years of household air conditioning in Canada. While vastly under powered, by the standards that would follow, it was for most urban dwellers affordable and a significant market opener.

Industrial Significance:
The development of high heat transfer, capacity compressors, condensers, evaporators and flow control devices, at a price that home owners were likely to find affordable, would be a major challenge and success story for the refrigeration industry in the early years of home air conditioning. The industry would quickly adapting what had been learned in the design of reliable hermetic compressors and coiling for the food industry to high heat transfer systems required for household air conditioning applications.Suddenly the refrigeration and air conditioning industry expanded dramatically with a number of new non-traditional players designing, manufacturing and marketing equipment for household and commercial applications. In the face of increasing competition from manufactures with massive engineering and production facilities, many of the traditional suppliers to the refrigeration field would quickly fade from their earlier position of market leadership, including Kelvinator and Frigidaire.


Room air conditioner ‘GE’

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Household Air Conditioners

Accession # HHCC.2003.007
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Household, Through-the-Wall, Room, Air Conditioner, General Electric, 1959.



Item: Room air conditioner ‘GE’
Manufacturer: GE, Louisville USA
Make: General Electric
Model: 1R32NA
Features: Automatic temperature control, out-side air damper, air filter air frshning cartridge Unused equipment with original price tag and original owners manual

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
As a result, Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
The Significance of this Specimen rests in its special transitional status as a “sandwich technology”, between the window, room air conditioner and central summer cooling for the Canadian home, which would soon follow for all those who could afford it.

Industrial Significance:
Beautifully engineered and crafted this machine stands as a model of the refrigeration engineering know-how of the period, as well as the sophisticated production engineering that industry giants, with massive economic resources, such as GE, could bring to the field.


Double door refrigerator

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Commercial Refrigerating Equipment

Accession # HHCC.2003.008
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Nine and One Half Cubic Foot, Double door, Cabinet Refrigerator, Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: Double door refrigerator
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont.
Make: Kelvinator
Model: 233
Features:
Four heavy galvanised steel wire shelves; evaporator baffles (evaporator not included), early refrigerator lift latches in pristine condition

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
As a result, Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
The Significance of this Specimen: The significant contribution of refrigerators, represented by this specimen lies in the market for the technology opened up for larger refrigerators, which would grace the kitchens of wealthy estates throughout the 1930’s, as well as being found in a new generation of food retailers, the family run,”mumma and papa” store of the pre WW II era.


Double door refrigerator

Unitary Refrig and A/C Equipment and Systems – Commercial Refrigerating Equipment

Accession # HHCC.2003.009
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Nine and One Half Cubic Foot, Double door, Cabinet Refrigerator, Frigidaire, 1926.



Item: Double door refrigerator
Manufacturer: Frigidaire, Electric Refrigerator, Frigidaire Corp
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Cabinet MP7

Technical Significance:
Unitary Refrigeration Equipment: The idea of a unitary piece of refrigeration or air conditioning equipment was a significant one in its own right, one that had to wait its time. The scientists, engineers and inventors in the early years of the 20th century were intrigued and obsessed with the power of the technology and of its possible market potential. What they saw was the newly discovered principles of physics and heat engines – following, for example, the early works of Carnot, Faraday, Kelvin, and the later work of Perkins, Larsen and Carrier, to name a few. They understood the promise of the technology for the public good, not to say its consumer sales potential. Early engineering work advanced on a multiple fronts with development of compressors, heat exchangers, valves and piping variously strung together in configurations that would be found to work, but only after much experimentation.
The arrival of unitary equipment, all those parts organised into a single whole, a single unit of construction, a “black box”, that could be offered to the consumer market was a significant technological and cultural event. Technologically the refrigerator would need to be seen to be safe, reliable, maintainable and useful. As well, in order to attract the development capital needed, it must be seen as potentially saleable and affordable, contributing to life’s needs and desires. Its socio- cultural and economic significance was marked, for it would change much. As Canadians we would quickly come enjoy potentially healthier lives, expect new levels of comfort and convenience, with a broader, safer, more diverse and enjoyable diet.
As a result, Canadians would quickly come to think of their day differently, for the day would be defined and punctuated in different ways than ever before, as a result of the introduction of modern, electric, household appliances, of which refrigerators, freezers and room air conditioners would be a central part, by the mid 20th century
J. M Larsen produced a manually operated household refrigerator of sorts in 1913, but it was not until 1918 that the Kelvinator Company marketed the first automatic, unitary refrigerator for the home. In that year, it is reported to have sold sixty-seven machines. (See Note 1) The historic artifacts in Group 1.00, Unitary Equipment, including significant samplings the early work of Kelvinator of Canada, provide a rare view of the evolution of unitary refrigeration and air conditioning applications, as they evolved in Canada in the first half of the 20th century.
For those formative years, the artifacts in this Group, 1.00, are typical of the offerings of the Canadian refrigeration and air conditioning industry. They personified the applications found in the homes, farms and commercial premises of the period for, those that could afford life’s new amenities of comfort, convenience and privilege.
This Specimen, along with inventory item No.008 help to profile the significant changes in the industry’s public offerings over a brief 2 years, from 1926 to 1928. The last half of the decade was a period remarkable styling, engineering and manufacturing innovation in the industry, inspired by the rapid market growth of the period. Included, as highlighted in contrasting the two specimens, are styling [square to round, modern corners of the Art deco], finish [yellowing paint to gleaming white porcelain], size and weight of condensing unit.


Two tray evaporator ‘CT31X’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.011
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Two tray, ice maker evaporator with low-side float, Cooling Unit for Household Cabinet Refrigerator, Kelvinator,1930.



Item: Two tray evaporator ‘CT31X’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: CT31X

Technical Significance:
The technological significance of the evaporator in a mechanical refrigeration system lies in its ability to evaporate liquid refrigerant (allowing it to absorb latent heat and thus perform useful cooling). In the public mind, however, the useful work was more simply that of cooling. This lead astute manufactures to popularise the use of the term “cooling unit” in place of evaporator. It was the term adopted by the industry in the early years, as it attempted to connect with the human experience of the times to better promote its wares, gaining market share in the embryonic years of Canada’s emerging consumer society. (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada)
Human experience and the social culture of the 1920’s also associated useful cooling with the melting of ice. Historically manufactures successfully played to this sense of public understanding by further marketing cooling units as icemakers. By this means they appealed to wide spread cultural understandings of how things got cooled, through the controlled melting of ice (the popular Canadian icebox of the 1920’s and 30’s). In a peculiar twist, it was often the job of the refrigeration sales or service man to explain to the homemaker that it was not really the ice in the ice cube trays that cooled the refrigerator, but the motor and compressor underneath.
In the 1920’s manufactures of mechanical refrigerators for the home appealed to the consumer public by promoting ice and ice cream as the new consumables, the new food sensations available for all those sufficiently affluent to enjoy the experience. Promotional literature focused on the pleasant sensation of ice cold beverages and on ice cream making at home – using the latest cooling unit. A recipe and food life style book came with the refrigerator for the edification and instruction of the homemaker (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada). Ice and ice cream making in the home was, in fact, one of the significant, new “Gee whiz”, household technologies of the times.
This specimen is an early example of the genre, engineered by Kelvinator for use in one of its household cabinet refrigerators. Trouble prone, the flooded evaporator with low-side float would be would quickly be replaced, however, with less expensive and more trouble free evaporator technology well within the decade.

Industrial Significance:
With complex, demanding construction, the evaporator would make many demands on manufacturing and materials engineering in Ontario in the early years of the 20th century.


Two tray evaporator ‘CT31X’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.012
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Two tray, icemaker evaporator with low-side float; white porcelain front panel and chromium control mounting, a cooling unit up-scaled for use on Kelvinator’s “Yukon”, a deluxe household cabinet Refrigerator, Kelvinator,1930.



Item: Two tray evaporator ‘CT31X’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: CT31X
Features:
White porcelain front plate with chromium control plate mounting, ice cube trays with deep chromium plated front plates and handles, reflective not only the increasing sophistication available to the refrigeration industry (in terms of materials and manufacturing techniques), but also of the public desire for clean, crisp, easy to clean modern looking surfaces – a far cry from the icebox the nation wished now to leave behind.

Technical Significance:
The technological significance of the evaporator in a mechanical refrigeration system lies in its ability to evaporate liquid refrigerant (allowing it to absorb latent heat and thus perform useful cooling). In the public mind, however, the useful work was more simply that of cooling. This lead astute manufactures to popularise the use of the term “cooling unit” in place of evaporator. It was the term adopted by the industry in the early years, as it attempted to connect with the human experience of the times to better promote its wares, gaining market share in the embryonic years of Canada’s emerging consumer society. (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada)
Human experience and the social culture of the 1920’s also associated useful cooling with the melting of ice. Historically manufactures successfully played to this sense of public understanding by further marketing cooling units as icemakers. By this means they appealed to wide spread cultural understandings of how things got cooled, through the controlled melting of ice (the popular Canadian icebox of the 1920’s and 30’s). In a peculiar twist, it was often the job of the refrigeration sales or service man to explain to the homemaker that it was not really the ice in the ice cube trays that cooled the refrigerator, but the motor and compressor underneath.
In the 1920’s manufactures of mechanical refrigerators for the home appealed to the consumer public by promoting ice and ice cream as the new consumables, the new food sensations available for all those sufficiently affluent to enjoy the experience. Promotional literature focused on the pleasant sensation of ice cold beverages and on ice cream making at home – using the latest cooling unit. A recipe and food life style book came with the refrigerator for the edification and instruction of the homemaker (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada). Ice and ice cream making in the home was, in fact, one of the significant, new “Gee whiz”, household technologies of the times.
This specimen demonstrates the way the basic technology of the cooling units of the period was gentrified. What was being sold was much less a fully functioning refrigerated household appliance than style, a technique discovered and successfully applied by auto makers at about the same time.


Two tray evaporator ‘1TF’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.013
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Two tray, icemaker evaporator with low-side float; cooling unit for household cabinet refrigerator, Frigidaire,1926.



Item: Two tray evaporator ‘1TF’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire, USA
Make: Frigidaire
Model: 1TF

Technical Significance:
The technological significance of the evaporator in a mechanical refrigeration system lies in its ability to evaporate liquid refrigerant (allowing it to absorb latent heat and thus perform useful cooling). In the public mind, however, the useful work was more simply that of cooling. This lead astute manufactures to popularise the use of the term “cooling unit” in place of evaporator. It was the term adopted by the industry in the early years, as it attempted to connect with the human experience of the times to better promote its wares, gaining market share in the embryonic years of Canada’s emerging consumer society. (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada)
Human experience and the social culture of the 1920’s also associated useful cooling with the melting of ice. Historically manufactures successfully played to this sense of public understanding by further marketing cooling units as icemakers. By this means they appealed to wide spread cultural understandings of how things got cooled, through the controlled melting of ice (the popular Canadian icebox of the 1920’s and 30’s). In a peculiar twist, it was often the job of the refrigeration sales or service man to explain to the homemaker that it was not really the ice in the ice cube trays that cooled the refrigerator, but the motor and compressor underneath.
In the 1920’s manufactures of mechanical refrigerators for the home appealed to the consumer public by promoting ice and ice cream as the new consumables, the new food sensations available for all those sufficiently affluent to enjoy the experience. Promotional literature focused on the pleasant sensation of ice cold beverages and on ice cream making at home – using the latest cooling unit. A recipe and food life style book came with the refrigerator for the edification and instruction of the homemaker (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada). Ice and ice cream making in the home was, in fact, one of the significant, new “Gee whiz”, household technologies of the times.
This specimen is a particularly early, a well-preserved sample of cooling unit art form (Frigidaire shows this evaporator as discontinued May 5, 1928). Crude in manufacturing techniques, by subsequent standards, the industry would move quickly to modernise the look of its products and to develop the materials and manufacturing processes needed to produce them. (See for example items 011 and 012)


Two tray evaporator ‘Norge’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.014
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Two tray, flooded evaporator with low-side float, modern, formed front plate and hinged door in white porcelain, decorated with black trim and built in temperature control mount; cooling unit for Norge household cabinet refrigerator, Norge, 1936.



Item: Two tray evaporator ‘Norge’
Manufacturer: Borg Warner Corp. Michigan
Make: Norge
Model: unknown
Features:
Styled with modern curved line and form, this cooling unit reflects the Art Deco influences of the mid 1930’s. Of special note is the built in temperature control and on-off switch, conveniently place for the homemaker. The control is equipped with a manual, reset overload switch by Ranco, a leading innovation in control technology for the times

Technical Significance:
The technological significance of the evaporator in a mechanical refrigeration system lies in its ability to evaporate liquid refrigerant (allowing it to absorb latent heat and thus perform useful cooling). In the public mind, however, the useful work was more simply that of cooling. This lead astute manufactures to popularise the use of the term “cooling unit” in place of evaporator. It was the term adopted by the industry in the early years, as it attempted to connect with the human experience of the times to better promote its wares, gaining market share in the embryonic years of Canada’s emerging consumer society. (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada)
Human experience and the social culture of the 1920’s also associated useful cooling with the melting of ice. Historically manufactures successfully played to this sense of public understanding by further marketing cooling units as icemakers. By this means they appealed to wide spread cultural understandings of how things got cooled, through the controlled melting of ice (the popular Canadian icebox of the 1920’s and 30’s). In a peculiar twist, it was often the job of the refrigeration sales or service man to explain to the homemaker that it was not really the ice in the ice cube trays that cooled the refrigerator, but the motor and compressor underneath.
In the 1920’s manufactures of mechanical refrigerators for the home appealed to the consumer public by promoting ice and ice cream as the new consumables, the new food sensations available for all those sufficiently affluent to enjoy the experience. Promotional literature focused on the pleasant sensation of ice cold beverages and on ice cream making at home – using the latest cooling unit. A recipe and food life style book came with the refrigerator for the edification and instruction of the homemaker (See examples in early sale literature from the Kelvinator Co. of Canada). Ice and ice cream making in the home was, in fact, one of the significant, new “Gee whiz”, household technologies of the times.
This specimen is a remarkable icon of its time, marking a dramatic change in engineering, manufacturing and styling, as the industry geared up to move beyond its embryonic development years. Of particular note, technically, is the inclusion of an automatic overload device, with manual reset. This was representative of the early years of safety control technology designed for equipment protection and personal safety.

Industrial Significance:
With the mid 1930’s came increased competition in the refrigeration appliance field, as companies such as Borg Warner and General Motors/Frigidaire, with significant engineering and production experience and resources behind them made major investments in the now rapidly expanding field.


Three tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.015
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Three tray, dry evaporator for High-side float, in formed, rolled steel and heavy white porcelain, fast freezing shelf in stainless steel, for household cabinet refrigerator, Kelvinator, 1936.



Item: Three tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Klelvinator of Canada, London Ont.
Make: Kelvinator

Technical Significance:
See Technological Significance documentation for THOC-HVACR 014. Like specimen 014, this historical artifact of the Canadian HVACR industry is a remarkable icon of its time, marking a dramatic change in engineering, manufacturing and styling, as the industry geared up to move well beyond its embryonic development years of the 1920’s.

Industrial Significance:
The offering was a significant attempt by Kelvinator and the Canadian refrigeration industry to improve system, cooling and thermodynamic efficiencies, reduce manufacturing costs by investing in new materials, construction and manufacturing technologies, as well as to capture a second market interest in frozen foods.


Four tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.016
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Horizontal, four tray, dry evaporator for high-side float, in formed, rolled steel and heavy white porcelain, with fast freezing shelf in stainless steel, “high tech” remote bulb temperature control, defrost and overload controllers, for use on household cabinet refrigerator, Kelvinator, 1936.



Item: Four tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont.
Make: Kelvinator
Features:
Gleaming white porcelain finish; full back cooling unit with door in brushed aluminium ( a new designer material of the mid 30’s) with a classic design idiom.

Technical Significance:
See Technological Significance documentation for THOC-HVACR 014 and 015. Like specimens 014 and 015, this historical artifact of the Canadian HVACR industry is a remarkable icon of its time, marking a dramatic change in engineering, concepts, manufacturing and styling, as the industry geared up to move well beyond its embryonic development years of the 1920’s. Of special note is the level of automation and refrigeration system regulation reflected here, in remote bulb temperature controlling, defrost control and motor over load protection (See also historical artifacts THOC-HVACR Group 7.00 ). Seen here are the early manifestations of engineering thought in the practical application of what would become the cybernetic revolution of the 40’s and 50’s, in which mechanical and electrical systems were conceived as purposeful, self-regulating and self-directing entities.
Here, too, the unprepared public would be faced, most for the first time, with a myriad of switches and buttons (three), arrayed on a control panel (not included), which they were expected to understand and use effectively – most did not. The local refrigeration salesman and serviceman, the support network of the times, were constantly on call, if the householder found melted ice-cream, and other dripping contents on opening the refrigerator.
Here, then, are the early manifestations, realised in the engineering concepts and hardware of the period, of the on-coming revolution in the processing of meaningful, purposeful, information through feedback loops. (See “Modern Systems Research for the Behavioral Scientist, W. Buckley, 1968) .

Industrial Significance:
This offering was a significant attempt by Kelvinator and the Canadian refrigeration industry to improve system cooling and thermodynamic efficiencies, reduce manufacturing costs and progressively automate and regulate their systems better. The industry was investing heavily in new materials, construction and manufacturing technologies, in order to capture the interests of a second market buyers market.


Four tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.017
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Horizontal, four tray, dry evaporator for high-side float, in formed and rolled steel and heavy white porcelain, “high tech” remote bulb temperature control with defrost and overload controllers and cabinet thermometer, for use on household cabinet refrigerator, Kelvinator, 1936.



Item: Four tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont.
Make: Kelvinator
Features:
Gleaming white porcelain finish; full back cooling unit with door in brushed aluminium ( a new designer material of the mid 30’s) with a classic “K” Kelvinator insignia in modern design idiom.

Technical Significance:
See Technological Significance documentation for THOC-HVACR 014, 015 and 016. Like the above, this historical artifact of the Canadian HVACR industry is a remarkable icon of its time, marking a dramatic change in engineering, concepts, manufacturing and styling, as the industry geared up to move well beyond its embryonic development years of the 1920’s. Of special note is the level of automation and refrigeration system regulation reflected here, in remote bulb temperature controlling, defrost control and motor over load protection (See also historical artifacts THOC-HVACR Group 7.00 ). Seen here are the early manifestations of engineering thought in the practical application of what would become the cybernetic revolution of the 40’s and 50’s, in which mechanical and electrical systems were conceived as purposeful, self-regulating and self-directing entities.
Here, too, the unprepared public would be faced, most for the first time, with a myriad of switches and buttons (three), arrayed on a control panel (not included), which they were expected to understand and use effectively – most did not. The local refrigeration salesman and serviceman, the support network of the times, were constantly on call, if the householder found melted ice-cream, and other dripping contents on opening the refrigerator.
Here, then, are the early manifestations, realised in the engineering concepts and hardware of the period, of the on-coming revolution in the processing of meaningful, purposeful, information through feedback loops. (See “Modern Systems Research for the Behavioral Scientist, W. Buckley, 1968) .

Industrial Significance:
This offering was a significant attempt by Kelvinator and the Canadian refrigeration industry to improve system cooling and thermodynamic efficiencies, reduce manufacturing costs and progressively automate and regulate their systems better. The industry was investing heavily in new materials, construction and manufacturing technologies, in order to capture the interests of a second market buyers market.


Frozen food evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.018
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

The Canadian refrigeration industry was moving beyond the concept of a refrigerant evaporator as “ice maker” (see item 011), to a cooling unit designed for frozen foods. Using advanced materials engineering for the period, this specimen is fabricated in stainless steel, with high conductivity, rolled and formed refrigerant passages and equipped with an automatic expansion valve, 1940.



Item: Frozen food evaporator
Manufacturer: Unknown, possibly Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont
Make: Unknown, possibly Kelvinator
Features:
Built in mechanical lifters to release ice cube trays and frozen food packages

Technical Significance:
The industry was moving rapidly to more thermodynamically and mechanically efficient refrigerating systems, with the development of non-noxious, refrigerants, and hermetically sealed refrigeration systems and a new generation of smaller less trouble prone flow controls – represented here by the automatic expansion valve (See artifact Group 3.00) .

Industrial Significance:
The Canadian refrigeration industry was continuing to invest heavily in new materials and manufacturing technology to meet the market potential of the period. Much of the design and engineering development of the time was both facilitated and accelerated by the research of wartime years, as well as being constrained by the shortages of materials and skilled labour.


Frozen food evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.019
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A precursor of the high style, amenity driven, frozen food, household refrigerator cooling unit of the middle years of the 20 th century, this one is equipped for capillary refrigerant flow control. It employs high conductivity, smoothly articulated surfaces, here executed in stainless steel, employing sophisticated engineering and manufacturing methods, here-to not available to the industry, Norge, 1942.



Item: Frozen food evaporator
Manufacturer: Borg Warner Corp. Michigan
Make: Norge
Model: unknown
Features:
High style evaporator door in white porcelain, with gold monographNatural rubber door gasket in pigmented grey.
Rear mounted refrigerator light

Technical Significance:
The significance of this specimen rests in its evolutionary context. It is part of the dynamic, rapidly changing pattern of developmental events that saw the Canadian refrigeration industry move beyond its crude, early offerings to the households of the nation and do so in a period of much less than two decades. Markers of the changing times evident here include: large, fast freezing surfaces for frozen foods, modern amenities and styling, along with technologically elegant refrigerant flow control methods. Taking advantage of war time research and development in the aluminium industry, the industry would shortly move to its use, as the material of choice in the fabrication of household evaporators – but not with out considerable growing pains.

Industrial Significance:
See report #014 for the special contribution of companies like Borg Warner to the work of the Canadian refrigeration industry


Replacement 2 tray evaporator

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Evaporators – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.020
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A general replacement, 2 tray cooling unit for household refrigerator. A transition evaporator technology; fabricated in aluminium, using coiled, tinned copper tubing, sandwiched between aluminium plates;. equipped with Ranco type KW remote bulb temperature control, Air Coils Oakville Ont. 1946.



Item: Replacement 2 tray evaporator
Manufacturer: Air Coils, Oakville Ont.
Make: Air Coils
Model: 31-17

Technical Significance:
The significance of this specimen, like 019, rests in its evolutionary context. It is part of the dynamic, rapidly changing pattern of developmental events that saw the Canadian refrigeration industry move beyond its crude, early offerings to the households of the nation and do so in a period of much less than two decades. Of special significance, technologically, is the dramatic tansition from the crude designs of the 1920’s and 30’sto those of the 40’s enabled by new materials science and newly informed engineering theory and practice.


Refrigerant flow control

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.041
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, refrigerant flow control, using an automatic expansion valve principle, a pioneering contribution by Kelvinator to the embryonic years of the refrigeration industry in Canada. Handsomely executed in a 5 lb. solid cast brass body and large pressure actuated diaphragm operator, it was engineered for noxious sulphur dioxide, the then newly developed, low pressure refrigerant of choice, Model B1, Kelvinator, circa 1926.

On of a rare set of three similar valves, demonstrating the array of adaptations and applications conceived by Kelvinator for this refrigerant flow control devices, all emerging from the same basic platform. See ID #3.01-1 A, B, C, See Kevinator manuals of the period for depictions of applications and adaptations.



Item: Refrigerant flow control
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan
Make: Kelvinator
Model: B1
Features:
Heavy, 5 lb. cast brass body; Handsomely embossed with kelvinator logo; Over coated with aluminium paint, employing a dispersion of aluminium particles in oil-based paint vehicle, new for the period;

Adjustment screw capped and water sealed with knurled brass, screw in cover plate; Heavy brass, threaded access ports for the service of internal mechanism

The valve was conceived by Kelvinator with a spring compensated, 3″ round diaphragm and brass needle seat, and equipped with built-in strainer and pressure adjustment screw, the precursor of much more sophisticated devices to come.

Technical Significance:
A rare specimen of a self-regulating, spring compensated, automatic expansion valve patented by Kelvinator in 1923 and used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

One of a rare set of three similar valves, demonstrating the vast array of adaptations and applications conceived by Kelvinator for this refrigerant flow control devices, all emerging from the same basic platform. See ID #3.01-1 A, B, C Kelvinator’s various manual of the period show the many applications and adaptations that would flow from this basic design concept.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts], it had the advantage of reliability and price, as well as serviceability.

The device demonstrates the manner in which the scientific knowledge, materials and manufacturing methods of the times would come to be used in a refrigerant flow control, popularly appearing in the kitchens of the privileged across the nation.

The artifact is suggestive of the problems faced by the emerging refrigeration service sector in Canada. Kelvinator’s service manual, March 1928 gave full details for cleaning and adjustment on which the homeowner would regularly depend, and in turn the manufacturer, for continued customer satisfaction.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘B’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.042
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

One of a number of later design variants and simplifications of the early automatic, B series, expansion valve by Kelvinator [see also ID #165 & 167]. Handsomely executed in a 5 lb. solid cast brass body with large pressure actuated diaphragm operator, it was engineered for flange mounting for noxious sulphur dioxide, then the low pressure refrigerant of choice, Model B3, Kelvinator, circa 1927.

On of a rare set of three similar valves, demonstrating the array of adaptations and applications conceived by Kelvinator for this refrigerant flow control devices, all emerging from the same basic platform. See ID #3.01-1 A, B, C, See Kevinator manuals of the period for depictions of applications and adaptations.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘B’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan
Make: Kelvinator
Model: B3
Features:
Heavy, 5 lb. cast brass body; Handsomely embossed with kelvinator logo; Adjustment screw capped and water sealed with knurled brass, screw in cover plate; Heavy brass, threaded access ports for the service of internal mechanism; The valve was conceived by Kelvinator with a spring compensated, 3″ round diaphragm and brass needle seat, suction line mounting flange and pressure adjustment screw, the precursor of much more sophisticated devices to come.

Technical Significance:
A rare specimen of a self-regulating, spring compensated, automatic expansion valve patented by Kelvinator in 1923 and used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

One of a rare set of three similar valves, demonstrating the vast array of adaptations and applications conceived by Kelvinator for this refrigerant flow control devices, all emerging from the same basic platform, over a period of half a decade or more possibly from about 1922 through to 1929. See ID #3.01-1 A, B, C Kelvinator’s various manual of the period show the many applications and adaptations that would flow from this basic design concept.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts], it had the advantage of reliability and price, as well as serviceability.

The device demonstrates the manner in which the scientific knowledge, materials and manufacturing methods of the times would come to be used in a refrigerant flow control, popularly appearing in the kitchens of the privileged across the nation.

The artifact is suggestive of the problems faced by the emerging refrigeration service sector in Canada. Kelvinator’s service manual, March 1928 gave full details for cleaning and adjustment on which the homeowner would regularly depend, and in turn the manufacturer, for continued customer satisfaction.

Note the signs of progressive design simplification and economies in size and manufacturing represented here over item ID #165.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘B’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.043
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

One of a number of later design variants and simplifications of the early automatic, B series, expansion valve by Kelvinator [see also ID #165 & 167]. Handsomely executed in a 5 lb. solid cast brass body with large pressure actuated diaphragm operator, it was engineered for flange mounting for noxious sulphur dioxide, then the low pressure refrigerant of choice, Model B2, Kelvinator, circa 1927.

On of a rare set of three similar valves, demonstrating the array of adaptations and applications conceived by Kelvinator for this refrigerant flow control devices, all emerging from the same basic platform. See ID #3.01-1 A, B, C, See Kevinator manuals of the period for depictions of applications and adaptations.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘B’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan
Make: Kelvinator
Model: B2
Features:
Heavy, 5 lb. cast brass body; Handsomely embossed with kelvinator logo; Adjustment screw capped and water sealed with knurled brass, screw in cover plate; Heavy brass, threaded access ports for the service of internal mechanism; The valve was conceived by Kelvinator with a spring compensated, 3″ round diaphragm and brass needle seat, suction line mounting flange and pressure adjustment screw, the precursor of much more sophisticated devices to come.

Technical Significance:
A rare specimen of a self-regulating, spring compensated, automatic expansion valve patented by Kelvinator in 1923 and used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

One of a rare set of three similar valves, demonstrating the vast array of adaptations and applications conceived by Kelvinator for this refrigerant flow control devices, all emerging from the same basic platform, over a period of half a decade or more possibly from about 1922 through to 1929. See ID #3.01-1 A, B, C Kelvinator’s various manual of the period show the many applications and adaptations that would flow from this basic design concept.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts], it had the advantage of reliability and price, as well as serviceability.

The device demonstrates the manner in which the scientific knowledge, materials and manufacturing methods of the times would come to be used in a refrigerant flow control, popularly appearing in the kitchens of the privileged across the nation.

The artifact is suggestive of the problems faced by the emerging refrigeration service sector in Canada. Kelvinator’s service manual, March 1928 gave full details for cleaning and adjustment on which the homeowner would regularly depend, and in turn the manufacturer, for continued customer satisfaction.

Note the signs of progressive design simplification and economies in size and manufacturing represented here over item ID #165.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘M’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.044
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, second generation, compact, spring compensated, adjustable, automatic expansion valve with solid, cast brass body, built-in inlet filter screen, original moisture protection cap in natural rubber, engineered for noxious sulphur dioxide, then the low pressure refrigerant of choice, Model M, American Injector, circa 1930.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘M’
Manufacturer: American Injector Co., Detroit
Make: American Injector
Model: M
Features:
Adjustment screw capped with original cap in natural rubber; Liquid line inlet screen

Technical Significance:
An example of the new generation of compact, more precisely engineered and performing expansion valves emerging early in the 1930’s, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

Dramatises the major gains made by the industry over a period of less than 5 years, during a period of feverish research and development using the scant knowledge and experience available to workers in the field at the time, compare ID # 165 to 168

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology, the automatic expansion valve. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of more costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts], it had the advantage of reliability and price, as well as serviceability.

Industrial Significance:
The engineering sophistication and advancements in manufacturing, assembly and materials utilization, represented here, in contrast to ID # 1655-168 stands as a remarkable industry achievement.

Not untypical of the times, the American Injector Company stands as an early innovator in the field of refrigerant flow controls without a sustained history in the industry. A current search of the WWW reveals no such name, possibly long since evolved into another corporate identity.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘672’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.045
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, second generation, compact, spring compensated, adjustable, automatic expansion valve for use on “dry evaporators made by arguably the leader in the technology of the period, Detroit Lubricator, with cast brass body and aluminium overcoat, built-in inlet filter screen, original moisture protection cap in natural rubber, engineered for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, Model 672, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1935.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘672’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 672, Series 10C
Features:
Adjustment screw capped with original moisture protecting cap in natural rubber. Rubber is preserved in original condition, unusual for the 1930’s, where rubbers deteriorated quickly, especially in contact with oil. The caps were needed to protect the valve-adjusting stem from condensation water dripping of the coiling unit. Condensation would typically re-freeze along the adjustment screw, causing the valve to loose its calibrated setting.

Removable liquid line inlet screen

Technical Significance:
An example of the new generation of compact, more precisely engineered and performing expansion valves emerging early in the 1930’s, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

Dramatises the major gains made by the industry over a period of less than 5 years, during a period of feverish research and development using the scant knowledge and experience available to workers in the field at the time, compare ID # 165 to 168

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology, the automatic expansion valve. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of more costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts, ID # 175 and 176 for example], it had the advantage of reliability, maintainability and affordability, as well as serviceability.

Industrial Significance:
The engineering sophistication and advancements in manufacturing, assembly and materials utilization, represented here, in contrast to ID # 165-168 stands as a remarkable industry achievement.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘672’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.046
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, second generation, compact, spring compensated, adjustable, automatic expansion valve for use on “dry evaporators made by arguably the leader in the technology of the period, Detroit Lubricator, with cast brass body and aluminium overcoat, built-in inlet filter screen, engineered for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, Model 672, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1935.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘672’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 672
Features:
Removable liquid line inlet screen

Technical Significance:
An example of the new generation of compact, more precisely engineered and performing expansion valves emerging early in the 1930’s, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

Dramatises the major gains made by the industry over a period of less than 5 years, during a period of feverish research and development using the scant knowledge and experience available to workers in the field at the time, compare ID # 165 to 168

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology, the automatic expansion valve. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of more costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts, ID # 175 and 176 for example], it had the advantage of reliability, maintainability and affordability, as well as serviceability.

Industrial Significance:
The engineering sophistication and advancements in manufacturing, assembly and materials utilization, represented here, in contrast to ID # 165-168 stands as a remarkable industry achievement.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘670’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.047
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, compact, spring compensated, adjustable, automatic expansion valve for use on “dry evaporators”, made by arguably the leader in the technology of the period, Detroit Lubricator, with heavy cast brass body, brass bellows, screw shaft adjustment seal and inlet filter screen, engineered for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, Model 670, Detroit Lubricator, circa 1932.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘670’
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Co., Detroit
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: 670, Series 1
Features:
Removable liquid line inlet screen

Technical Significance:
The Detroit Model 670 would proceed the 672 [see ID # 169 and 170], equipped with bellows adjustment stem seal and beautifully machined brass body, it would no doubt prove to be a costly device to produce.

An example of the new generation of compact, more precisely engineered and performing expansion valves emerging early in the 1930’s, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

Dramatises the major gains made by the industry over a period of less than 5 years, during a period of feverish research and development using the scant knowledge and experience available to workers in the field at the time, compare ID # 165 to 168

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology, the automatic expansion valve. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of more costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts, ID # 175 and 176 for example], it had the advantage of reliability, maintainability and affordability, as well as serviceability.

Industrial Significance:
The engineering sophistication and advancements in manufacturing, assembly and materials utilization, represented here, in contrast to ID # 165-168 stands as a remarkable industry achievement.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘C1’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.048
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, compact, spring compensated, adjustable, automatic expansion valve for use on “dry evaporators”, apparently manufactured for Kelvinator by the M B Company, with heavy cast brass body, flange mounted and equipped with bronze bellows, screw adjustment shaft seal, engineered for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, Kelvinator Model C1, circa 1932. One of a set of two identical valves, see Ref code 3.01-5B, ID # 173.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘C1’
Manufacturer: M B Company
Make: M B for Kelvinator
Model: Kelvinator C1

Technical Significance:
An example of the new generation of compact, more precisely engineered and performing expansion valves emerging early in the 1930’s, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

Dramatises the major gains made by the industry over a period of less than 5 years, during a period of feverish research and development using the scant knowledge and experience available to workers in the field at the time, compare ID # 165 to 168

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology, the automatic expansion valve. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of more costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts, ID # 175 and 176 for example], it had the advantage of reliability, maintainability and affordability, as well as serviceability.

Industrial Significance:
It was a period of rapid industry growth, as well as technological development and innovation in the refrigeration industry. Systems were becoming increasingly complex as the industry moved to improve their reliability and performance. Small satellite manufacturers, characterized here by the M B Company, were attracted to the rapidly evolving field in the hopes of securing contracts for the production of component parts. The phenomena of industrial out-souring had been discovered by Kelvinator.

The fact that the M B Company seems to have been relatively short lived tells many of the stories of the times – companies without the resources for sustainability in a rapidly evolving field.

The engineering sophistication and advancements in manufacturing, assembly and materials utilization, represented here, in contrast to ID # 165-168 stands as a remarkable industry achievement.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘C1’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.049
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, compact, spring compensated, adjustable, automatic expansion valve for use on “dry evaporators”, apparently manufactured for Kelvinator by the M B Company, with heavy cast brass body, flange mounted and equipped with bronze bellows, screw adjustment shaft seal, engineered for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, Kelvinator Model C1, circa 1932. One of a set of two identical valves, see Ref code 3.01-5A, ID # 172.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘C1’
Manufacturer: M B Company
Make: M B for Kelvinator
Model: Kelvinator C1

Technical Significance:
An example of the new generation of compact, more precisely engineered and performing expansion valves emerging early in the 1930’s, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

Dramatises the major gains made by the industry over a period of less than 5 years, during a period of feverish research and development using the scant knowledge and experience available to workers in the field at the time, compare ID # 165 to 168

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology, the automatic expansion valve. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of more costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts, ID # 175 and 176 for example], it had the advantage of reliability, maintainability and affordability, as well as serviceability.

Industrial Significance:
It was a period of rapid industry growth, as well as technological development and innovation in the refrigeration industry. Systems were becoming increasingly complex as the industry moved to improve their reliability and performance. Small satellite manufacturers, characterized here by the M B Company, were attracted to the rapidly evolving field in the hopes of securing contracts for the production of component parts. The phenomena of industrial out-souring had been discovered by Kelvinator.

The fact that the M B Company seems to have been relatively short lived tells many of the stories of the times – companies without the resources for sustainability in a rapidly evolving field.

The engineering sophistication and advancements in manufacturing, assembly and materials utilization, represented here, in contrast to ID # 165-168 stands as a remarkable industry achievement.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘AP204’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.050
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A mid 20th century, compact, spring compensated, adjustable, automatic expansion valve for use on “dry evaporators”, with tin coated, cast brass body, flange mounting and wrench pads, finely calibrated and rated for sulphur dioxide, methyl chloride and Freon 12 refrigerant [Incomplete Assembly] Automatic Products, Model AP204, circa 1944.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘AP204’
Manufacturer: Automatic Products Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Make: Automatic Products [AP]
Model: AP204
Features:
Original manufacturer’s installation and service instruction sheet; Inlet screen; Moisture proof, more robust metal cap and seal [not included]

Technical Significance
An example of the new generation of compact, more precisely engineered and performing expansion valves emerging early in the 1940’s, calibrated and engineered the wider range of refrigerants then in use, including mainly sulphur dioxide, menthol chloride and Freon 12

Dramatises the major gains made by the industry over a period of less than 10 years, during a period of feverish research and development using the scant knowledge and experience available to workers in the field at the time, compare ID # 165 to 173

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology, the automatic expansion valve. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of more costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts, ID # 175 and 176 for example], it had the advantage of reliability, maintainability and affordability, as well as serviceability.

Industrial Significance:
Following W.W.II, in the 1940’s, the refrigeration and air conditioning industry went through a second major growth spurt. By then it was armed with new technology, manufacturing and engineering know-how, as well as new materials to work with – much of it the results of war-time research, development and field practice.

This valve in many ways characterizes the world change that had taken place, encouraging, allowing and facilitating many new refrigeration and air conditioning applications. These were especially evident in the emergence of sophisticated “packaged systems”. Using the new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants [e.g., Freon 12], the systems were smaller more compact, quieter and more user friendly.


Refrigeration float control ‘E1’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.051
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early high side float control for household cabinet refrigerator, housed in refrigerant receiver and used for metering liquid refrigerant into a flooded evaporator \r\nModel E1, Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont., Circa 1933.



Item: Refrigeration float control ‘E1’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont
Make: Kelvinator
Model: E1
Features:
Liquid line valve moulded foam rubber insulated cover

Technical Significance:
Typical of the technology of the period, a series of high side floats were developed and used in various applications by Kelvinator, principally in their household cabinet refrigerators in the mid and latter 1930’s – including their model series D and E float assemblies.

A brass float valve and needle seat assembly was located in the base of the refrigerant, liquid receiver, from where the liquid was metered into an insulated liquid line carrying it to the inlet of the evaporator. The float opens the valve at a predetermined level of refrigerant in the receiver, as it is returned from the high side of the compressor.

The system is subject to critical refrigerant charge, much like the capillary tube device to follow. However maintaining the critical charge necessary for trouble free operation in open type condensing units, subject to compressor seal and other leaks was always a challenge.

Industrial Significance:
The high side float refrigerant meter system, used for flooded evaporators, was the source of some engineering interest and production in the mid 1930’s, but was then largely abandoned, along with the low side float, for the mainstream of household and small commercial refrigeration applications – for reasons of cost, reliability and serviceability and the engineering design constraints it introduced. By this time much simpler trouble free metering technology was at hand.


Refrigeration float control

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.052
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Representative of the new generation of compact, more finely calibrated high side float controls for household cabinet refrigerators that emerged into the 1940’s. Housed in a refrigerant receiver, it was used for metering liquid refrigerant into a flooded evaporator

Model unknown, Kelvinator of Canada, London Ont., Circa 1945.



Item: Refrigeration float control
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont
Make: Kelvinator
Model: unknown
Features:
Section of liquid line moulded foam rubber insulated cover; Inverted flare tubing connectors, part of a compact tubing connector system evolved in the 1940’s for household and packaged commercial refrigeration equipment applications.

Technical Significance:
Typical of the technology as it emerged into the 1940’s, as used briefly, principally by Kelvinator in their household cabinet refrigerators.

A brass float valve and needle seat assembly was located in the base of the refrigerant, liquid receiver, from where the liquid was metered into an insulated liquid line carrying it to the inlet of the evaporator. The float opens the valve at a predetermined level of refrigerant in the receiver, as it is returned from the high side of the compressor.

The system is subject to critical refrigerant charge, much like the capillary tube device to follow. However maintaining the critical charge necessary for trouble free operation in open type condensing units, subject to compressor seal and other leaks was always a challenge.

Industrial Significance:
The high side float refrigerant meter system, used for flooded evaporators, was the source of some engineering interest and production in the mid 1930’s, but was then largely abandoned, along with the low side float, for the mainstream of household and small commercial refrigeration applications – for reasons of cost, reliability and serviceability and the engineering design constraints it introduced.

By this time much simpler trouble free metering technology was at hand. Kelvinator, it seems, continued the practice later than others, possibly because they had experience and an investment in the technology that others had not.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘LM’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.053
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An amazingly compact, light weight [8oz.], new generation of brass body, adjustable thermostatic expansion valves, for household and small commercial equipment applications, with 30″ capillary tube and bulb, designed for a methyl chloride, and beautifully engraved in script, “made for Kelvinator”, Patented 1934, Model LM, Mayson Mfg. Co. Detroit. Circa 1938. [one of a matched set of two, see ID # 178]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘LM’
Manufacturer: Mayson Mfg. Co. Detroit
Make: Mason for Kelvinator
Model: LM, B41
Features:
Beautifully proportioned body with engraved marking in script “made for Kelvinator”

Technical Significance:
The advances in the engineering, production and application of thermostatic expansion [TX] valve technology throughout the industry in the 1930’s were truly impressive, as the valve moved into the mainstream of refrigerant flow control applications, replacing much cruder metering devices including float valves and automatic pressure setting valves. TX valve technology enabled much more efficient use of evaporator [cooling unit] surface and thus the use of smaller evaporators

Now designed for a new generation of fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, these valves were engineering masterpieces of their times, compact, precisely calibrated, and reliable refrigerant flow control devices. Valves were refrigerant specific.

An exquisitely engineered and crafted brass body valve, it is driven by a miniature brass bellows, with extended copper capillary line and 3/8″ sensing bulb – an impressive example of precision, mass production and quality control methods of the period.

Compact and reliable, with capacities up to 1/3 ton, Mayson’s Model L series TX valves would become a kind of “work horse” for the repair and replacement field, to be shown in wholesalers’ and jobbers’ catalogues through into the 1960’s. see bibliographic note

It was often used to up-date earlier equipment using an automatic expansion valve, in order to improve evaporator efficiency, and sometimes accompanying a conversion from methyl chloride to R12 refrigerant.

Industrial Significance:
This historic artifact of refrigeration technology in Canada marks the early movement by large, brand label manufacturers to out “sourceing”. As the technology developed in sophistication and complexity so did the engineering and manufacturing become more specialised and costly. Small speciality manufacturers, such as Mayson, soon moved into the field, anxious for the challenge.

The care taken in the “branding” of the valve, with engraved script, illustrates the careful attention given to the matter of maintaining the Kelvinator name in the public eye.

This valve carries the surprisingly early patent date of 1934, marking Mayson as one of a small number of pioneers in the early development of TX valve technology for a new generation of refrigerants and refrigeration applications.

The contrast between the sophistication of this valve and the offerings of Frigidaire, a brand label, is most marked, much smaller and more polished in appearance, see for example ID #179, and others that follow.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘LM’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.054
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An amazingly compact, light weight [8oz.], new generation of brass body, adjustable thermostatic expansion valves, for household and small commercial equipment applications, with 30″ capillary tube and bulb, designed for a methyl chloride, Patented 1934, Model LM, Mayson Mfg. Co. Detroit. Circa 1938. [one of a matched set of two, see ID # 177, similar to ID #177 without Kelvinator markings]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘LM’
Manufacturer: Mayson Mfg. Co. Detroit
Make: Mason for Kelvinator
Model: 4LM, C40
Features:
Beautifully proportioned brass body with engraved markings

Technical Significance:
The advances in the engineering, production and application of thermostatic expansion [TX] valve technology throughout the industry in the 1930’s were truly impressive, as the valve moved into the mainstream of refrigerant flow control applications, replacing much cruder metering devices, including float valves and automatic pressure setting valves. TX valve technology enabled much more efficient use of evaporator [cooling unit] surface and thus the use of smaller evaporators

Now designed for a new generation of fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, these valves were engineering masterpieces of their times, compact, precisely calibrated, and reliable refrigerant flow control devices. Valves were ordered refrigerant specific.

An exquisitely engineered and crafted brass body valve, it is driven by a miniature brass bellows, with extended copper capillary line and 3/8″ sensing bulb – an impressive example of precision, mass production and quality control methods of the period.

Compact and reliable, with capacities up to 1/3 ton, Mayson’s Model L series TX valves would become a kind of “work horse” for the repair and replacement field, to be shown in wholesalers’ and jobbers’ catalogues through into the 1960’s. see bibliographic note

It was often used to up-date earlier equipment using an automatic expansion valve, in order to improve evaporator efficiency, and sometimes accompanying a conversion from methyl chloride to R12 refrigerant.

Industrial Significance:
This valve carries the surprisingly early patent date of 1934, marking Mayson as one of a small number of pioneers in the early development of TX valve technology for a new generation of refrigerants and refrigeration applications.

The contrast between the sophistication of this valve and the offerings of Frigidaire, a brand label, is most marked, much smaller and more polished in appearance, see for example ID #179, and others that follow.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘N’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.055
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early automatic, adjustable expansion valve, a pioneering contribution by Frigidaire to the embryonic years of the refrigeration industry; housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with integral two point mounting bracket, with galvanised over coat; pressure actuated 2 inch diaphragm; engineered for sulphur dioxide, the then newly developed, low pressure refrigerant of choice; Model N, Frigidaire, circa 1929. [On of a set of two, see #ID 180]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘N’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation
Make: Frigidaire
Model: N

Technical Significance:
A rare specimen of a self-regulating, spring compensated, automatic expansion valve, one of the earliest in production by Frigidaire, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts], it had the advantage of reliability and price, as well as serviceability.

The valve taken out of service in the 1950’s attests to its robust nature, with an operating life of 20 years and more.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘N’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.056
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early automatic, adjustable expansion valve, a pioneering contribution by Frigidaire to the embryonic years of the refrigeration industry; housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with integral two point mounting bracket, with galvanised over coat; pressure actuated 2 inch diaphragm; engineered for sulphur dioxide, the then newly developed, low pressure refrigerant of choice; Model N, Frigidaire, circa 1929. [On of a set of two, see #ID 179]



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘N’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation
Make: Frigidaire
Model: N

Technical Significance:
A rare specimen of a self-regulating, spring compensated, automatic expansion valve, one of the earliest in production by Frigidaire, used to maintain cooling units [evaporators], in mechanically cooled refrigerators, at the desired refrigerant pressure.

This artifact of history tells the many stories of early adoption of this particular fluid flow technology. After a brief flurry of excitement over the use of costly and delicate float operated devices, as a more efficient means of flow control, industry engineers would return to the automatic expansion valve in the early 30’s. But by then the automatic expansion valve would be a smaller and much more precisely calibrated and efficient device. While the automatic expansion valve was less efficient in its effective use of evaporator surface than high and low side float systems [See HHCC Series 3.01 artifacts], it had the advantage of reliability and price, as well as serviceability.


Refrigeration expansion valve ‘S’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.057
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A Second generation, Frigidaire, automatic, adjustable expansion valve; housed in a 4 lb. solid cast brass body with galvanised over coat; with integral two point mounting bracket, inlet screen and Bakelite moisture proof cap; pressure actuated bellows design; engineered for sulphur dioxide or Freon 12 refrigerant; Model S, Frigidaire, circa 1934.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ‘S’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation
Make: Frigidaire
Model: S

Technical Significance:
An advanced design expansion valves produced by Frigidaire, following their early experience in expansion valve engineering for dry evaporators.

Significant for the period was the calibration of the valve for alternate use on the then new series of chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, Freon 12, as well as for sulphur dioxide.

Large inlet filter screen has also been provided on this model, a necessary feature for helping to ensure reliable, service free operation over extended periods of time.

Frigidaire moved to the use of a bellows pressure activating mechanism in this generation of valves, rather than the earlier diaphragm mechanism, following the trend.

A perennial, problem with such valves, experienced by Frigidaire and other manufacturers was freeze up do to moisture entering the valve through the manual adjustment mechanism. Frigidaire’s answer was, here, in the form of a condensation retarding, Bakelite cap, as an alternative to rubber and metal caps


Refrigeration expansion valve ’33’

Refrigerant Flow Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.058
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A compact, fully adjustable, late pre WW II, automatic expansion valve by a new generation of manufacturers drawn to the now rapidly expanding market for refrigeration and air conditioning products, factory sealed, with inlet screen, Fedders, Model 33, circa 1938.



Item: Refrigeration expansion valve ’33’
Manufacturer: Fedders
Make: Fedders
Model: 33

Technical Significance:
A factory sealed, non-field serviceable expansion valve would seem to mark a new era in the development of expansion valve technology.

More confident in the engineering performance and reliability of the product, the manufacturer has been able to reduce costs, and produce a more compact, lighter weight valve, without the need for field service access. Bolted flanges and gaskets have disappeared, with the accompanying risks of refrigerant leaks.

The contrast with the construction of valves by Frigidaire a few years earlier is marked. See for example ID # 181, 180.

Industrial Significance:
With the post WW II years would come a profound shift in the structure of the refrigeration and air conditioning industry. A new generation of manufacturers would be drawn to the now rapidly expanding market for refrigeration and air conditioning products. The brand names of Kelvinator and Frigidaire would gradually fade from prominence, as new players, such as Fedders, captured an ever increasing proportion of market share.

It has been noted that the name Fedders was associated with the manufacture of automobile radiators in the pre WW II years, a matter to be confirmed. Experienced in finned radiator engineering and assembly would provide such a manufacturer with a possible entry point into the refrigeration and air conditioning business.

Shortly after WW II, the Fedders name came to be associated with the manufacturer of name brand window air conditioners, in the late 1940, and 50.

A well honoured name, the company still manufactures and markets air treatment and thermal technology products, including air conditioners, de humidifiers air cleaners etc, under a wide range of well known trade marks, including: Emerson, Airtemp, and Trion [Business. Com web site, 050321]


Coil spring condensing unit

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.030
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A second generation, coil spring mounted medium speed, condensing unit with belt driven, single cylinder, reciprocating compressor, copper tube and finned, single pass air cooled condenser and 4 lb refrigerant receiver, with 1/6th HP electric motor. A refrigerating machine for the Canadian home, with a new sense of quiet that it would be characteristic of the best of the industry’s offerings in the early growth years of the household refrigerator in Canada. Designed and manufactured by an acknowledged market leader of the times with facilities in London Ontario, Kelvinator, 1930.



Item: Coil spring condensing unit
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator
Model: CA530

Technical Significance:
As significant marker of a new level of quiet and smooth operation for rfrigerating machines of the time, to be tolerated in the kitchens of the nation the

Industrial Significance:
Helped to establish London and Western Ontario as a major hot-bed of manufacturing practice in refrigeration and appliance production.


Coil spring condensing unit

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.031
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A medium duty, second generation, coil spring mounted medium speed, condensing unit with belt driven, single cylinder, reciprocating compressor, copper tube and finned, two pass air cooled condenser, with 1/4th HP electric motor. A refrigerating machine for the large Canadian estate home, or family food store application. Like #030, it came with a new sense of quiet that would be characteristic of the best of the industry’s offerings in the early growth years of the household refrigerator in Canada. Designed and manufactured by an acknowledged market leader of the times with facilities in London Ontario, Kelvinator, 1932.



Item: Coil spring condensing unit
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator

Technical Significance:
A significant marker of a new level of quiet and smooth operation for refrigerating machines of the time, to be tolerated in the kitchens of the nation

Industrial Significance:
Helped to establish London and Western Ontario as a major hotbed of manufacturing practice in refrigeration and appliance production.


Refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.032
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A smoothly designed mid 1930’s, coil spring mounted medium speed, condensing unit with belt driven, single cylinder, reciprocating compressor, copper tube and finned, single pass air cooled condenser with 3 lb refrigerant receiver, with 1/6th HP electric motor, and a new generation of quiet 3 blade cloverleaf fan. The machine by Universal Refrigeration, demonstrates their special contribution to the design and production of refrigerating machines in Canada, in what was quickly becoming an increasingly competitive market segment, Universal Cooler Brantford Ontario, 1936.



Item: Refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Universal Cooler, Brantford Ontario
Make: Universal Cooler
Model: A16
Features:
This refrigerating machine is equipped with a new style, for the period of condensing air cooling fan. The clover life design evoved as a quieter more efficient blade than the simpler straight cut propeller type of an earlier generation of condensing units in Canada.Whether this blade was original or installed, as part of a subsequent up-grade is unknown. Air noise in the family kitchen was an on-going irritation and refrigeration mechanics would do what they could to minimise it, in the interests of good customer relations and product satisfaction

Technical Significance:
One of an early breed of Canadian made condensing units [along with Kelvinator of Canada] moving from the use of highly noxious SO2 to methyl chloride, heralding the massive swing to the chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants by the end of the decade (F12).

Industrial Significance:
Demonstrates the craftsmanship, manufacturing methods and breadth of design and manufacturing options being explored by Canadian refrigeration manufacturers by the mid 1930’sWestern Ontario was fast becoming the heartland and Mecca for refrigeration design and manufacturing in Canada.


Refrigeration machine ‘Gilson’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.033
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Refrigerating machinery by this manufacturer, a uniquely and distinctively Canadian company, made a special contribution to Canada’s material culture of refrigerating technology. The Gilson Manufacturing Co. of Quelph Ontario was part of the new industrialism growing up in the Ontario hinterlands, between the Wars, to service the needs of rural Ontario, much less than the provinces urban elites.

Executed in the company’s distinctive aqua , blue/green, tones it would be a well recognised part of the Canadian refrigeration landscape through the middle years of the 20th century – seen by many as its “golden” years. A condensing unit with belt driven, single cylinder, reciprocating compressor, copper tube and finned, single pass air cooled condenser, and 1/6th HP electric motor, it was assembled on a distinctive cast iron, foundry produced frame, a hallmark of much Gilson’s production of the period, Gilson Mfg. Co, Circa 1945.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Gilson’
Manufacturer: Gilson Manufacturing Co, Quelph Ontario
Make: Gilson
Model: A2MA

Technical Significance:
One of an early breed of Canadian made condensing units [along with Kelvinator of Canada, and Universal Cooler} moving from the use of highly noxious SO2 to methyl chloride, heralding the massive swing to the chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants by the end of the decade (F12).

Industrial Significance:
The assembly process employed, in the years before more sophisticated hermetically sealed condensing units became popular, allowed small, start-up manufactures to get into a growth market with relatively small capital investment and know-how. This would have a profound effect on the speciality companies such as Kelvinator and Frigidaire , who manufactured a full line of component parts and backed much of the research on which the rest of industry relied.


Refrigeration machine ‘Rollator’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.034
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A “high tech” refrigerating machine of the mid 1930’s, the “Norge Rollator” was a precursor of profound change in the technology offerings of the Canadian refrigeration industry. By making use of the best engineering knowledge of the times, this innovative machine both responded to public desire for a less crude mechanical monster in the kitchens of the nation, and at the same time built further expectations for what was to soon come. It was a whole new design concept, by a new generation of world class engineering companies who had entered the now rapidly expanding North American home appliance market, the Borg Warner Corporation of Sweden, Norge Division, Borg-Warner Corp. Detroit Mich, 1935.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Rollator’
Manufacturer: Borg-Warner Corp. Detroit, Mich
Make: Norge
Model: S4237

Technical Significance:
It was a whole new design concept, by a new generation of world class engineering companies who had entered the rapidly expanding North American home appliance market, the Borg Warner Corporation of Sweden, Norge Division, Borg-Warner Corp. Detroit Mich, 1945.What was signalled here was the end of the refrigeration condensing unit as a mere assemblage by mere assemblers of parts based, variously, on a range of buy- make decisions appropriate for the market conditions of the moment [See for example #033].The commitment of the industry would be increasingly to specialised compressor design and to smoothly integrated systems applying state of the art systems thinking [See for example #036.

Industrial Significance:
Of significance in the Canadian industrial context is the Rogers connection with leading edge innovations in the refrigeration field. Toronto based Rogers-Majestic, by 1928, was the largest manufacturers of radio broadcast receivers in Canada, enjoying the market boom of the times. The Rogers empire was founded on innovative the work of Edward S. Rogers, who received a Dominion of Canada patent for a “rectifying system” on June 16, 1925. By August of that year Rogers was in mass production of the worlds first practical AC radio tube and the first Rogers Batteryless radio broadcast receiver.
By the early 1930’s the company was looking to expand and consolidate its reputation for technological innovation and market leader. Rogers acquired the rights to Norge name in the early to mid 1930’s to further establish themselves as Canadian leaders in the rapidly growing field of household, consumer technology [See advertisement in “Radio Trade Builder”, March 1935]
This international partnership arrangement would also represent a model for much of what was to come. Much in the Canadian HVACR industry would come as a consequence of corporate arrangements of convenience between Canadian and international manufacturers and suppliers to the Canadian HVACR field.


Refrigeration machine ‘Norge’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.035
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

As in the case of #034 this is a “high tech” refrigerating machine of the mid 1930’s, a precursor of profound change in the technology offerings of the Canadian refrigeration industry. It was a whole new design concept, by a new generation of world class engineering companies who had entered the now rapidly expanding North American home appliance market, the Borg Warner Corporation of Sweden, Norge Division, Borg-Warner Corp. Detroit Mich, 1935. A special marker [See electric motor] of the momentous times through which this machine operated is the story it tells of Ontario’s now almost forgotten mega project of the late 1940’s, the conversion of the province from 25 to 60 cycle power.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Norge’
Manufacturer: Borg-Warner Corp. Detroit, Mich
Make: Norge
Model: S518

Technical Significance:
It was a whole new design concept, by a new generation of world class engineering companies who had entered the rapidly expanding North American home appliance market, the Borg Warner Corporation of Sweden, Norge Division, Borg-Warner Corp. Detroit Mich, 1945.What was signalled here was the end of the refrigeration condensing unit as a mere assemblage by mere assemblers of parts based, variously, on a range of buy- make decisions appropriate for the market conditions of the moment [See for example #033].The commitment of the industry would be increasingly to specialised compressor design and to smoothly integrated systems applying state of the art systems thinking [See for example #036.
This artifact of the early years of the Canadian HVACR industry has special significance as historic marker. I t is driven by a GE motor carrying Ontario Hydro Electric’s name plate and specification data. The conversion of the Province from 25 to 60 cycle was a mega project of unprecedented size and complexity, before or since. It involved among other things the Hydro authority working closely with Canadian motor manufacturers and rewind shops to produce the specialised motors needed, of which this remains a prime example and historic artifact of this momentous period in Canadian technological development

Industrial Significance:
Of significance in the Canadian industrial context is the Rogers connection with leading edge innovations in the refrigeration field. Toronto based Rogers-Majestic, by 1928, was the largest manufacturers of radio broadcast receivers in Canada, enjoying the market boom of the times. The Rogers empire was founded on innovative the work of Edward S. Rogers, who received a Dominion of Canada patent for a “rectifying system” on June 16, 1925. By August of that year Rogers was in mass production of the worlds first practical AC radio tube and the first Rogers Batteryless radio broadcast receiver.
By the early 1930’s the company was looking to expand and consolidate its reputation for technological innovation and market leader. Rogers acquired the rights to Norge name in the early to mid 1930’s to further establish themselves as Canadian leaders in the rapidly growing field of household, consumer technology [See advertisement in “Radio Trade Builder”, March 1935]
This international partnership arrangement would also represent a model for much of what was to come. Much in the Canadian HVACR industry would come as a consequence of corporate arrangements of convenience between Canadian and international manufacturers and suppliers to the Canadian HVACR field.


Aberrant refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.036
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A condensing unit with vertically mounted, belt driven, rotary compressor, an aberrant event, a mere blips on the Canadian refrigeration industry landscape. It serves to dramatise the rich array of engineering configurations and manufacturers, many short lived, all part of Canada’s early developmental “golden Age” of refrigeration technology, leading up to the 1950’s. Manufacturer unknown, circa 1938.



Item: Aberrant refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Unknown
Make: Unknown
Model: UnknownMotor mo

Industrial Significance:
The electric motor by Robbins Myers, Brampton Ont. Serves to further high light Brantford as the rapidly growing refrigeration capital of Canada.


Refrigeration machine ‘Sunbeam’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.037
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

By the mid 1930’s the North American refrigeration industry was moving rapidly to the adoption of much more sophisticated engineering conceptions of what the refrigeration machine might now become, based on a decade or more of manufacturing, engineering and research experience. Moving beyond the notion of stand-alone condensing unit, a significant step was the development of condensing units with integral evaporators, close coupled, to produce a single unified refrigeration mechanism for a cabinet refrigerator. The Sunbeam Electric Mfd. Co., Evansville Ind. made a significant contribution to this important evolutionary stage of development, 1936.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Sunbeam’
Manufacturer: The Sunbeam Electric Mfd. Co., Evansville Ind.
Make: Sunbeam
Model: SA623

Technical Significance:
Stands as a significant marker in the evolution of cabinet refrigeration systems working towards highly integrated specialised systems which would increasigly be the norm in the latter part of the century


Refrigeration machine ‘Sunbeam’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.038
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A later adaptation of the Sunbeam Electric’s, advanced, integrated, open system refrigeration technology, demonstrated in #037, this machine illustrates the market that the technology was able to command over half a decade or more later. Originally engineered for SO2 refrigerant, with an advanced evaporator design in formed and rolled stainless steel, this unit was further up-dated by Howard Oliver, probably in the latter 1940’s, converting it to less toxic methyl chloride refrigerant – the Sunbeam Electric Mfd. Co., Evansville Ind., 1945.



Item: Refrigeration machine ‘Sunbeam’
Manufacturer: The Sunbeam Electric Mfd. Co., Evansville Ind.
Make: Sunbeam
Model: dual name plate
Features:
A-P automatic expansion valve made in Cooksville Ontario, Model AP207C, a high-tech, miniature valve of the period made for a new generation of chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants

Technical Significance:
Stands as a significant marker in the evolution of cabinet refrigeration systems working towards highly integrated specialised systems, which would increasingly be the norm in the latter part of the century. The so called “hermetic” system with electric motor and compressor sealed in a single shell were already being marketed by Kelvinator and Frigidaire


Hermetic refrigeration machine

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensing Units – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.039
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

By the late 1930’s the North American refrigeration industry was moving rapidly to the adoption of fully “hermetic” systems, in which the motor and compressor where sealed in a single steel dome, which was connected to the evaporator in a seamless, integrated design not requiring the services of a skilled, field, refrigeration mechanic. The fully hermetic design for the household cabinet refrigerator was the next evolutionary step towards improving performance, reliability and life expectancy, all of which would increase dramatically. Kelvinator made significant contribution to the development of hermetic system design, Kelvinator of Canada, Circa 1955.



Item: Hermetic refrigeration machine
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Admiral
Model: 712407

Technical Significance:
The change in performance, reliability and life expectancy which accompanied the wing to hermetic design could scarcely be over estimated. The period of regular motor oiling, drive belt replacement and leaking compressors and tubing connectors was gone. The operating life expectancy of such systems was all of a sudden 20 years or more.

Industrial Significance:
This refrigeration system produced by Kelvinator for Admiral, marked the period of multiple entries into the Canadian appliance market by secondary manufactures who established partnership arrangements for the production of the machines. Kelvinator were prominent in this work as suppliers to other Canadian corporations such as General Steel Wares of London Ontario.


50 lb. SO2 compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.087
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, crude piece of industrial looking machinery, this 50 lb. compressor was made in Brantford Ont. It comes as close to marking the beginning of the Canadian refrigeration manufacturing industry, as may be possible. Accompanied by the odour of sulphur dioxide, it would be tentatively accepted into Canadian households in the mid 1920’s with much trepidation and often discomfort., Frigo-Matic Ltd., Brampton Ont., 1926.



Item: 50 lb. SO2 compressor
Manufacturer: Frigo-Matic Ltd., Brantford Ont.,
Make: Frigo-Matic

Technical Significance:
Manufactured in Brantford, Ontario, it would help to establish Brantford as the “refrigeration capital of Canada”, starting in the early years of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
While the name “Frigo-Matic” would not echo down through the years, as have the names of other pioneers of the period such as Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it was none-the-less an important marker in the history of the Canadian HVACR industry.


50 lb. SO2 compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.088
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, crude piece of industrial looking machinery, this 50 lb. compressor was made in Brantford Ont. It comes as close to marking the beginning of the Canadian refrigeration manufacturing industry, as may be possible. Accompanied by the odour of sulphur dioxide, it would be tentatively accepted into Canadian households in the mid 1920’s with much trepidation and often discomfort., Frigo-Matic Ltd., Brampton Ont., 1926.



Item: 50 lb. SO2 compressor
Manufacturer: Frigo-Matic Ltd., Brantford Ont.,
Make: Frigo-Matic

Technical Significance:
Manufactured in Brantford, Ontario, it would help to establish Brantford as the “refrigeration capital of Canada”, starting in the early years of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
While the name “Frigo-Matic” would not echo down through the years, as have the names of other pioneers of the period such as Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it was none-the-less an important marker in the history of the Canadian HVACR industry.


Early SO2 compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.089
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, crude compressor, possibly part of the earliest commercial production by Kelvinator marketed in Canada. Like the Frigo-Matic [see #087 and 088] it marks the earliest, embryonic years of the Canadian refrigeration industry. It too would be tentatively accepted into Canadian households in the mid 1920’s with much trepidation and often discomfort. It brought new noises, foreign to home life and often the odour of sulphur dioxide throughout the household, as well as frequent visits from the refrigeration serviceman, 1926.



Item: Early SO2 compressor
Manufacturer: See above
Make: Possibly Kelvinator of Canada, reminiscent of their Model J production in the la
Model: Body casting ma

‘J’ style compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.090
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Moving with the market, and with a new sense of what it would take to put a refrigerator in every Canadian household, the industry quickly moved beyond its crude beginnings. If the mechanical refrigeration machine, with clanking reciprocating compressor, was to be acceptabled into the homes of the nation, it must be much smoother, quieter and appear more friendly to the householder. The later “J” style Kelvinator, engineered for higher speed and greatly reduced mass [50 to 30 lbs.], would be a significant step along the way, Kelvinator of Canada, 1929.



Item: ‘J’ style compressor
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Later “J” style

Model ‘A’ compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.091
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

By the early 1930’s the Canadian refrigeration industry was moving beyond its embryonic years into a period of early development. Compressors were becoming much more “domesticated” in appearance, as pioneer manufacturers, such as Kelvinator, moved confidently into what appeared to be a promising, growing market. The Kelvinator Model A, still faster and smaller, would help to move the cabinet refrigerator into middle class and working Canadian homes [see #003], well beyond the exclusive realm of the country’s elite, Kelvinator 1932.



Item: Model ‘A’ compressor
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: A

Technical Significance:
This single cylinder, reciprocating compressor, of similar but significantly more advanced engineering than 5 years earlier, was small and high speed, by comparison [fly wheel diameter was reduced by Kelvinator from 14″ to 8.5″] and much quieter in operationBy now condensing units were also smaller, much more polished in appearance, and routinely designed for inclusion in the base of the household cabinet refrigerator. Although many would still be “remoted” in the basement by the local refrigeration mechanic.
Substantial manufacturing facilities came to maturity in this period to supply the specialized developmental needs of firms such as Kelvinator and Frigidaire. A significant new industrial sector had been born, patterned after the exploding automobile industry of the times.
These were the years, too, of the birth of the refrigeration trade in Canada. Manufacturers were dependent on informed and trained workers for installation and providing the all to frequent service needed – and knew it.
The reciprocating compressor, its engineering challenges not-with-standing, would remain largely the standard of the industry throughout the 20th century, although alternative rotary designs would appear on the market and be sustained for brief periods, from time to time.

Industrial Significance:
While designed for sulphur dioxide these compressors, built with amazing precision and to close tolerances for the period, would see life over the next 20 years and more, on refrigeration machines converted to new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants. The Model A would be a standard of the industry up to the late 1930’s and the advent of the sealed, “hermetic” motor compressor


Model ‘A’ compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.092
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

By the early 1930’s the Canadian refrigeration industry was moving beyond its embryonic years into a period of early development. Compressors were becoming much more “domesticated” in appearance, as pioneer manufacturers, such as Kelvinator, moved confidently into what appeared to be a promising, growing market. The Kelvinator Model A, still faster and smaller, would help to move the cabinet refrigerator into middle class and working Canadian homes [see #003], well beyond the exclusive realm of the country’s elite, Kelvinator 1932.



Item: Model ‘A’ compressor
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: A

Technical Significance:
This single cylinder, reciprocating compressor, of similar but significantly more advanced engineering than 5 years earlier, was small and high speed, by comparison [fly wheel diameter was reduced by Kelvinator from 14″ to 8.5″] and much quieter in operationBy now condensing units were also smaller, much more polished in appearance, and routinely designed for inclusion in the base of the household cabinet refrigerator. Although many would still be “remoted” in the basement by the local refrigeration mechanic.
Substantial manufacturing facilities came to maturity in this period to supply the specialized developmental needs of firms such as Kelvinator and Frigidaire. A significant new industrial sector had been born, patterned after the exploding automobile industry of the times.
These were the years, too, of the birth of the refrigeration trade in Canada. Manufacturers were dependent on informed and trained workers for installation and providing the all to frequent service needed – and knew it.
The reciprocating compressor, its engineering challenges not-with-standing, would remain largely the standard of the industry throughout the 20th century, although alternative rotary designs would appear on the market and be sustained for brief periods, from time to time.

Industrial Significance:
While designed for sulphur dioxide these compressors, built with amazing precision and to close tolerances for the period, would see life over the next 20 years and more, on refrigeration machines converted to new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants. The Model A would be a standard of the industry up to the late 1930’s and the advent of the sealed, “hermetic” motor compressor


Chlorinated hydrocarbon compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.093
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Designed for the new chlorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants, and with advanced valve design and over all performance, this open style, belt driven compressor of the mid 1930’s, developed by Kelvinator for its household, cabinet refrigerators, would be about as good as a compressor gets. It provided the householder with a new sense of quiet that would be characteristic of the best of the industry’s offerings, prior to the imminent introduction of the sealed “hermetic” motor compressor, Kelvinator, 1935.



Item: Chlorinated hydrocarbon compressor
Manufacturer: Kelvinator of Canada
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Part number 186


Light weight compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.094
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

The 1920s and 30s were periods extra-ordinarily obsessed with the promise of the piston and the reciprocating machine, whether manifest in the steam or internal combustion engine or in the refrigeration compressor. Inventors were constantly at work attempting to improve its performance, while reducing its cost. In the refrigeration industry inventors and start-up companies worked assiduously, producing a wide range of engineering designs and market options, which together would significantly alter the lives of Canadians. With many distinguishing features, this early, petit, light weigh, unusual compressor design is by the Brunner Manufacturing Co. of Utica N.Y., circa 1927. [See also #057, item 402-19]



Item: Light weight compressor
Manufacturer: Brunner Manufacturing Co. of Utica N.Y.
Make: Brunner
Model: Unknown

Compressor ‘Brunner’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.095
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

By the latter half of the 1930’s there were an increasing number of manufacturers all bargaining for a spot in the now rapidly expanding, but increasingly over crowed North American, domestic refrigeration market. It left many of its founders such as Kelvinator and Frigidaire struggling for survival. It was soon evident that marketing, in addition to sound, innovative engineering was needed. The Brunner Manufacturing Co. would leave the domestic field to focus on its commercial and industrial markets, leaving behind this historic examples of a well engineered compressors, as marker of times past, Brunner, circa 1939. [see also #94 and Group 5.02 items]



Item: Compressor ‘Brunner’
Manufacturer: Brunner Manufacturing Co, Utica, N. Y.
Make: Brunner

Compressor ‘Moffat’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.096
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A single cylinder refrigeration compressor of early mid 20th century vintage, with “Moffat Ltd” embossed on the head. Crafted after the clean lines of the “Chieftain” compressor, Tecumseh Products Co., with 11-inch flywheel in red, over painted in black. its genealogy is uncertain. A reminder of the proliferation of compressor manufacturers, near manufacturers and models that flooded the market for small, FHP, open system refrigeration compressors in the 1940, prior to the wide spread adoption of the hermetically sealed motor compressor assembly, “Moffat Ltd” 1945.



Item: Compressor ‘Moffat’
Make: “Moffat Ltd”, genealogy unknown
Model: Body casting no

Replacement compressor ‘Chieftain’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.097
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

CHIEFTAIN MID 20TH CENTURY,REPLACEMENT COMPRESSOR, TECUMSEH PRODUCTS, 1949: A single cylinder, FHP, open market, general replacement refrigeration compressor of the late 1940’s, heavily marked throughout the trade as a replacement for worn out original equipment, much of it by now 10 to 20 years into its life cycle. With vastly reduced size and weight, with forced feed lubrication, it was the result of superior engineering and much more precise manufacturing processes, than those 2 decades earlier. Many refrigeration machines bearing the names of Kelvinator and Frigidaire would live out their latter years with a Chieftain compressor upgrade.



Item: Replacement compressor ‘Chieftain’
Manufacturer: Tecumseh Products, Tecumseh Mich.
Make: Chieftain
Model: 500

Single cylinder compressor ‘Type A’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.098
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

UNIVERSAL COOLER, TYPE “A” COMPRESSOR, 1949: A single cylinder, FHP, original equipment manufacturer’s [OEM’s], refrigeration compressor of the mid 20th century, just prior to the wide spread adoption of hermetic motor compressors. Astonishingly small, lightweight, and operating at elevated speeds, it stands as an historic marker of the advancements in open system compressor design and performance by OEM’s over two decades from the late 1920’s.



Item: Single cylinder compressor ‘Type A’
Manufacturer: Universal Cooler, Brantford Ont.
Make: Universal Cooler
Model: Type A

Compressor ‘ILG’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.099
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

ILG, SINGE CYLINDER, FHP, REFRIGERATION COMPRESSOR, 1940: A remarkable, truly innovative, piece of refrigeration engineering of the early mid/ 20th century, from its cast aluminium body to its eccentric mechanism, valve design, and distinctive green, high gloss enamel finish, it was meant to raise eyebrows. Making use of the new materials and engineering know-how of the times, it is a reminder of the diversity and immense inventiveness of this period of rapid growth, all part of the rich heritage of HVACR’s engineering applications, on which the industry now builds.



Item: Compressor ‘ILG’

Twin cylinder compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.100
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

AN EARLY, FRIGIDAIRE, TWIN CYLINDER COMPRESSOR, FOR HOUSEHOLD CABINET REFRIGERATOR, 1929: equipped with a unique,massive, 14″, fan hub, “grooved”, flat belt flywheel, re-cast for “V” belt drive. The machine stands as an historic marker of the fundamental shift from flat to V belts in the first quarter of the 20th century, and the evolution in the engineering and manufacture of the V belt that made it possible.



Item: Twin cylinder compressor
Manufacturer: Frigidaire
Make: Frigidaire Corp. Dayton Ohio
Model: Frigidaire 1-1

Compressor ‘Model G’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.101
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRIGIDAIRE, MODEL G, TWIN CYLINDER, 1/4 HP, ULTRA SLOW SPEED COMPRESSOR, 1929: With 16″ flywheel, operating at 350 RPM, this compressor, used in large cabinet refrigerators, would stand as a kind of “metaphor”, a shortcut in language, standing for an historic genre of high displacement, slow speed compressors for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, part of the design idiom of the time, dictated by conservative engineering preference, limited know-how, materials and manufacturing methods.



Item: Compressor ‘Model G’

Compressor ‘Model A’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.102
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRIGIDAIRE, MODEL A, TWIN CYLINDER, 1/4 HP, COMPRESSOR, DISTINGUISHED, BY ITS FLAT SURFACED FLYWHEEL, DESIGNED FOR “V ” BELT DRIVE, 1931: With reduced, 12″, flat flywheel, engineered for V belt operation, this compressor stands as an historic marker of two simultaneous trends in refrigeration machine engineering, the shift to modest increases in machine speed and the cautious transition to fully engineered V belt drives, based on the company’s cumulative engineering experience of the day.



Item: Compressor ‘Model A’

Early, slow speed compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.103
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

AN EARLY, SLOW SPEED, HIGH DISPLACEMENT, FHP, REFRIGERATION COMPRESSOR OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURER, 1932: It serves to dramatise the rapid expansion of the refrigeration machinery manufacturing industry, with many new, now long forgotten, start-up companies in the early 1930’s. As well, it suggests the proliferation of design concepts and construction methods being explored collectively by the industry, during its early growth years.



Item: Early, slow speed compressor

1-cylinder refrigeration compressor

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.202
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

ILG, SINGE CYLINDER, FHP, REFRIGERATION COMPRESSOR, 1940: A remarkable, truly innovative, piece of refrigeration engineering of the early mid/ 20th century, from its cast aluminium body to its eccentric mechanism, valve design, and distinctive green, high gloss enamel finish, it was meant to raise eyebrows. Making use of the new materials and engineering know-how of the times, it is a reminder of the diversity and immense inventiveness of this period of rapid growth, all part of the rich heritage of HVACR’s engineering applications, on which the industry now builds.



Item: 1-cylinder refrigeration compressor
Manufacturer: ILG Electric Ventilating Co, Chicogo, Ill, see note
Make: ILG
Model: RG-2


2-cylinder refrigeration compressor ‘G’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.203
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRIGIDAIRE, MODEL G, TWIN CYLINDER, 1/4 HP, ULTRA SLOW SPEED COMPRESSOR, 1929: With 16″ flywheel, operating at 350 RPM, this compressor, used in large cabinet refrigerators, would stand as a kind of “metaphor”, a shortcut in language, standing for an historic genre of high displacement, slow speed compressors for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, part of the design idiom of the time, dictated by conservative engineering preference, limited know-how, materials and manufacturing methods.



Item: 2-cylinder refrigeration compressor ‘G’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: G
Features:
16 inch, light weight, pressed steel, riveted fly wheel, with fan hub, representing new approach in flywheel design by Frigidaire, in contrast the heavy cast iron fly wheel exemplified in item # 100

Technical Significance:
The slow speed, high displacement, engineering design idiom manifest here stands in sharp contrast to high (medium) speed, low displacement designs emerging about the same time, for example by Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario. Designed also for sulphur dioxide refrigerant, but with 8 inch flywheels, their engineering would allow them to operate at close to twice the speed, making for much more compact lighter weight refrigeration equipment. See for example items #090 to #093


2-cylinder refrigeration compressor ‘A’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Compressors – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.204
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A FRIGIDAIRE, MODEL A, TWIN CYLINDER, 1/4 HP, COMPRESSOR, DISTINGUISHED, BY ITS FLAT SURFACED FLYWHEEL, DESIGNED FOR “V ” BELT DRIVE, 1931: With reduced, 12″, flat flywheel, engineered for V belt operation, this compressor stands as an historic marker of two simultaneous trends in refrigeration machine engineering, the shift to modest increases in machine speed and the cautious transition to fully engineered V belt drives, based on the company’s cumulative engineering experience of the day.



Item: 2-cylinder refrigeration compressor ‘A’
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: A

Air cooled replacement condenser

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.066
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An after-market, replacement air-cooled condenser manufactured for household, cabinet refrigerators and ice cream cabinets using anhydrous sulphur dioxide refrigerant. Fabricated with steel frame, 1/4inch steel tube and soldered, serpentine fin in heavy tin plate, with brazed, extended, sealed, 1/4 inch copper pigtails and SAE flare nuts, supplied by Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario to their dealers, 1938.



Item: Air cooled replacement condenser
Manufacturer: Likely Kelvinator of Canada, see bibliographic ref
Make: Likely Kelvinator of Canada, see bibliographic reference
Model: see bibliograph

Technical Significance:
Kelvinator of Canada, in their 1948 parts catalogue [see bibliographic reference] show a series of such replacement condensers for ice cream cabinets and domestic refrigerator applications. Condensers were “consumables” in the period when the major refrigerant in use was sulphur dioxide, highly corrosive by nature. Much construction was in tinned steel with tin coatings subject to break down.Considerable damage was also the result of fan blades coming loose on their motor shafts and cutting through the condenser wall. The effect for the owner was both catastrophic and chaotic. The machines would contain sufficient noxious refrigerant to quickly fill the house or store, leading to frantic search for men to remove the offending unit and a call to the refrigeration service man, often several hours away.
The serpentine, soldered fin construction represented a 2 nd or 3 rd generation of fin engineering, with higher conductivity and thermal performance, to earlier generations with simple un-secured plate fins. The manufacturing process for producing the fins and soldering them in place was a mark of the increasing sophistication of Canadian manufacturing methods, in place by the end of the 1930’s.
As manufacturing methods evolved the Canadian industry would move to non-ferrous tube and fin construction [copper], see code no. 6.02-7, and eventually to non-corrosive refrigerants, including methyl chloride and Freon 12. But for now this construction genre remained as the state of the art, an important snapshot in time.
See also items 6.01-2, 6.01-3, 6.02-7, 6.02-8


Two pass replacement condenser

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.067
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Staggered, two pass, after-market, replacement air-cooled condenser manufactured for household, cabinet refrigerators and ice cream cabinets using anhydrous sulphur dioxide refrigerant. Fabricated with steel frame, 1/4inch steel tube and soldered, serpentine fin in heavy tin plate, with brazed, extended, 24″, sealed, 1/4 inch copper pigtails and SAE flare nuts, supplied by Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario to their dealers, 1938.



Item: Two pass replacement condenser
Manufacturer: Likely Kelvinator of Canada, see bibliographic ref
Make: Likely Kelvinator of Canada, see bibliographic reference

Technical Significance:
Kelvinator of Canada, in their 1948 parts catalogue [see bibliographic reference] show a series of such replacement condensers for ice cream cabinets and domestic refrigerator applications. Condensers were “consumables” in the period when the major refrigerant in use was sulphur dioxide, highly corrosive by nature. Much construction was in tinned steel with tin coatings subject to break down.Considerable damage was also the result of fan blades coming loose on their motor shafts and cutting through the condenser wall. The effect for the owner was both catastrophic and chaotic. The machines would contain sufficient noxious refrigerant to quickly fill the house or store, leading to frantic search for men to remove the offending unit and a call to the refrigeration service man, often several hours away.
The serpentine, soldered fin construction represented a 2 nd or 3 rd generation of fin engineering, with higher conductivity and thermal performance, to earlier generations with simple un-secured plate fins. The manufacturing process for producing the fins and soldering them in place was a mark of the increasing sophistication of Canadian manufacturing methods, in place by the end of the 1930’s.
The staggered double pass design represents an added level of complexity in manufacturing processes
As manufacturing methods evolved the Canadian industry would move to non-ferrous tube and fin construction [copper], see code no. 6.02-7, and eventually to non-corrosive refrigerants, including methyl chloride and Freon 12. But for now this construction genre remained as the state of the art, an important snapshot in time.
See also items 6.01-2, 6.01-3, 6.02-7, 6.02-8, together they profile the evolution of the tube and fin, air-cooled condenser for FHP refrigeration machines in Canada


OEM condensers

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Condensers and Receivers – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.068
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

A set of three early, “original equipment manufacturer” (OEM), fin and tube, air-cooled condensers of varying capacities, from the 1930’s, representing a range of Canadian OEM engineering and fabrication practices in ferrous and non ferrous materials (copper and aluminium) for use on refrigeration machines, with anhydrous sulphur dioxide refrigerant, 1930’s.



Item: OEM condensers
Manufacturer: 1) Kelvinator of Canada, London Ontario2) Kelvinat
Make: 1) Kelvinator2) Kelvinator3) Gilson

Technical Significance:
Simple plate fins, engineered for a press fit on the condenser tube, as in examples 1 and 3 were relatively easily achieved. The serpentine, soldered fin construction in example 2 represented a 2 nd or 3 rd generation of fin engineering, with higher conductivity and thermal performance. The manufacturing process for producing the fins and soldering them in place was a mark of the increasing sophistication of Canadian manufacturing methods, in place by the end of the 1930’s. As manufacturing methods evolved the Canadian industry would move to non-ferrous tube and fin construction [copper], see code no. 6.02-7, and eventually to non-corrosive refrigerants, including methyl chloride and Freon 12. But for now this construction genre remained as the state of the art, an important snapshot in time.
See also items 6.01-2, 6.01-3, 6.02-7, 6.02-8, together they profile the evolution of the tube and fin, air-cooled condenser for FHP refrigeration machines in Canada


Refrigeration pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.001
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, “low side” refrigeration system pressure control, for controlling evaporator temperature, equipped with 5 point, manual adjustable setting. Devised by Frigidaire in the 1920’s, it was to be a viable alternative to direct temperature-sensing technology, then in a crude stage of development, Frigidaire, Circa 1926. One of a rare set of 5 controllers, demonstrating the range of applications devised by Frigidaire, the various stages of deterioration expected, due to natural use, misuse, abuse and abandonment.



Item: Refrigeration pressure control
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Appeared in a n
Features:
Some models, such as this one, used on household cabinet refrigerators, included a front-mounted, “cold control”, with off position and 5 temperature settings. This allowed the owners to adjust the temperature of the refrigerator, over a limited range of suction pressures without calling the service mechanic.

Technical Significance:
The significance of the device lies in the immense ingenuity it demonstrates in the period, in conceiving ways to automatically start and stop a refrigeration system at a predetermined temperature.

For it was a time in which little was known and understood about automatic sensors and electric control and regulation devices. The very notion of a mechanical device which would start and stop with out the touch of human hand was worrying. For much of the population of the time was brought up to be wary of gadgets of all varieties, often portrayed as mere hoaxes, possibly dangerous, and not to be trusted.


Refrigeration pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.002
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, “low side” refrigeration system pressure control, for controlling evaporator temperature, equipped with 5 point, manual adjustable setting. Devised by Frigidaire in the 1920’s, it was to be a viable alternative to direct temperature-sensing technology, then in a crude stage of development, Frigidaire, Circa 1926. One of a rare set of 5 controllers, demonstrating the range of applications devised by Frigidaire, the various stages of deterioration expected, due to natural use, misuse, abuse and abandonment.



Item: Refrigeration pressure control
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Appeared in a n
Features:
Some models, such as this one, used on household cabinet refrigerators, included a front-mounted, “cold control”, with off position and 5 temperature settings. This allowed the owners to adjust the temperature of the refrigerator, over a limited range of suction pressures without calling the service mechanic.

Technical Significance:
The significance of the device lies in the immense ingenuity it demonstrates in the period, in conceiving ways to automatically start and stop a refrigeration system at a predetermined temperature.

For it was a time in which little was known and understood about automatic sensors and electric control and regulation devices. The very notion of a mechanical device which would start and stop with out the touch of human hand was worrying. For much of the population of the time was brought up to be wary of gadgets of all varieties, often portrayed as mere hoaxes, possibly dangerous, and not to be trusted.


Refrigeration pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.003
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, “low side” refrigeration system pressure control, for controlling evaporator temperature, equipped with 5 point, manual adjustable setting. Devised by Frigidaire in the 1920’s, it was to be a viable alternative to direct temperature-sensing technology, then in a crude stage of development, Frigidaire, Circa 1926. One of a rare set of 5 controllers, demonstrating the range of applications devised by Frigidaire, the various stages of deterioration expected, due to natural use, misuse, abuse and abandonment.



Item: Refrigeration pressure control
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Appeared in a n

Technical Significance:
The significance of the device lies in the immense ingenuity it demonstrates in the period, in conceiving ways to automatically start and stop a refrigeration system at a predetermined temperature.

For it was a time in which little was known and understood about automatic sensors and electric control and regulation devices. The very notion of a mechanical device which would start and stop with out the touch of human hand was worrying. For much of the population of the time was brought up to be wary of gadgets of all varieties, often portrayed as mere hoaxes, possibly dangerous, and not to be trusted.


Refrigeration pressure control

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.004
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, “low side” refrigeration system pressure control, for controlling evaporator temperature, equipped with 5 point, manual adjustable setting. Devised by Frigidaire in the 1920’s, it was to be a viable alternative to direct temperature-sensing technology, then in a crude stage of development, Frigidaire, Circa 1926. One of a rare set of 5 controllers, demonstrating the range of applications devised by Frigidaire, the various stages of deterioration expected, due to natural use, misuse, abuse and abandonment.



Item: Refrigeration pressure control
Manufacturer: Frigidaire Corporation, Dayton Ohio
Make: Frigidaire
Model: Appeared in a n
Features:
Oiling instructions for the refrigeration condensing unit are set out on gold transfer on front face of control, a clear reminder of the critical need for regular lubrication of electric motors of the period. Also shown are the instructions for fusing, a mystery to many home owners of the times.

Technical Significance:
The significance of the device lies in the immense ingenuity it demonstrates in the period, in conceiving ways to automatically start and stop a refrigeration system at a predetermined temperature.

For it was a time in which little was known and understood about automatic sensors and electric control and regulation devices. The very notion of a mechanical device which would start and stop with out the touch of human hand was worrying. For much of the population of the time was brought up to be wary of gadgets of all varieties, often portrayed as mere hoaxes, possibly dangerous, and not to be trusted.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.005
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated automatic temperature control [thermostat] with fixed factory setting, equipped with glycerine immersion cup for household cabinet refrigerator, senses evaporator suction line temperature, late Model E, Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont. Circa 1925

One of a rare matched set of six Kelvinator Model E thermostats profiling the evolution of one of the earliest commercially marketed, self-regulating, temperature sensing, electric motor control devices. The model was offered by Kelvinator in various forms from 1923 through to about 1927. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 3) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 4) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-2A, B, C, D, E, F.; ID # 129, 130, and 138 to 141.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan, Div of Electric Refr
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Late Model E w

Industrial Significance:
Kelvinator’s model E thermostat [temperature control], engineered for their early series household, cabinet refrigerators, is a unique study in the design and manufacture of complex automatic, analogue, mechanical switching in the early 1920’s.

Contrasting the design of the Model E thermostat, with those of some 30 years later [See R20], provides a dramatic example of the principle of progressive, engineering simplification – usually hard won.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.006
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated automatic temperature control [thermostat] with fixed factory setting, equipped with glycerine immersion cup for household cabinet refrigerator, senses evaporator suction line temperature, late Model E, Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont. Circa 1925.

One of a rare matched set of six Kelvinator Model E thermostats profiling the evolution of one of the earliest commercially marketed, self-regulating, temperature sensing, electric motor control devices. The mode was offered by Kelvinator in various forms from 1923 through to about 1927. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 3) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 4) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-2A, B, C, D, E, F.; ID # 129, 130, and 138 to 141.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan, Div of Electric Refr
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Late Model E w

Technical Significance:
Possibly the 1st commercially produced electric thermostat for mechanical, household, cabinet refrigerators.

Industrial Significance:
Kelvinator’s model E thermostat [temperature control], engineered for their early series household, cabinet refrigerators, is a unique study in the design and manufacture of complex automatic, analogue, mechanical switching in the early 1920’s.

Contrasting the design of the Model E thermostat, with those of some 30 years later [See R20], provides a dramatic example of the principle of progressive, engineering simplification – usually hard won.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.007
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, adjustable, hydraulic bellows actuated control, totally enclosed in 1930’s, modern Bakelite housing, senses evaporator surface temperature, Model R, made for Kelvinator, by Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co. Columbus, Ohio [A.R.C.B. Co], Circa 1931.

One of a rare matched set of six Ranco Model R controllers profiling the evolution of this early self-regulating temperature sensing electric motor control device, likely over several years from 1929 through to the early 1930’s. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) design adaptations made as required for different models and styles of Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, 3) different approaches to user friendly and convenient manual temperature setting by the householder, 4) the application of different mounts and accessories, 4) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 5) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 6) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-3A, B, C, D, E, F. ID # 131 to # 136.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.
Make: For Kelvinator, by Ranco
Model: RA-10 [see note
Features:
Chrome plated, push-pull, control arm, with Bakelite handle; See Items 7.01-3 B to G for design and application variations involving special features

Technical Significance:
The Model R series thermostat represented a remarkable engineering achievement in 6 or 7 years. A compact design, totally enclosed control, crafted in, then, modern two tone, Bakelite, dielectric material. One third of the size and weight of the Kelvinator E, it was a user friendly, fully adjustable thermostat.

Industrial Significance:
The thermostat also marks the early entrance of the Ranco name into the refrigeration and air conditioning temperature control business, supporting the major equipment manufacturers of the period. The Ranco name would survive for many years as a leader in the HVACR control field.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.008
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, adjustable, hydraulic bellows actuated control, totally enclosed in 1930’s, modern Bakelite housing, senses evaporator surface temperature, Model R, made for Kelvinator, by Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co. Columbus, Ohio [A.R.C.B. Co], Circa 1931

One of a rare matched set of six Ranco Model R controllers profiling the evolution of this early self-regulating temperature sensing electric motor control device, likely over several years from 1929 through to the early 1930’s. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) design adaptations made as required for different models and styles of Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, 3) different approaches to user friendly and convenient manual temperature setting by the householder, 4) the application of different mounts and accessories, 4) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 5) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 6) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-3A, B, C, D, E, F. ID # 131 to # 136.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.
Make: For Kelvinator, by Ranco
Model: RA-10 [see note
Features:
Tinned, steel wire bracket mount; See Items 7.01-3 B to G for design and application variations involving special features

Technical Significance:
The Model R series thermostat represented a remarkable engineering achievement in 6 or 7 years. A compact design, totally enclosed control, crafted in, then, modern two tone, Bakelite, dielectric material. One third of the size and weight of the Kelvinator E, it was a user friendly, fully adjustable thermostat.

Industrial Significance:
The thermostat also marks the early entrance of the Ranco name into the refrigeration and air conditioning temperature control business, supporting the major equipment manufacturers of the period. The Ranco name would survive for many years as a leader in the HVACR control field.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.009
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, adjustable, hydraulic bellows actuated control, totally enclosed in 1930’s, modern Bakelite housing, senses evaporator surface temperature, Model R, made for Kelvinator, by Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co. Columbus, Ohio [A.R.C.B. Co], Circa 1931

One of a rare matched set of six Ranco Model R controllers profiling the evolution of this early self-regulating temperature sensing electric motor control device, likely over several years from 1929 through to the early 1930’s. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) design adaptations made as required for different models and styles of Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, 3) different approaches to user friendly and convenient manual temperature setting by the householder, 4) the application of different mounts and accessories, 4) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 5) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 6) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-3A, B, C, D, E, F. ID # 131 to # 136



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.
Make: For Kelvinator, by Ranco
Model: RA-10 [see note
Features:
Mounting clamp; Rotary temperature adjustment with black Bakelite pointer knob and quadrant drive gear assembly; See Items 7.01-3 B to G for design and application variations involving special features

Technical Significance:
The Model R series thermostat represented a remarkable engineering achievement in 6 or 7 years. A compact design, totally enclosed control, crafted in, then, modern two tone, Bakelite, dielectric material. One third of the size and weight of the Kelvinator E, it was a user friendly, fully adjustable thermostat.

Industrial Significance:
The thermostat also marks the early entrance of the Ranco name into the refrigeration and air conditioning temperature control business, supporting the major equipment manufacturers of the period. The Ranco name would survive for many years as a leader in the HVACR control field.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.010
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, adjustable, hydraulic bellows actuated control, totally enclosed in 1930’s, modern Bakelite housing, senses evaporator surface temperature, Model R, made for Kelvinator, by Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co. Columbus, Ohio [A.R.C.B. Co], Circa 1931

One of a rare matched set of six Ranco Model R controllers profiling the evolution of this early self-regulating temperature sensing electric motor control device, likely over several years from 1929 through to the early 1930’s. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) design adaptations made as required for different models and styles of Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, 3) different approaches to user friendly and convenient manual temperature setting by the householder, 4) the application of different mounts and accessories, 4) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 5) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 6) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-3A, B, C, D, E, F. ID # 131 to # 136



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.
Make: For Kelvinator, by Ranco
Model: RA-10 [see note
Features:
Rotary temperature control with quadrant drive gear, control knob and top cap assembly not included; See Items 7.01-3 B to G for design and application variations involving special features

Technical Significance:
The Model R series thermostat represented a remarkable engineering achievement in 6 or 7 years. A compact design, totally enclosed control, crafted in, then, modern two tone, Bakelite, dielectric material. One third of the size and weight of the Kelvinator E, it was a user friendly, fully adjustable thermostat.

Industrial Significance:
The thermostat also marks the early entrance of the Ranco name into the refrigeration and air conditioning temperature control business, supporting the major equipment manufacturers of the period. The Ranco name would survive for many years as a leader in the HVACR control field.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.011
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, adjustable, hydraulic bellows actuated control, totally enclosed in 1930’s, modern Bakelite housing, senses evaporator surface temperature, Model R, made for Kelvinator, by Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co. Columbus, Ohio [A.R.C.B. Co], Circa 1931

One of a rare matched set of six Ranco Model R controllers profiling the evolution of this early self-regulating temperature sensing electric motor control device, likely over several years from 1929 through to the early 1930’s. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) design adaptations made as required for different models and styles of Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, 3) different approaches to user friendly and convenient manual temperature setting by the householder, 4) the application of different mounts and accessories, 4) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 5) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 6) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-3A, B, C, D, E, F. ID # 131 to # 136.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.
Make: For Kelvinator, by Ranco
Model: RA-10 [see note
Features:
See Items 7.01-3 B to G for design and application variations involving special features

Technical Significance:
The Model R series thermostat represented a remarkable engineering achievement in 6 or 7 years. A compact design, totally enclosed control, crafted in, then, modern two tone, Bakelite, dielectric material. One third of the size and weight of the Kelvinator E, it was a user friendly, fully adjustable thermostat.

Industrial Significance:
The thermostat also marks the early entrance of the Ranco name into the refrigeration and air conditioning temperature control business, supporting the major equipment manufacturers of the period. The Ranco name would survive for many years as a leader in the HVACR control field.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.012
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, adjustable, hydraulic bellows actuated control, totally enclosed in 1930’s, modern Bakelite housing, senses evaporator surface temperature, Model R, made for Kelvinator, by Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co. Columbus, Ohio [A.R.C.B. Co], Circa 1931

One of a rare matched set of six Ranco Model R controllers profiling the evolution of this early self-regulating temperature sensing electric motor control device, likely over several years from 1929 through to the early 1930’s. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) design adaptations made as required for different models and styles of Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, 3) different approaches to user friendly and convenient manual temperature setting by the householder, 4) the application of different mounts and accessories, 4) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 5) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 6) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-3A, B, C, D, E, F. ID # 131 to # 136.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.
Make: For Kelvinator, by Ranco
Model: RA-10 [see note
Features:
See Items 7.01-3 B to G for design and application variations involving special features

Technical Significance:
The Model R series thermostat represented a remarkable engineering achievement in 6 or 7 years. A compact design, totally enclosed control, crafted in, then, modern two tone, Bakelite, dielectric material. One third of the size and weight of the Kelvinator E, it was a user friendly, fully adjustable thermostat.

Industrial Significance:
The thermostat also marks the early entrance of the Ranco name into the refrigeration and air conditioning temperature control business, supporting the major equipment manufacturers of the period. The Ranco name would survive for many years as a leader in the HVACR control field.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.013
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, adjustable, hydraulic bellows actuated control, totally enclosed in 1930’s, modern Bakelite housing, senses evaporator surface temperature, Model R, made for Kelvinator, by Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co. Columbus, Ohio [A.R.C.B. Co], Circa 1931

One of a rare matched set of six Ranco Model R controllers profiling the evolution of this early self-regulating temperature sensing electric motor control device, likely over several years from 1929 through to the early 1930’s. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) design adaptations made as required for different models and styles of Kelvinator cabinet refrigerators, 3) different approaches to user friendly and convenient manual temperature setting by the householder, 4) the application of different mounts and accessories, 4) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 5) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 6) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-3A, B, C, D, E, F. ID # 131 to # 136.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco, The Automatic Reclosing Circuit Breaker Co.
Make: For Kelvinator, by Ranco
Model: R 10 [see note
Features:
See Items 7.01-3 B to G for design and application variations involving special features

Technical Significance:
The Model R series thermostat represented a remarkable engineering achievement in 6 or 7 years. A compact design, totally enclosed control, crafted in, then, modern two tone, Bakelite, dielectric material. One third of the size and weight of the Kelvinator E, it was a user friendly, fully adjustable thermostat.

Industrial Significance:
The thermostat also marks the early entrance of the Ranco name into the refrigeration and air conditioning temperature control business, supporting the major equipment manufacturers of the period. The Ranco name would survive for many years as a leader in the HVACR control field.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.014
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated automatic temperature control [thermostat] with fixed factory setting, equipped with glycerine immersion cup for household cabinet refrigerator, senses evaporator suction line temperature, late Model E, Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont. Circa 1925.

One of a rare matched set of six Kelvinator Model E thermostats profiling the evolution of one of the earliest commercially marketed, self-regulating, temperature sensing, electric motor control devices. The mode was offered by Kelvinator in various forms from 1923 through to about 1927. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 3) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 4) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-2A, B, C, D, E, F.; ID # 129, 130, and 138 to 141.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan, Div of Electric Refr
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Late Model E w

Technical Significance:
Possibly the 1st commercially produced electric thermostat for mechanical, house hold, cabinet refrigerators.

Industrial Significance:
Kelvinator’s model E thermostat [temperature control], engineered for their early series household, cabinet refrigerators, is a unique study in the design and manufacture of complex automatic, analogue, mechanical switching in the early 1920’s.

Contrasting the design of the Model E thermostat, with those of some 30 years later [See R20], provides a dramatic example of the principle of progressive, engineering simplification – usually hard won.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.015
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated automatic temperature control [thermostat] with fixed factory setting, exquisitely cast in fragile white porcelain, with delicately embossed Kelvinator logo, senses evaporator suction line temperature. Likely an early Model E, Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont. Circa 1925.

One of a rare matched set of six Kelvinator Model E thermostats profiling the evolution of one of the earliest commercially marketed, self-regulating, temperature sensing, electric motor control devices. The model was offered by Kelvinator in various forms from 1923 through to about 1927. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 3) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 4) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-2A, B, C, D, E, F.; ID # 129, 130, and 138 to 141.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan, Div of Electric Refr
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Model E, here w

Technical Significance:
Possibly the 1st commercially produced electric thermostat for mechanical, house hold, cabinet refrigerators.

Industrial Significance:
Kelvinator’s model E thermostat [temperature control], engineered for their early series household, cabinet refrigerators, is a unique study in the design and manufacture of complex automatic, analogue, mechanical switching in the early 1920’s.

Contrasting the design of the Model E thermostat, with those of some 30 years later [See R20], provides a dramatic example of the principle of progressive, engineering simplification – usually hard won.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.016
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature control [thermostat] with fixed factory setting, senses evaporator suction line temperature. Shown with collapsed bellows and fully extended compensating pressure spring. Likely an early Model E, as suggested by the absence of bellows immersion cup, Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont. Circa 1924.

One of a rare matched set of six Kelvinator Model E thermostats profiling the evolution of one of the earliest commercially marketed, self-regulating, temperature sensing, electric motor control devices. The mode was offered by Kelvinator in various forms from 1923 through to about 1927. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 3) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 4) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-2A, B, C, D, E, F.; ID # 129, 130, and 138 to 141.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan, Div of Electric Refr
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Model E [See No
Features:
Collapsed bellows [a common form of precipitous failure, indicating it has been punctured, possibly due to frost build up. and as a result lost its sulphur dioxide gas charge. As a consequence the heavy, wire wound, coil, bellows compensating spring has moved to its fully extended position.

Technical Significance:
Possibly the 1st commercially produced electric thermostat for mechanical, household, cabinet refrigerators.

Industrial Significance:
Kelvinator’s model E thermostat [temperature control], engineered for their early series household, cabinet refrigerators, is a unique study in the design and manufacture of complex automatic, analogue, mechanical switching in the early 1920’s.

Contrasting the design of the Model E thermostat, with those of some 30 years later [See R20], provides a dramatic example of the principle of progressive, engineering simplification – usually hard won.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.017
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature control [thermostat] with fixed factory setting, senses evaporator suction line temperature. Shown with collapsed and distorted bellows and fully extended compensating pressure spring. Likely an early Model E, as suggested by the absence of bellows immersion cup, Kelvinator of Canada, London, Ont. Circa 1924.

One of a rare matched set of six Kelvinator Model E thermostats profiling the evolution of one of the earliest commercially marketed, self-regulating, temperature sensing, electric motor control devices. The mode was offered by Kelvinator in various forms from 1923 through to about 1927. The set profiles: 1) the progressive design modifications made to improve performance, 2) something of the expected life expectancy of the technology in use, 3) the often precipitous modes of failure, anticipated by the refrigeration service man of the period, and 4) various stages of physical deterioration, as a result of natural use, misuse and abandonment. See numbers 7.01-2A, B, C, D, E, F.; ID # 129, 130, and 138 to 141.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘E’
Manufacturer: Kelvinator, Detroit Michigan, Div of Electric Refr
Make: Kelvinator
Model: Model E [See No
Features:
Collapsed and distorted bellows [a common form of precipitous failure, indicating it has been damaged likely due to frost build up. and as a result lost its sulphur dioxide gas charge. As a consequence the heavy, wire wound, coil, bellows compensating spring has moved to its fully extended position.

Technical Significance:
Possibly the 1st commercially produced electric thermostat for mechanical, household, cabinet refrigerators.

Industrial Significance:
Kelvinator’s model E thermostat [temperature control], engineered for their early series household, cabinet refrigerators, is a unique study in the design and manufacture of complex automatic, analogue, mechanical switching in the early 1920’s.

Contrasting the design of the Model E thermostat, with those of some 30 years later [See R20], provides a dramatic example of the principle of progressive, engineering simplification – usually hard won.


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘D’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.018
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, and enhanced by manual reset, electric motor overload protection, Ranco, Type D, circa 1935.

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘D’
Manufacturer: ARCB Co., Columbus Ohio
Make: Ranco
Model: Type D

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘D’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.019
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, enhanced by manual reset, electric motor overload protection, and modified with handsome, embossed, polished, aluminium escutcheon plate, Ranco, Type D, circa 1935.

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘D’
Manufacturer: ARCB Co., Columbus Ohio
Make: Ranco
Model: Type D
Features:
with handsome, embossed, polished, aluminium escutcheon plate

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘F’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.020
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, equipped with compact totally enclosed bellows, long 42″, coiled capillary and bulb, enhanced by manual reset, electric motor overload protection, all enclosed in further compacted Bakelite case, Ranco, Type F, circa 1937.

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘F’
Manufacturer: ARCB Co., Columbus Ohio
Make: Ranco1935
Model: Type F

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

The Type F was a significant step in the compacting and progressive simplification of these immensely mechanical and essentially clumsy automatic control mechanisms

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘FF’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.021
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, equipped with compact totally enclosed bellows, manual reset, electric motor overload protection, and featuring new market driven enhancements: economy adjustment, semi-automatic defrost and fast freeze, all enclosed in compacted Bakelite case, Ranco, Type FF, circa 1939.

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘FF’
Manufacturer: ARCB Co., Columbus Ohio
Make: Ranco
Model: Type F F

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

The Type F F appears to have been a significant step in the incorporation of new market driven features, as refrigerator manufactures looked increasingly to the replacement, consumer up-grade market to maintain productivity

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘KR’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.022
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, equipped with manual reset, electric motor overload protection, and a semi-automatic defrost feature, enclosed in new compact stainless steel case, Ranco, Type KR, circa 1945

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘KR’
Manufacturer: ARCB Co., Columbus Ohio
Make: Ranco
Model: Type KR

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

The Type KR series while found on household cabinet refrigerators was most often found on small unitary commercial applications, such as beverage coolers, ice cream cabinets, water coolers, and reach in cabinet refrigerators.

The control with its corroded mechanism illustrates a common cause of failure, in small unitary applications, subject to condensation and water leaks.

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.023
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, with compact internally enclosed bellows and equipped with sophisticated manual reset, electric motor overload protection, featuring motor lock-out viewing window, showing flag on shutdown, enclosed in beautifully moulded, gloss black Bakelite case, General Electric, circa 1936

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: General Electric Co. USA
Make: General Electric
Model: CR 1057

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

GE, often viewed by their competitors as a “me too manufacturer”, where household technology was concerned, was capable of moving in and out of a field, as the consumer market place seemed to warrant. They would typically follow the industry’s recognised leader in a field, in this case Ranco.

The engineering know how and the capital resources seemingly available to the company made it a formidable competitor, even if in the short run. Few controls by GE seem to survive to the present day, by comparison with Ranco, suggesting that their inroads into this particular market was, in fact, relatively short lived.

The sophistication of the design and engineering demonstrated here is impressive for the 1930’s, demonstrating what a formidable competitor the company could be – in the short term.

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.024
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, with compact internally enclosed bellows and equipped with sophisticated manual reset, electric motor overload protection, featuring motor lock-out viewing window, showing flag on shutdown, enclosed in beautifully moulded, gloss black Bakelite case, with original wiring tag ends, General Electric, circa 1936

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: General Elecrtric Co., USA
Make: General Electric
Model: CR 1057

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

GE, often viewed by their competitors as a “me too manufacturer”, where household technology was concerned, was capable of moving in and out of a field, as the consumer market place seemed to warrant. They would typically follow the industry’s recognised leader in a field, in this case Ranco.

The engineering know how and the capital resources seemingly available to the company made it a formidable competitor, even if in the short run. Few controls by GE seem to survive to the present day, by comparison with Ranco, suggesting that their inroads into this particular market was, in fact, relatively short lived.

The sophistication of the design and engineering demonstrated here is impressive for the 1930’s, demonstrating what a formidable competitor the company could be – in the short term.

The original wiring tag ends demonstrate the appliance trade wiring practices of the mid 1930’s, including the use of twisted, cloth covered lamp cord and “friction” tape

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.025
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing, with compact internally enclosed bellows and an unusual twisted capillary tube bulb configuration, equipped with manual reset, electric motor overload protection, featuring popout, motor lock-out switch, with high polished chrome bezel, decorated in black and red, with chrome control knobs, enclosed in beautifully moulded, gloss black, Bakelite case, with hand written identification tag, Cutler – Hammer, circa 1937.

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Cutler-Hammer, Milwaukee Illinois, USA
Make: Cutler-Hammer
Model: Bulliten 9502,

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

The Cutler-Hammer Co. of Milwaukee Ill., had made its name in the electrical switching business in the 1930’s was encouraged to enter the automatic temperature control field in this period of rapidly developing pre W.W.II consumer markets. The sophisticated engineering and manufacturing capacity developed by the company as evident here is impressive

The high polished chrome fitments illustrate the increasing emphasis placed on appealing industrial design, and well crafted and finished products in gaining a toehold in what was becoming an increasingly crowded field of consumer equipment manufacturing and production.

Industrial Significance:
see above


Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘ILG’

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.026
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

This highly unusual hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature control, employing extended capillary tube sensing, was an aberrant event in the temperature control field of the period, related to an aberration in the field of household cabinet refrigerator manufacturing in Canada. The large somewhat clumsy device, in gloss Bakelite enclosure with etched cover in pea green, identifies the application with the ILG Electric Ventilating Co, with Canadian presence in Renfrew, Ont; equipped with large internally enclosed bellows, long capillary tube, and large auxiliary mounted manual reset motor overload protector, the device appears as a one-off design produced by the control manufacturer to meet ILG’s unique specifications, Cutler-Hammer, circa 1938.

One of a series of early, hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the mid 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151]. The genre would give way by the end of the century to electronic sensing methods.



Item: Refrigeration hydraulic thermostat ‘ILG’
Manufacturer: Cutler-Hammer , Milwaukee Illinois, USA, for ILG
Make: Cutler-Hammer/ ILG
Model: Cutler-Hammer B
Features:
Original wiring harness, tag end, in rubber covered, two conductor stranded copper

Large paper and foil wound condenser to reduce contact arching.

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

The Cutler-Hammer Co. of Milwaukee Ill., who made its name in the electrical switching business in the 1930’s was encouraged to enter the automatic temperature control field in this period of rapidly developing pre W.W.II consumer markets. The engineering capacity of the company and its ability to respond to unusual requests is well illustrated by the atypical design configuration developed here for ILG, with Canadain facilities in Renfrew Ontario.

Among the significant features are:
– The original wiring harness, tag end, in rubber covered, two conductor stranded copper, illustrating the early construction and design of these cables, and their application to the home appliance market of the period
– The large paper and foil wound condenser, hanging from the back of the control, apparently used to reduce contact arching. It was a period in which there was relatively little codified engineering experience on the design of small, alternating current switching devices. It is unclear whether the condenser was part of the original product engineering, or an after-market, field adaptation.
– The control enclosures in gloss black Bakelite, with attractive etched cover plate, with logo and script in pea green is an example of the early attempts at industrial design. The control was clearly intended to be visible and user friendly part of the Canadian household. This had not been a major priority manufactures here-to for.
– The costly, 24 inch, copper capillary line, with large 3/8 inch control bulb reflects much more commercial control design practice of the period, than residential. The relatively large and overall clumsy nature of the control may well reflect ILG’s new arrival in the consumer product field. Its engineering experience having been primarily in commercial and industrial applications [see reference below]

Industrial Significance:
see above


Miniature refrigeration hydraulic thermostat

Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Pressure and Temperature Controls – Household

Accession # HHCC.2006.027
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing; driven by a 36″x 3/32″ capillary line with integral power element, the contol was representative a new generation of miniature, snap action controls for original refrigeration and air conditioning equipment manufacturers, as well as for general replacement use, starting in the 1940’s, Ranco, circa 1945.

With this generation of thermo-mechanical, refrigeration thermostat technology the trend was set to move to the end of the century and the introduction of new 21st century control technology in which extended capillary sensing would be replaced by electronic sensing. \r\nIt was to be the last in the series of hydraulic bellows actuated, automatic temperature controls, employing extended capillary tube sensing – the preferred sensing technology of the early 20th century. [See items ID # 142- 151].



Item: Miniature refrigeration hydraulic thermostat
Manufacturer: Ranco Incorporated , Columbus Ohio
Make: Ranco
Model: Type A12; CR7
Features:
The control’s cut-out temperature can be re-calibrated in the field by means of a small internal adjustment screw.

Technical Significance:
The series [see items ID # 142- 151] profiles the evolution of extended capillary tube technology through a myriad engineering design developments and applications. It was a period driven by, and responding to, a new often shameless, marketing hyperbola. For the industry would take full advantage of knowledge from the newly found thermal and fluid flow sciences of the times, as well as of the new materials technology and manufacturing methods of the immediate pre-W.W.II years.

The industry was clearly out to create ever-increasing consumer interest and expectations for a user friendly, fully automated, self-regulating, affordable, mechanically driven cabinet refrigerators for the Canadian home. It was “an automatic refrigerator in every kitchen” following the marketing pattern set by the automobile industry for “an automobile in every garage”, that was the call of the captains of the household refrigeration industry. The perfection of a reliable, affordable, and user friendly, automatic temperature control was critical to the success of this business venture.

This control, representative of the end of the generation of extended, mechanically operated, capillary tube temperature sensors, is a masterpiece of precise engineering and manufacture of the period. Ranco Inc. produced this new generation, of miniature, snap action, capillary line controls for original refrigeration and air conditioning equipment manufacturers, as well as for general replacement use, starting in the 1940’s. Wholesaler’s and jobber’s catalogues of the period list many variations, made to the mounting and performance requirements of the industry.

With this generation of thermo-mechanical, refrigeration thermostat technology the trend was set to move to the end of the 20th century and the introduction of new 21st century control technology in which extended capillary sensing would be replaced with electronic sensing devices.

The contrast between this thermostat in bulk, weight and performance, with the technology of two decades earlier [See items ID 142-151], stands as a remarkable industry achievement. The evolution of the technology would, among other things, support the development of new more elaborate cooling systems, for cabinet refrigerators, with new features and functionality, including automatic defrost and dual temperature cabinets, as well as air conditioners and water coolers.

Industrial Significance:
see above


Compressor parts

Other Refrigerating and Air conditioning Components and Parts – Household

Accession # HHCC.2003.071
Exhibit: Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

An assembly of historic, open system, reciprocating, refrigeration compressor parts, for cabinet, household refrigerators, many in their original cartons. Including refrigerant shaft seals, demonstrating what they are; what they do; and how they worked in keeping noxious refrigerants in the refrigeration system and out of the Canadian kitchen of the 1920’s and 30’s, Various manufacturers, circa 1937

[For additional compressor parts see also items 8.02-1, 8.02-2 and 8.02-3]



Item: Compressor parts
Manufacturer: Various manufacturers, including Kelvinator, Frigi

Coal fired, hot water heater

Solid Fuel (Coal and Wood) Burning Equipment – Water Heating

Accession # HHCC.2003.081
Exhibit: Heating

A coal fired, hot water heater from the 1940’s, a period in which hydro generation capacity in Ontario was under siege, overloaded as result of rapid post WWII development and the lack of investment during war years in electrical infrastructure. It was a period in which the consumers who could provided themselves with back-up systems. Such as this historic artifact of the times, purchased but never used, Taylor Forbes, Windsor Ont. 1946.



Item: Coal fired, hot water heater
Manufacturer: Taylor Forbes, Canada ltd., Windsor Ontario
Make: Taylor Forbes
Model: Windsor 40
Features: Separate base plate

Damper control motor

Solid Fuel (Coal and Wood) Burning Equipment – Fuel flow, Ignition and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.101
Exhibit: Heating

With Honeywell’s, battery assisted, spring operated, wind-up damper control motor, for coal and wood-fired furnaces, automatic combustion and temperature control would arrive for some Canadians by the early 1920’s. For the first time the homeowner could position the furnace dampers, regulating combustion rate without leaving the living room…well more or less; Honeywell Heating Specialties Co., Circa 1920.



Item: Damper control motor
Manufacturer: Honeywell Heating Specialties Co., Wabash Ind.
Make: Honeywell

Features:
– Handsome metal cabinet in gloss black
– Handsome brass name plate with logo
– Original switching
– Original chain set, with pulleys and hardware
– Original baseboard mounting brackets

Technical Significance:
– There can be little doubt that this device represents the first small steps in the automation of household heating systems in Canada, an event that would change life in Canada forever.
– With key wound, spring-operated, damper actuator motor for positioning damper control chains, the device illustrates dramatically the early first steps in the automation of the household heating system. Starting with the known and the familiar, fire dampers and control chains, the inventor moved to new, novel and innovative means for mechanical automation – without the touch of human hand.
– The battery assisted operation of the motor, through the use of an electric solenoid to operate a brake arm for starting and stopping the motor, illustrates, too, the early application of battery operated electrical mechanisms, as essentially auxiliary devices to assist what was essentially a mechanical system.

Industrial Significance:
– It constitutes an early milestone in the development of automatic heating for homes using solid fuels, wood and coal, prior to the widespread availability of reliable supplies of oil, gas and hydro electrification.


Home made ash sifter

Solid Fuel (Coal and Wood) Burning Equipment – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.155
Exhibit: Heating

A late 19th century, home made, manually operated ash sifter, roughly hewn, nailed together of old boards found around the home, with broom stick, shaker handle and 1/8 inch galvanized screening, etched and eroded through the effects of prolonged use, in sifting ash so as to reuse the unburned, and partially burned pieces of coal, a simple made at home energy conservation technology, Circa 1898.



Item: Home made ash sifter
Make: Home made

Technical Significance:
The hand operated ash sifter is an example of a “small”, “appropriate” Canadian technology of its time, responding to the social, cultural and economic needs and constraints of the period.

The ash sifter was an early energy conservation device, used to conserve a scarce costly energy resource, coal

Energy conservation would be a re-occurring theme in the residential home heating sector, one which would be echoed into and throughout the 20th century and on into the 21st. A news letter to Fess Oil Burner of Canada dealers in 1947, responded to the energy shortage of that period, advising the home owner and service technician of their shared responsibilities for energy conservation, this time in the conservation of home heating fuel oil [see note #2]

A simple handcrafted tool, a made at home technology, the hand operated ash sifter was invented as a response to needs at the turn of the 20st century, would be strangely anticipatory of the needs 100 years later at the turn of the 21st century. The issue then as now is one of energy conservation, a reoccurring theme, marking the “scarcity”, “availability”, as well as “market price” [affordability].

The hand operated manual ash sifter would find its place in the large homes at the turn of the 20th century many of which were heated, at least in part, by coal fired fireplaces, without the luxury of built in shaking mechanisms

The shaking of ashes manually by a hand sifter technology would be a fact of life for those with coal burning fireplaces. For those with central coal heating furnaces with built in shaker grates [operated by turning of a crank], it would be a backup to retain the un-spent coal that escaped the mechanised sifting process.

Industrial Significance:
Crudely fabricated of old pieces of wood, found around the home, clearly the largely unskilled work of a homeowner or household handyman, it is rare marker of the days well before technology’s invasion of the Canadian home, with endless line of labor saving tools, appliances and products for comfort, safety, health and convenience.

The finely made 1/8th inch galvinized sifter screen appears to be a bit of an anomaly, standing in sharp contrast to the other found-at-home materials used. The screening appears not to have been a later addition, however, given the integrated construction detail. All of which says something about the relatively advanced processes for the production of galvanized coated screen of the period – anachronistic


Vaporizing oil burner ‘Coleman’

Vaporizing Oil Burning Equipment and Systems – Burners

Accession # HHCC.2006.154
Exhibit: Heating

A non motorized, vaporizing oil burner for the Canadian home, employing natural gravity feed, with fuel reservoir and brass float actuated fuel oil metering device, brass valving and tubing, engineered by a widely acknowledged pioneer of oil heating equipment in Canada, Coleman Lamp and Stove Co. Ltd. Toronto, Circa 1922.



Item: Vaporizing oil burner ‘Coleman’
Manufacturer: Coleman Lamp and Stove Co. Ltd. Toronto
Make: Colman
Model: unknown

Technical Significance:
They were the early years of the 20th century and “the machine” had not yet arrived in the basements of Canadian homes. Electrification, a prerequisite on which the electric motor depended was for many, still years away. Oil heating, as an alternative to solid fuels, wood and coal, must depend on less sophisticated technologies.

From the vantage point of the early 21st century, the evolution of oil fired, automatic home heating equipment would be seen as generally advancing in four broad waves, each of which would take place over a considerable period of time, each producing many variations of the genre:

1. Vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology [see Group 11.01 artifacts, no. 11.01-1]

2. Elemental, motorized, platform mounted technology with peripheral piping and valving components [see Group 12.01, artifact no 12.01-1, and pump assembly 12.06-1]

3. Compacted motorized technology with inherent, peripheral component parts engineered into the pump assembly [see pump assembly Group 12.06, artifact, and 12.06-2]

4. Functionally integrated, motorized technology, beyond being compacted, a number of functions would be smoothly integrated into a single pump assembly, including piping and valving [see Group 12.01, artifact 12.01-2 and pump assembly 12.06-2]

This apparatus clearly stands as an example of the first wave, vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology

This simple and elegant fuel flow management system was designed with great inventiveness to use the natural force of gravity flow, without reliance on motive power.

It uses a 36gr. float, hand crafted out of brass sheet stock, to meter oil into a combustion chamber [not included], where it is ignited by hand, vaporized and burned.

Te apparatus is simply and beautifully executed using the materials and the manufacturing processes of the period in cast iron and brass.

Industrial Significance:
While systems for automatic fuel feed had been attempted using solid and pulverized fuels [wood and coal], their practical application for household would depend on the availability of a reliable source of clean-burning liquid or gaseous fuels.

The casting and hand machining of brass petcocks and fittings demonstrate an unusual commitment to craftsmanship, which would soon not be so evident with the progressive introduction of mass production, automated manufacturing methods.

The Ontario oil fields of Lambton County, although short lived, and those of Pennsylvania were among the first in the world to be commercially developed by 1860. They provided an early incentive for the Canadian, automatic oil heating industry, as represented here by Colman.

This equipment was developed and manufactured in the first decade of the 20th century by the Coleman Lamp and Stove Co. Ltd. Toronto, a pre-eminent contributor to the development of HVACR, technology during its embryonic years in Canada.


Vaporizing space heater

Vaporizing Oil Burning Equipment and Systems – Space Heating

Accession # HHCC.2003.082
Exhibit: Heating

A liquid fuels, vaporizing, space heater, popular in the early years of the 20th century, as Canadian home owners looked to the latest and best technology of the day, in order to supplement the often cold and draft homes of the period, typically heated by wood or coal stoves or for the fortunate a central, gravity warm air, or hot water system, Colman, Quick Lite, 1929.



Item: Vaporizing space heater
Manufacturer: Colman Co. Ltd., Toronto
Make: Colman
Model: Quick Lite, Col

Technical Significance:
A remarkable statement of the advancements made by the Canadian heating industry in the first two decades of the 20th century, demonstrating not only the cumulated design and engineering expertise of the times, but also the materials and manufacturing processes that were by then available to the Canadian manufacturers, who saw and understood the market potential from a public crying out for greater winter time comfort.


Oil burner assembly ‘Leiman’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Burners

Accession # HHCC.2003.079
Exhibit: Heating

An unusual and rare example of an early 20th century high pressure oil burner assembly, with direct drive, 2 stage, Tuthill gear pump, buil-in oil reservoir, and original valving, constructed on heavy cast iron base, with 1″ pipe legs and cork vibration insulators, equipped brass whistle with embossed plate marked, “when whistle blows, stop motor, fill base with oil”, Leiman Bros Newark, circa 1926.



Item: Oil burner assembly ‘Leiman’
Manufacturer: Leiman Bros. Newark, N.J.
Make: Leiman Bros.

Features:
Currently equipped with a much later model 60 cycle motor, having been used as a service pump in the repair shop of T. H. Oliver Aurora Ont. a mark of the long life of the Tuthill pump used by Leiman Bros.


Gun style oil burner ‘Fess’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Burners

Accession # HHCC.2003.080
Exhibit: Heating

A mid 20th century high-pressure, gun style oil burner for residential and small commercial, automatic heating applications. Equipped with integral firing assembly, direct drive oil pump, primary air supply and motor, with modern, unitary construction and styling influenced by Art Deco style trends of the times, in metallic green with chrome trim marked “Fess Heat”, Fess Oil Burner, 1955.



Item: Gun style oil burner ‘Fess’
Manufacturer: Fess Burner Div. John Wood Co., Toronto
Make: Fess
Model: FNAL

Oil burner piping harness

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Firing Assemblies

Accession # HHCC.2006.135
Exhibit: Heating

Beautifully curved, shiny brass oil burner piping harness, with heavy wall, 3/8 inch suction and 1/4 inch discharge lines, equipped with black wrought iron pipe fittings and Dart unions with brass seats. Such harness would stand as a kind of cultural marker of the times, reflecting the oil burner manufacture’s desire to allay public fears about quality and safety of this new technology being brought into the Canadian home in the 1920’s, Anaconda, Circa 1929.



Item: Oil burner piping harness
Manufacturer: Anaconda
Make: Anaconda
Model: 67

Technical Significance:
Brass, because of its special properties [malleability and corrosion resistance] and the relative ease of manufacture, was a material of choice for much speciality manufacturing in the 1920-40’s, a period prior to the development of plastics, which over the next half century would replace brass in many applications.

During these early years massive quantities of brass would be used in speciality manufacturing areas in fluid flow applications such as automatic oil heating and refrigeration. Here corrosion free operation, as well as appearance were important factors in engineering and the market place. [see for example ID#260 to 264]


Fuel filter assembly

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Firing Assemblies

Accession # HHCC.2006.136
Exhibit: Heating

Cast iron, fuel filter assembly with 3/8 inch IPS, black iron pipe and union inlet connection to oil burner, with brass machined screw top, and 3/8 oil priming plug, ground brass seat and cast brass internal screen cartridge, with clearable brass screen filter media, all beautifully crafted, in keeping with the values of the period, using the materials and techniques of the times, manufacturer unknown, 1929.



Item: Fuel filter assembly
Manufacturer: Unknown
Make: Unknown
Model: 16 LB

Technical Significance:
A marker of the attention given by manufacturers, in the early years of automatic oil heating in Canada to giving it a sense of solid craftsmanship, sturdy construction, dependability and good taste.

Brass and bronze, because of their special properties [malleability and corrosion resistance] and the relative ease of manufacture, were material of choice for much speciality manufacturing in the 1920-40’s, a period prior to the development of plastics, which over the next half century would replace these metals and derivatives in many applications.

During these early years massive quantities of brass would be used in speciality manufacturing areas in fluid flow applications such as automatic oil heating and refrigeration. Here corrosion free operation, as well as appearance were important factors in engineering and the market place. [see for example ID#259 to 264]


Atomizing firing head ‘J30’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Firing Assemblies

Accession # HHCC.2006.137
Exhibit: Heating

A high pressure, high voltage, fuel oil atomizing firing head by Fess Oil Burners, Toronto, an acknowledged early pioneer and Canadian market leader in oil burner engineering and manufacture in Canada. Dressed in classic black/green enamelled finish, with long-reach, 3/8 inch IPS brass oil delivery tube, inlet oil filter and oil-flow shut-off valve, Model J30, Circa 1936. [see also design variant ID#262]



Item: Atomizing firing head ‘J30’
Manufacturer: Fess Oil Burners of Canada, Toronto and Montreal
Make: Fess
Model: Model J30

Technical Significance:
A marker of the times in the evolution of automatic oil heating for the Canadian home, this 24 inch, long-reach firing assembly, typical of the period, was designed for “conversion” installation. Such installations were typically found in gravity style, home warm air heating furnace installations in the early years of the 20th century. Here coal grates would be removed, and oil burner refractory would be hand built in its place and a firing head would be inserted, See ID# 243, 244,245.

This firing head, typical of the period, slides into a large (4″ to 5″) fire tube [gun]. It delivers oil at up to 100 psi. to an oil atomizing spray nozzle through a 3/8″ brass, oil delivery tube.

Turbulated air under pressure is forced through an air cone [see ID# 64 and 265] where it is mixed with the atomized oil spray and ignited by an electrically generated spark [See ID# 255 and 256] jumping between two carefully positioned electrodes. High tension insulated cables carry the electrical current to the electrodes, through fragile, porcelain electrical insulators.

The oil atomizing nozzle, first developed in the 1920’s would be a marvel of its times, in product engineering and design, as well as in mass production manufacture. Designed to produce a variety of air patterns, with different combustion characteristics, it would survive relatively unchanged through to the 21st century. See ID# 262 for later variations in advanced nozzle performance.

Industrial Significance:
This high pressure, high voltage, fuel oil atomizing firing head by Fess Oil Burners, Toronto, stands as a marker of the earliest pioneering work of a Canadian company in the engineering and manufacture of automatic heating equipment designed for the Canadian home.

This basic firing head configuration would meet many of the needs of the market-place, and satisfy minimal safety requirements through to the end of the 20th century

During this period, however, engineering applications progressed well beyond the “conversion” market, to smaller, more efficient, unitary, packaged automatic oil heating equipment, for both warm air and hot water [hydronic]. As a result firing assemblies would become much more compact and sophisticated in design.

Yet, the basic engineering design trend had been set by the early 1930’s. Fragile and often temperamental, as it was, firing assemblies of this essential configuration, modified and customized for different applications, would remain the standard for high pressure atomizing oil burners to the end of the 20th century.


Atomizing firing head ‘J31’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Firing Assemblies

Accession # HHCC.2006.138
Exhibit: Heating

A field modified high pressure fuel oil atomizing firing head by Fess Oil Burners, Toronto, an acknowledged early pioneer in oil burner engineering and manufacture in Canada; with classic black/green enamelled finish, long-reach, 3/8 inch, brass, oil delivery tube, inlet oil filter and oil-flow shut-off valve, and modified with the addition of a Honeywell dripples, automatic, oil pressure control, check valve, Fess, Model J31, Circa 1940. [see also ID#261]



Item: Atomizing firing head ‘J31’
Manufacturer: Fess Oil Burners Canada, Toronto
Make: Fess
Model: Model J-31
Features: Original high tension ignition cables

Technical Significance:
A marker of the times in the evolution of automatic oil heating for the Canadian home, this 24 inch, long-reach firing assembly, typical of the period, was designed for “conversion” installation. Such installations were typically found in gravity style, home warm air heating furnace installations in the early years of the 20th century. Here coal grates would be removed, and oil burner refractory would be hand built in its place and a firing head would be inserted, See ID# 243, 244,245.

This firing head, typical of the period, slides into a large (4″ to 5″) fire tube [gun]. It delivers oil at up to 100 psi. to an oil atomizing spray nozzle through a 3/8″ brass, oil delivery tube.

Turbulated air under pressure is forced through an air cone [see ID# 64 and 265] where it is mixed with the atomized oil spray and ignited by an electrically generated spark [See ID# 255 and 256] jumping between two carefully positioned electrodes. High tension insulated cables carry the electrical current to the electrodes, through fragile, porcelain electrical insulators.

The oil atomizing nozzle, first developed in the 1920’s would be a marvel of its times, in product engineering and design, as well as in mass production manufacture. Designed to produce a variety of air patterns, with different combustion characteristics, it would survive relatively unchanged through to the 21st century.

This firing assembly, modified 10 years or so after first installation, suggests something of the long “shelf life” of the basic technology.

A performance characteristic of such firing assemblies was the tendency to eject oil into the firebox at below the specified design pressure, 85 to 100 psi. The result was poor combustion and a smoky, smelly fire. Usually caused by a fuel pump failing to open at the proper pressure, the dripples valve would provide a quick fix, a less expensive alternative to pump repair or replacement.

Industrial Significance:
This high pressure, high voltage, fuel oil atomizing firing head by Fess Oil Burners, Toronto, stands as a marker of the earliest pioneering work of a Canadian company in the engineering and manufacture of automatic heating equipment designed for the Canadian home.

This basic firing head configuration would meet many of the needs of the market-place, and satisfy minimal safety requirements through to the end of the 20th century

During this period, however, engineering applications progressed well beyond the “conversion” market, to smaller, more efficient, unitary, packaged automatic oil heating equipment, for both warm air and hot water [hydronic]. As a result firing assemblies would become much more compact and sophisticated in design.

Yet, the basic engineering design trend had been set by the early 1930’s. Fragile and often temperamental, as it was, firing assemblies of this essential configuration, modified and customized for different applications, would remain the standard for high pressure atomizing oil burners to the end of the 20th century.


Fuel oil by-pass valve

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Firing Assemblies

Accession # HHCC.2006.139
Exhibit: Heating

A fuel oil pressure regulating, by-pass valve, beautifully crafted and styled for the discerning eye in brass/bronze. It exemplifies the range of peripheral devices engineered by a new generation of technology manufacturers, starting in the late 1920’s, innovators and suppliers to the automatic oil heating market. Together, they built the system of interacting and mutually supporting components and parts required for safe, efficient, reliable, automatic home heating in Canada, Detroit Lubricator, Circa 1940.



Item: Fuel oil by-pass valve
Manufacturer: Detroit Lubricator Company, Detroit Mich.
Make: Detroit Lubricator
Model: Type S15
Features: Embossed Detroit Lubricator logo; Beautifully embossed brass name label

Technical Significance:
Of spring compensated, piston design, this fully adjustable by-pass valve would be a technical break through in its times, allowing excess fuel oil to be automatically circulated back to the oil tank from the oil burner. Oil pump engineering would later incorporate a pressure regulating, by-pass valve function as an integral part of the pump itself, see Note 1 [See Group 12.06 historic artifacts]

The device stands as a reminder that the commitment to automatic heating for the Canadian home brought with it a vast range of engineering challenges. Required would be a network of fully automated devices, mechanical, electrical and hydraulic, all of which must work together, smoothly and systemically to produce the required performance characteristics – including self-regulation, safely, reliability, efficiency, and affordability- all quite unimagined a decade earlier

It exemplifies the great precision made possible in the 1930’s and 40’s, given the limited engineering materials and production machining methods of the times.

It exemplifies, too, the range of peripheral devices engineered and manufactured by a new generation of companies, starting in the late 1920’s, for the automatic oil heating market, part of the system of interacting and mutually supporting components and parts required.

Industrial Significance:
Demonstrates the vast engineering know-how accumulated by fluid flow valve speciality companies of the time, here Detroit Lubricator, whose valves dominated many facets of the HVACR industry, ubiquitous through much of the 20th century [See also Group 3.01 and 3.02 historic artifacts]


Convex nose air cone

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Firing Assemblies

Accession # HHCC.2006.140
Exhibit: Heating

An air cone for a high pressure, atomizing oil burner, designed with convex nose and 8 turbulator blades. Unobtrusive and elemental in appearance and seemingly of little consequence, it would, none-the-less, prove to be a critical component in oil burner performance in its time, helping to ensure quiet, efficient, smoke free combustion. \r\nBlued and heavily corroded as a result of use in a typical 3000 deg. combustion chamber, unknown manufacturer, Circa 1948. [see also ID#265]



Item: Convex nose air cone
Manufacturer: Unknown
Make: Unknown
Model: Unknown

Technical Significance:
The simple, crude air cone, a piece of sand moulded and machined cast iron, would come to represent much of the challenge faced in squeezing acceptable levels of reliable performance out of the high pressure atomizing oil burner, given the state of that technology in the early and mid 20th century.

In this period, experiments in refractory, air cone, air turbulator, nozzle, electrode and oil pump design would be endless, in an attempt to optimize a technology which refused to be optimized, until significant redesign and re-configuring of the high pressure atomizing burner took place in the latter years of the century. [See Reference 1]

This seemingly simple, elemental device stands as a reminder of the system of often crudely fashioned, empirically derived, interrelated and mutually supporting component parts on which the safe, reliable and efficient operation of automatic oil heating for the Canadian home would depend in the mid 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
Many variations in air cone design are to be found, reflecting the practice of the period. Each manufacturer would experiment to find the configuration best suited to his equipment’s performance – see ID#265


Concave nose air cone

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Firing Assemblies

Accession # HHCC.2006.141
Exhibit: Heating

An air cone for a high pressure, atomizing oil burner, designed with concave nose, 8 foreshortened turbulator blades and extended collar. Unobtrusive and elemental in appearance and seemingly of little consequence, it would, none-the-less, prove to be a critical component in oil burner performance in its time, helping to ensure quiet, efficient, smoke free combustion. Blued and heavily corroded as a result of use in a typical 3000 deg. combustion chamber, unknown manufacturer, Circa 1948. [see also ID#265]



Item: Concave nose air cone
Manufacturer: Unknown
Make: Unknown
Model: Unknown

Technical Significance:
The simple, crude air cone, a piece of sand moulded and machined cast iron, would come to represent much of the challenge faced in squeezing acceptable levels of reliable performance out of the high pressure atomizing oil burner, given the state of that technology in the early and mid 20th century.

In this period, experiments in refractory, air cone, air turbulator, nozzle, electrode and oil pump design would be endless, in an attempt to optimize a technology which refused to be optimized, until significant redesign and re-configuring of the high pressure atomizing burner took place in the latter years of the century. [See Reference 1]

This seemingly simple, elemental device stands as a reminder of the system of often crudely fashioned, empirically derived, interrelated and mutually supporting component parts on which the safe, reliable and efficient operation of automatic oil heating for the Canadian home would depend in the mid 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
Many variations in air cone design are to be found, reflecting the practice of the period. Each manufacturer would experiment to find the configuration best suited to his equipment’s performance – see ID#264


Fuel pump assembly ‘D8’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.142
Exhibit: Heating

A fuel pump assembly for low pressure, mechanical atomizing oil burner, with direct, flexible coupled, electric motor drive, with carbon blade rotary pump, worm drive, gear pump, and automatic oil volume and pressure control valves, from the widely acknowledged pioneer of automatic oil heating equipment in Canada, Fess, Model D8, Circa 1924.



Item: Fuel pump assembly ‘D8’
Manufacturer: Fess Oil Burner of Canada
Make: Fess
Model: D8

Technical Significance:
They were the early years of the 20th century and “the machine” had arrived in the basements of a few well to do Canadian homes – whether the refrigerating machine [see condensing unit Group 2.01] or the automatic oil burning, home heating machine.

The Fess Model D would typify the latter. Like many such arrivals it would first appear, celebrated for its potential contribution to human comfort, health and convenience, only much later as a social and cultural change agent with awesome impact on Canada and Canadians, their life and times.

The Model D [There was a series of them] represented the leading edge of self- powered, self-regulating, automatic oil heating technology of the period, likely the first wave of pressure atomizing technology commercially marketed in Canada. The mechanism was described by Fess as being of the low pressure, mechanical atomizing type, using “the retarded heat principle”. It consisted of what the Fess manual refers to as a “machine proper” and a “fire door insert”.

The machine proper included a heavy steel pedestal on which was mounted this assembly consisting of a carbon blade rotary pump, worm driven gear pump, with rotary needle valve, including oil volume and pressure adjustments.

The assembly was driven with a direct coupled repulsion induction motor [see Group 16.00], drawing oil from a float control, valve chamber with strainer. The entire machine proper rested in trays that caught leaking oil, with provisions for sucking it back into the system.

The fire door insert included nozzle assembly, ignition transformer and spark plug

The burner was controlled with a Model 77, Locksmith, stack switch [See Group 12.08]

Industrial Significance:
Appearing in the early 1920’s, Canadian household machinery was initially styled after its industrial counterpart in cast iron, steel, light weight die casting alloys, brass and bronze, using the industrial processes available in the times.

Fess Oil Burners of Canada [later the John Wood Company, Toronto] became a major player in the development of the automatic oil heating industry, starting in the 1920’s

The industry would shortly move on to a more compact, functionally integrated, unitary equipment look, thus distancing itself from the factory floor. See ID# 267 – but for now the D series was as good as it gets.


Fuel pump assembly ‘J18’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.143
Exhibit: Heating

A compact, functionally integrated fuel pump assembly for gun type, low pressure atomizing oil burner, with flange motor mount, air intake housing, fuel pump, and pressure gauge 0 to 20 psi., all over coated in classic black-green gloss enamel of the period; equipped with drive coupling, pressure regulating valve, fitments, and oil filter all executed in solid brass/bronze, all targeted on the affluent, discerning, life style seeking householder, Fess, Model J18, Circa 1930. [see also 12.06-11]



Item: Fuel pump assembly ‘J18’
Manufacturer: Fess Oil Burner of Canada
Make: Fess
Model: J18

Technical Significance:
By the early 1930’s the Canadian oil heating industry was progressing well beyond simple, gravity feed, vaporizing oil-heating equipment [see Group 11,05 artifacts]. Having developed mechanical, low pressure atomizing machinery [see ID# 12.06-9], it was ready to move on to more efficient, cleaner and more reliable atomizing methods, to be found in the pressure-atomizing “gun” burner technology of the period.

This historic artifact models well the sophisticated engineering and design achievements of the period, in compact, functionally integrated fuel oil pump assemblies for low pressure atomizing oil burners.

Modelled here is the best of the offerings of the industry to Canadian home owners of the period – at least to those that could afford the best and the latest is advanced automatic home heating technology in the early 1930 – in the midst of national economic depression.

A superb example of what was now possible, given the advances in oil atomizing technology, metallurgy, manufacturing and fabrication methods of the day.

Exemplified, too, is a new era of industrial craftsmanship with an eye for a new of eye-catching and pleasing industrial styling.

Seen here is a new generation of mechanical equipment, targeted on the hearts and minds of the Canadian homeowner, equipment which was starting to loose the crude industrial machinery look, and develop a new aesthetic, one distancing its self from the factory floor look of a few years earlier [see 12.06-9].

What had been acquired by the industry was a new sense of how to smoothly integrate and articulate mechanisms traditionally of widely different functions [oil pumps, motors, fans and pressure valves] into a single functioning whole. A new kind of sophisticated entity had been created, one made all the more appealing to the early 20th century discriminating homeowner of good taste with the addition of polished brass fitments. See Note #2

The new gun style burner consisted of a direct drive, flange mounted motor, a Sirocco type high pressure fan to deliver primary air for combustion, a compact positive displacement, gear pump, an oil atomizing nozzle, high potential electrical transformer, and ignition electrodes.

Industrial Significance:
Fess Oil Burners of Canada [later the John Wood Company, Toronto] became a major player in the development of the automatic oil heating industry, starting in the late 1920’s

Capitalizing on the sales potential of the new more compact and reliable “gun” type technology, the Fess J series of automatic oil burners would be representative of a new generation of highly innovative equipment, taking advantage of the newly emerging Canadian market in the early 1930’s.

Its Model J series of gun type, pressure atomizing burners, in their characteristic black-green, would be a familiar site in the basements of the well-to-do across much of central Canada in the 30’s.

The industry was moving to more compact, functionally integrated, unitary equipment configurations, away from the industrial machinery look. With the advent of the high pressure gun burner, the basic oil burner configuration had been established which, with many modifications and enhancements, would largely characterize the field through to the end of the 20th century.


Rotary fuel oil pump

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.144
Exhibit: Heating

A rotary, low pressure, fuel oil pump, with carbon separator blades, heavy steel rotor, in cast and machined steel body, with classic black/green enamel finish, and original external piping connections, a marker of the 2nd wave of automatic home heating, pump assembly technology for the Canadian home, partial pump assembly only, manufacturer unknown, Circa 1924.



Item: Rotary fuel oil pump
Manufacturer: Unknown See Note 1
Make: Unknown See Note 1
Model: V916
Features: Natural carbon blade

Technical Significance:
From the vantage point of the early 21st century the evolution of automatic oil fired home heating equipment would be seen as generally advancing in four broad waves, each of which would take place over a considerable period of time, each producing many variations of the genre:

1. Vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology [see Group 11.01 artifacts, no. 11.01-1]

2. Elemental, motorized, platform mounted technology with peripheral piping and valving components [see Group 12.01, artifact no 12.01-1, and pump assembly 12.06-1]

3. Compacted motorized technology with inherent, peripheral component parts engineered into the pump assembly [see pump assembly Group 12.06, artifact, and 12.06-2]

4. Functionally integrated, motorized technology, beyond being compacted, a number of functions would be smoothly integrated into a single pump assembly, including piping and valving [see Group 12.01, artifact 12.01-2 and pump assembly 12.06-2]

By the early 1930’s the Canadian oil heating industry was progressing well beyond simple, gravity feed, vaporizing oil-heating equipment [wave 1] moving to elemental, motorized, electrified, designs [wave 2], using low pressure mechanical atomizing burners with rotary, carbon separator blade pumps [see ID# 12.06-9].

This pump assembly is, then, a marker of the second wave. It is associated with the earliest years of electrified and motorized oil heating equipment to be found in Canadian homes

A hallmarks of the design is the use of carbon, separator, rotor blades. Carbon was a natural choice, as a natural substance, which tended to be self lubricating and self-positioning, wearing to cylinder wall to maintain a close running tolerance and quiet operation – all this in a period long before the availability of more sophisticated engineering materials

A hallmark of this technology of the period would also be its massive weight, as represented here by this 10 lb., toe crushing, partial pump body. But the look was a preferred one in the culture of the times, by a public still spooked by the seeming inherent dangers represented by un-attended, automatic oil heating equipment in the home. Among other things it must look, feel and in fact be solid.

Industrial Significance:
A marker of the manufacturing techniques of the times


Rotary fuel oil pump

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.145
Exhibit: Heating

A rotary, low pressure, fuel oil pump for automatic home heating, with carbon rotor separator blades, heavy steel rotor, in cast and machined steel body equipped for 4 bolt flange motor mounting, built-in, brass, automatic pressure regulating valve with manual adjustment, beginning to suggest the early years of the 4th wave in engineering design, characterized by compacted, integrated fuel oil pump assemblies, manufacturer unknown, Circa 1929.



Item: Rotary fuel oil pump
Manufacturer: Unknown See Note 1
Make: Unknown See Note 1
Model: Unknown
Features: Natural carbon separator blades

Technical Significance:
From the vantage point of the early 21st century, the evolution of oil fired, automatic home heating equipment would be seen as generally advancing in four broad waves, each of which would take place over a considerable period of time, each producing many variations of the genre:

1. Vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology [see Group 11.01 artifacts, no. 11.01-1]

2. Elemental, motorized, platform mounted technology with peripheral piping and valving components [see Group 12.01, artifact no 12.01-1, and pump assembly 12.06-1]

3. Compacted motorized technology with inherent, peripheral component parts engineered into the pump assembly [see pump assembly Group 12.06, artifact, and 12.06-2]

4. Functionally integrated, motorized technology, beyond being compacted, a number of functions would be smoothly integrated into a single pump assembly, including piping and valving [see Group 12.01, artifact 12.01-2 and pump assembly 12.06-2]

By the early 1930’s the Canadian oil heating industry was progressing well beyond simple, gravity feed, vaporizing oil-heating equipment [wave 1] and elemental, motorized, electrified, designs [wave 2], to increasingly more compacted and functionally integrated engineering designs. Seen here in the compact, coaxial motor drive flange and the built in pressure valve and piping passages.

This pump assembly is, then, an early marker of the 4th design wave

A hallmarks of the design is the use of carbon, separator, rotor blades. Carbon was a natural choice, as a natural substance, which tended to be self lubricating and self-positioning, wearing to cylinder wall to maintain a close running tolerance and quiet operation – all this in a period long before the availability of more sophisticated engineering materials

A hallmark of this technology of the period would also be its massive weight, as represented here by this 10 lb., toe crushing, partial pump body. But the look was a preferred one in the culture of the times, by a public still spooked by the seeming inherent dangers represented by un-attended, automatic oil heating equipment in the home. Among other things it must look, feel and in fact be solid.

Industrial Significance:
A marker of the sophisticated machining and manufacturing techniques of the times, using the relatively crude machine tools available.


Single stage rotary gear pump

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.146
Exhibit: Heating

A single stage rotary gear pump, with cast and machined steel body, two hole flange and barrel mount and two point drive coupling for close, direct motor drive; with original oil piping, it would be part of the 3rd wave in engineering design, characterized by compacted, fuel oil pump assemblies, Tuthill Pump Co. Chicago, Circa 1929.



Item: Single stage rotary gear pump
Manufacturer: Tuthill Pump Co. Chicago
Make: Tuthill
Model: Unknown

Technical Significance:
From the vantage point of the early 21st century, the evolution of oil fired, automatic home heating equipment would be seen as generally advancing in four broad waves, each of which would take place over a considerable period of time, each producing many variations of the genre:

1. Vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology [see Group 11.01 artifacts, no. 11.01-1]

2. Elemental, motorized, platform mounted technology with peripheral piping and valving components [see Group 12.01, artifact no 12.01-1, and pump assembly 12.06-1]

3. Compacted motorized technology with inherent, peripheral component parts engineered into the pump assembly [see pump assembly Group 12.06, artifact, and 12.06-2]

4. Functionally integrated, motorized technology, beyond being compacted, a number of functions would be smoothly integrated into a single pump assembly, including piping and valving [see Group 12.01, artifact 12.01-2 and pump assembly 12.06-2]

Seen here is an early, compact rotary gear pump, for close coupled, direct drive application, beginning to reflect the drive configuration to be found on the mainstream of oil burners through the balance of the 20th century.

This pump assembly stands as a late example of the 3rd wave of fuel oil pump assemblies

The close coupled, direct drive configuration used here would be an early application of the design commonly found throughout the industry to the end of the 29th century

Industrial Significance:
This requisitely crafted and machined gear, miniature gear pump would be a marvel of engineering design and production of the day

Tuthill would be widely acknowledged in the industry as an early innovator in the field, providing many of the engineering ideas, principles, products and breakthroughs which the industry would bill on – see for example ID#271.


Two stage rotary gear pump

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.147
Exhibit: Heating

Two stage rotary gear pump, with cast and machined steel body, two hole flange and barrel-mount for close, direct motor coupling; with internal pressure regulating and cut- off valves, inlet oil strainer and oil bypass, it would set a new standard for fuel oil pump assemblies, part of a 4th wave in engineering design, characterized by compacted and functionally integrated engineering, Fuelstat, Tuthill Pump Co. Chicago, Circa 1937.



Item: Two stage rotary gear pump
Manufacturer: Tuthill Pump Co. Chicago
Make: Tuthill
Model: DES???AT??
Features: Over coated in flawless gloss maroon enamel, likely to match the colour of an oil burner supplier of the period

Technical Significance:
From the vantage point of the early 21st century, the evolution of oil fired, automatic home heating equipment would be seen as generally advancing in four broad waves, each of which would take place over a considerable period of time, each producing many variations of the genre:

1. Vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology [see Group 11.01 artifacts, no. 11.01-1]

2. Elemental, motorized, platform mounted technology with peripheral piping and valving components [see Group 12.01, artifact no 12.01-1, and pump assembly 12.06-1]

3. Compacted motorized technology with inherent, peripheral component parts engineered into the pump assembly [see pump assembly Group 12.06, artifact, and 12.06-2]

4. Functionally integrated, motorized technology, beyond being compacted, a number of functions would be smoothly integrated into a single pump assembly, including piping and valving [see Group 12.01, artifact 12.01-2 and pump assembly 12.06-2]

This pump assembly stands as an example of 4th wave of fuel oil pump assemblies

The close coupled, direct drive configuration used here would be an early application of the design commonly found throughout the industry to the end of the 29th century

Industrial Significance:
Tuthill would be widely acknowledged in the industry as an early innovator in the field, providing many of the engineering ideas, principles, products and breakthroughs which the industry would bill on – see for example ID#271, 272, 273.


Single stage rotary gear pump

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.148
Exhibit: Heating

Single stage rotary gear pump, with light weight die cast body, two hole flange and barrel mount for close, direct motor coupling; with internal pressure regulating and cut-off valves, inlet oil strainer and oil bypass, it would set a new standard for fuel oil pump assemblies, part of a 4th wave in engineering design, characterized by compacted and functionally integrated engineering, Fuelstat, EN, Tuthill Pump Co. Chicago, Circa 1937.



Item: Single stage rotary gear pump
Manufacturer: Tuthill Pump Co. Chicago
Make: Tuthill
Model: EN

Technical Significance:
From the vantage point of the early 21st century, the evolution of oil fired, automatic home heating equipment would be seen as generally advancing in four broad waves, each of which would take place over a considerable period of time, each producing many variations of the genre:

1. Vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology [see Group 11.01 artifacts, no. 11.01-1]

2. Elemental, motorized, platform mounted technology with peripheral piping and valving components [see Group 12.01, artifact no 12.01-1, and pump assembly 12.06-1]

3. Compacted motorized technology with inherent, peripheral component parts engineered into the pump assembly [see pump assembly Group 12.06, artifact, and 12.06-2]

4. Functionally integrated, motorized technology, beyond being compacted, a number of functions would be smoothly integrated into a single pump assembly, including piping and valving [see Group 12.01, artifact 12.01-2 and pump assembly 12.06-2]

This pump assembly stands as an example of 4th wave of fuel oil pump assemblies, compact and functionally integrated in light weight die cast body.

Industrial Significance:
Tuthill would be widely acknowledged in the industry as an early innovator in the field, providing many of the engineering ideas, principles, products and breakthroughs which the industry would build on – see for example ID#271, 272, 273.


Single stage rotary gear pump ‘Tuthill’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.149
Exhibit: Heating

Tuthill single stage rotary gear pump, carrying the corporate name of Prenco, Toronto Canada, similar to the Tuthill Model EN, see ID# 272, with modern, stylish name plate and logo in silver against grass green background, a marker of the rapidly expanding market for automatic oil heating equipment in Canada following W.W.II, Fuelstat, Prenco, Tuthill Pump Corp. Toronto, Circa 1948.



Item: Single stage rotary gear pump ‘Tuthill’
Manufacturer: Prenco, Tuthill Pump Corp. Toronto
Make: Prenco Tuthill

Technical Significance:
From the vantage point of the early 21st century, the evolution of oil fired, automatic home heating equipment would be seen as generally advancing in four broad waves, each of which would take place over a considerable period of time, each producing many variations of the genre:

1. Vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology [see Group 11.01 artifacts, no. 11.01-1]

2. Elemental, motorized, platform mounted technology with peripheral piping and valving components [see Group 12.01, artifact no 12.01-1, and pump assembly 12.06-1]

3. Compacted motorized technology with inherent, peripheral component parts engineered into the pump assembly [see pump assembly Group 12.06, artifact, and 12.06-2]

4. Functionally integrated, motorized technology, beyond being compacted, a number of functions would be smoothly integrated into a single pump assembly, including piping and valving [see Group 12.01, artifact 12.01-2 and pump assembly 12.06-2]

This pump assembly stands as an example of 4th wave of fuel oil pump assemblies, compact and functionally integrated in light weight die cast body.

Industrial Significance:
Tuthill would be widely acknowledged in the industry as an early innovator in the field, providing many of the engineering ideas, principles, products and breakthroughs which the industry would build on – see for example ID#271, 272, 273.

With modern, stylish name plate and logo in silver against grass green background, with smoothly rounded long radius corners it would signal a new era in industrial design, with a new role for the industrial designer, creating products with eye appeal, distancing the oil heat industry from the products of its industrial past [see for example ID#268]


Two stage rotary gear pump ‘Webster’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.150
Exhibit: Heating

Two stage rotary, gear style pump, in cast steel body with extended shaft, and Webster stylish logo, carrying a Canadian manufacturer’s name; an example of beautifully compacted and functionally integrated engineering. [4th wave] and of the rapidly approaching mature market years for high pressure, 100 psi. oil burner technology, bringing with it a giant bulge in the percentages of Canadian home owners and businesses that would enjoy automatic heating, Webster/ Canadian Acme Screw and Gear, Circa 1955.



Item: Two stage rotary gear pump ‘Webster’
Manufacturer: Canadian Acme Screw and Gear, Toronto
Make: Webster
Model: 2R-111D-AH

Technical Significance:
From the vantage point of the early 21st century, the evolution of oil fired, automatic home heating equipment would be seen as generally advancing in four broad waves, each of which would take place over a considerable period of time, each producing many variations of the genre:

1. Vaporizing, non-motorized and non-electrified, technology [see Group 11.01 artifacts, no. 11.01-1]

2. Elemental, motorized, platform mounted technology with peripheral piping and valving components [see Group 12.01, artifact no 12.01-1, and pump assembly 12.06-1]

3. Compacted motorized technology with inherent, peripheral component parts engineered into the pump assembly [see pump assembly Group 12.06, artifact, and 12.06-2]

4. Functionally integrated, motorized technology, beyond being compacted, a number of functions would be smoothly integrated into a single pump assembly, including piping and valving [see Group 12.01, artifact 12.01-2 and pump assembly 12.06-2]

This pump assembly stands as an example of advanced 4th wave fuel oil pump technology, compact and functionally integrated in heavy cast steel body.

A marker of the now rapidly approaching mature market years for high pressure, 100 psi. oil burner technology, leaving room for a new generation of ultra-high pressure, 200 psi. technology.

Industrial Significance:
Webster a respected US manufacturer of oil burner components, including ignition transformers [see ID#12.07-1 and 2] and oil pumps, would like Tuthill seek Canadian partners in the post WWII period to take advantage of the rapid growth of the oil heating market in Canada.


Compact fuel pump assembly

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Oil Pumps

Accession # HHCC.2006.152
Exhibit: Heating

A compact, functionally integrated fuel pump assembly for gun type, low pressure atomizing oil burner, equipped with Tuthill fuel oil pump, drive coupling, pressure regulating valve, fitments, and oil filter all executed in solid brass/bronze, , Fess, Model J18, Circa 1930, partial assembly only. [see also 12.06-10, ID#267]



Item: Compact fuel pump assembly
Manufacturer: Fess Oil Burner of Canada
Make: Fess
Model: J18

Technical Significance:
By the early 1930’s the Canadian oil heating industry was progressing well beyond simple, gravity feed, vaporizing oil-heating equipment [see Group 11,05 artifacts]. Having developed mechanical, low pressure atomizing machinery [see ID# 12.06-9], it was ready to move on to more efficient, cleaner and more reliable atomizing methods, to be found in the pressure-atomizing “gun” burner technology of the period.

This historic artifact models well the sophisticated engineering and design achievements of the period, in compact, functionally integrated fuel oil pump assemblies for low pressure atomizing oil burners.

Modelled here is the best of the offerings of the industry to Canadian home owners of the period – at least to those that could afford the best and the latest is advanced automatic home heating technology in the early 1930 – in the midst of national economic depression.

A superb example of what was now possible, given the advances in oil atomizing technology, metallurgy, manufacturing and fabrication methods of the day.

Exemplified, too, is a new era of industrial craftsmanship with an eye for a new of eye-catching and pleasing industrial styling.

Seen here is a new generation of mechanical equipment, targeted on the hearts and minds of the Canadian homeowner, equipment which was starting to loose the crude industrial machinery look, and develop a new aesthetic, one distancing its self from the factory floor look of a few years earlier [see 12.06-9].

What had been acquired by the industry was a new sense of how to smoothly integrate and articulate mechanisms traditionally of widely different functions [oil pumps, motors, fans and pressure valves] into a single functioning whole. A new kind of sophisticated entity had been created, one made all the more appealing to the early 20th century discriminating homeowner of good taste with the addition of polished brass fitments. See Note #2

The new gun style burner consisted of a direct drive, flange mounted motor, a Sirocco type high pressure fan to deliver primary air for combustion, a compact positive displacement, gear pump, an oil atomizing nozzle, high potential electrical transformer, and ignition electrodes..

Industrial Significance:
Fess Oil Burners of Canada [later the John Wood Company, Toronto] became a major player in the development of the automatic oil heating industry, starting in the late 1920’s

Capitalizing on the sales potential of the new more compact and reliable “gun” type technology, the Fess J series of automatic oil burners would be representative of a new generation of highly innovative equipment, taking advantage of the newly emerging Canadian market in the early 1930’s.

Its Model J series of gun type, pressure atomizing burners, in their characteristic black-green, would be a familiar site in the basements of the well-to-do across much of central Canada in the 30’s.

The industry was moving to more compact, functionally integrated, unitary equipment configurations, away from the industrial machinery look. With the advent of the high pressure gun burner, the basic oil burner configuration had been established which, with many modifications and enhancements, would largely characterize the field through to the end of the 20th century.


8K volt ignition transformer

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Ignition Transformers

Accession # HHCC.2006.131
Exhibit: Heating

An 8,000 volt, electric spark, ignition transformers, in gloss black steel case with brass nameplate. Such devices in the home and the sparks they generated would be a source of great public mystery and often apprehension in the early years of the 20th century. Yet, they would be the true heroes of early technology for the Canadian home; without them the mechanical wonders of the period would not have been possible, the internal combustion engine, the automobile, and automatic home heating. Webster, Circa 1936.



Item: 8K volt ignition transformer
Manufacturer: Webster Electric Co., Racine, Wis.
Make: Webster
Model: 20-D F
Features: Original wire connector illustrating electrical trade practices of the times

Chrome plated cameo styled, brass nameplate, highly decorate with logo.

Technical Significance:
In a period of increasingly sophisticated mechanical contrivances, the development of electrical apparatus – including reliable, efficient high voltage ignition transformers and electric motors tended, for the most part, to lag well behind the mechanical mechanisms which they supported.

The engineering and manufacturing challenge was to build an electrical transformer, to operate on 110 volts alternating current [the then accepted standard for hydro electrification in Canada], one that would create a sufficiently hot spark, about 8,000 to 10,000 volts, needed to reliably ignite an atomised oil vapor and air mixture.

Little of a theoretical practical nature was known in the early years of the 20th century about the design of electrical equipment, certainly not high voltage transformers. The principles of alternating electrical circuits, as well as those of magnetic circuits were little understood, by those who must apply them.

Farada’s experiments of the 1840’s and 50 had only been translated into the mathematical formula needed for precise engineering design in the 1870’s. And Steinmetz would not set out the basic parameters for the design of electromagnetic circuits until the early years of the 20th century. But the market place could not wait, engineering design proceeded empirically, with the knowledge available – with much trial and error.

The toe crushing weight and size of these early specimens [15 to 20 lbs] is a reminder of the crude design criteria employed and the materials available, especially the crude dielectric materials for the insulation of wire and coil bundles operating at high potential levels. As a result electrical failure was common, with all the accompanying dangers of un-ignited explosive mixtures being pumped into the furnace fire box.

Of special significance is this, long obsolete, 25 cycle, AC specimen. Once the standard in Ontario, 25 cycle equipment was heavier and bulkier than its 60 cycle counter part.

Industrial Significance:
By the mid 1930’s the future of the Canadian oil heat industry was assured of a long period of solid growth. With hydro electrification now well advanced in many urban areas in Canada, the desire for automatic, home heating was almost universal, and with it the pressure to engineer high voltage ignition devices in Canada, at reduced cost and improved reliability and performance – See ID# 256 and 257.


10K volt ignition transformer

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Ignition Transformers

Accession # HHCC.2006.132
Exhibit: Heating

A 10,000 volt, electric spark, ignition transformers, in non-ferro-magnetic, brass case in gloss black enamel, manufactured and stencilled for Fess Oil Burners of Canada, an acknowledged early pioneer and Canadian market leader. Such high voltage devices in the home would be a source of great public mystery and often apprehension in the early years of the 20th century. But without the electric spark the mechanical wonders of the age would not have been possible, the internal combustion engine, the automobile, and automatic home heating. Webster, Circa 1938.



Item: 10K volt ignition transformer
Manufacturer: Webster Electric Co., Racine, Wis.
Make: Webster
Model: 27D13
Features: Original wire connector and cable stub, illustrating electrical trade practices of the times; Chrome plated, classical oval, brass nameplate, highly decorate with Fess logo, torch held high.

Technical Significance:
In a period of increasingly sophisticated mechanical contrivances, the development of electrical apparatus – including reliable, efficient high voltage ignition devices [transformers] and electric motors tended, for the most part, to lag well behind the mechanical mechanisms which they supported.

The engineering and manufacturing challenge was to build an electrical transformer, to operate on 110 volts alternating current [the then accepted standard for hydro electrification in Canada], one that would create a sufficiently hot spark, about 8,000 to 10,000 volts, needed to reliably ignite an atomised oil vapour and air mixture.

Little of a theoretical nature was known in the early years of the 20th century about the design of electrical equipment, certainly not high voltage transformers. The principles of alternating electrical circuits, as well as those of magnetic circuits were little understood, by those who must apply them.

Farada’s experiments of the 1840’s and 50 had only been translated into the mathematical formula needed for precise engineering design in the 1870’s. And Steinmetz would not set out the basic parameters for the design of electromagnetic circuits until the early years of the 20th century. But the market place could not wait, engineering design proceeded empirically, with the knowledge available – with much trial and error. The cost would be in reliability and performance standards

The toe crushing weight and size of these early specimens [25 lbs] is a reminder of the crude design criteria employed, and the materials available, especially the crude dielectric materials for the insulation of wire and coil bundles operating at these high potential levels. As a result electrical failure was common, with all the accompanying dangers posed by un-ignited explosive mixtures being pumped into the furnace fire box.

Of special significance is this 25 cycle specimen. Once the standard in Ontario, 25 cycle equipment was heavier and bulkier than its 60 cycle counter part. Frequency standardization in Ontario, a project of monolithic proportion, now long forgotten was a technological marvel in its own right. It occurred, largely, in the latter half of the 1940’s

Industrial Significance:
A rare marker of the early years in the Canadian, automatic oil heating industry, this ignition transformer by the acknowledged, early US leader in transformer engineering, design and manufacturer, Webster Electric, was stencilled for Fess Oil Burners of Canada, then an acknowledged early pioneer and market leader in the engineering, design and manufacture of oil burners in Canada. The suggestion here is that there were no Canadian ignition transformer manufactures in the period.

By the mid 1930’s the future of the Canadian oil heat industry was assured of a long period of solid growth. With hydro electrification now well advanced in many urban areas in Canada, the desire for automatic, home heating was almost universal, and with it the pressure to engineer high voltage ignition in Canada, at reduced cost and improved reliability and performance – See ID# 256 and 257.


10Kv 60 cycle ignition transformer

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Ignition Transformers

Accession # HHCC.2006.133
Exhibit: Heating

A 10,000 volt, 60 cycle spark, ignition transformer, in ferro-magnetic, steel case in gloss black enamel, with long radius corners, reminiscent of the Art Deco style. Equipped with built in junction box, adjustable base and brown porcelain high tension insulators with screw terminals, it stands as an historic example of the work of early, Canadian, ignition transformer, speciality manufactures, tooling up for the now rapidly expanding, home heating market in Canada, Amalgamated Electric, 1960.



Item: 10Kv 60 cycle ignition transformer
Manufacturer: Jefferson Electric, Amalgamated Electric Corporati
Make: Jefferson
Model: Cat No. 638-241
Features: Original wire connector and cable stub, illustrating electrical trade practices of the times

Art Deco inspired, long radius. rounded corners

Technical Significance:
Early high voltage ignition transformers were built in non-ferro magnetic, brass enclosures [See ID# 255 and 256], considered necessary to isolate the enclosure from the electro magnetic circuit. Subsequent engineering studies confirmed the use of magnetic steel shells, as seen here – a cost saving feature for the manufacturer.

By the 1960’s the toe crushing weight of early ignition transformers [See ID# 255 and 256] had been reduced by 50%, due to advances in engineering design, the use of new inorganic dielectric, insulating materials able to with stand high voltages and surges, as well as as a consequence of frequency standardization [25 to 60 cycle]

Industrial Significance:
The smoothly rounded, long radius corners, giving this device a distinctly modern Art Deco look, is also a marker of the advanced, production manufacturing methods of the 1960’s

The early patent numbers are somewhat surprising [1930 to 1932], suggest that there was little new in the technology, which could be patented, through the ensuing years to the 1960’s, the major advances being made in materials and manufacturing methods.

By the 1960’s the Canadian automatic oil heating industry was into supplying a major after-market, for parts and upgraded equipment. This ignition transformer is a marker of those times, built with adaptable, slotted base-plate, making it readily adaptable to a number of different oil burner manufacturer’s applications.

The increasingly wide range of different physical configurations, as well as different technologies appearing on the Canadian oil heating market by the 1960’s, demonstrated the immense inventiveness characterizing the Canadian automatic oil heating industry of the times. As a result, Canadian ignition transformer manufactures were called upon to adapt their deigns to many different configurations, in order to meet the needs of original equipment manufacturers, as well as the diversity of forms required to economically service the after market [See also ID# 258].

Much of the credibility of the Canadian oil heat industry would rest on its ability to service the after-market promptly, efficiently and at a cost homeowners could afford. Motors, high voltage ignition transformer and electrodes, as well as high pressure oil atomizing nozzles and oil pumps were all casualties of normal ware and tear, often breaking down as a result of prolonged periods of cold Canadian winter weather. A substantial service industry in towns and cities across the country would develop by the 1960’s, with the challenge of maintaining a stock of replacement parts in the many configurations required for emergency, “no-heat” service.


10Kv 60 cycle ignition transformer

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Ignition Transformers

Accession # HHCC.2006.134
Exhibit: Heating

A 10,000 volt, 60 cycle spark, ignition transformer, in ferro-magnetic, steel case in gloss black enamel, with long radius corners, reminiscent of the Art Deco style. Equipped with hinged base-plate and enclosed high tension insulators with adjustable brass pressure contacts and built in junction box, it stands as an historic example of the immense diversity and inventiveness of the Canadian oil heat industry during its years of post W.W.II rapid growth, Allison 1964.



Item: 10Kv 60 cycle ignition transformer
Manufacturer: Allanson Armature Mfg Co. Ltd, Toronto
Make: Allanson
Model: Cat No. 521, ty
Features: Original wire connector and cable stubs, illustrating electrical trade practices of the times

Art Deco inspired, long radius. rounded corners

Technical Significance:
Early high voltage ignition transformers were built in non-ferro magnetic, brass enclosures [See ID# 255 and 256], considered necessary to isolate the enclosure from the electro magnetic circuit. Subsequent engineering studies confirmed the appropriate use of magnetic steel shells, as seen here – a cost saving feature for the manufacturer.

By the 1960’s the toe crushing weight of early ignition transformers [See ID# 255 and 256] had been reduced by 50%, due to advances in engineering design, the use of new inorganic dielectric, insulating materials able to with stand high voltages and surges, as well as as a consequence of frequency standardization [25 to 60 cycle]

Industrial Significance:
The Canadian automatic oil heating industry was expanding rapidly in the 1960’s. The Allanson, Armature Mfg. Co., having made its name in the manufacture electric armatures for the automotive industry, for use in generators and starters would see in the heating industry opportunities for horizontal expansion, making use of its core skills – electrical coil winding.

By the 1960’s the Canadian automatic oil heating industry was into supplying a major after-market, for parts and upgraded equipment. This ignition transformer designed with a hinged base and enclosed high tension connections stands as an example of the range of configurations needed in transformers to meet the diverse engineering and design requirements of the period

The increasingly wide range of different physical configurations, as well as different technologies appearing on the Canadian oil heating market by the 1960’s, demonstrated the immense inventiveness characterizing the Canadian automatic oil heating industry of the times. As a result, Canadian ignition transformer manufactures were called upon to adapt their designs to many different configurations, in order to meet the needs of original equipment manufacturers, as well as the diversity of forms required to economically service the after-market [See also ID# 258].

Much of the credibility of the Canadian oil heat industry would rest on its ability to service the after-market promptly, efficiently, and at a cost homeowners could afford. Motors, high voltage ignition transformer and electrodes, as well as high pressure oil atomizing nozzles and oil pumps were all casualties of normal ware and tear, often short lived, often breaking down as a result of prolonged periods of cold Canadian winter weather. A substantial service industry in towns and cities across the country would develop by the 1960’s, with the challenge of maintaining a stock of replacement parts in the many configurations required for emergency, “no-heat” service.

The smoothly rounded, long radius corners, giving this device a distinctly modern Art Deco look, is a marker of the advanced, production manufacturing methods of the 1960’s


Combustion controller for oil

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.102
Exhibit: Heating

A 1920’s automated combustion controller for Canadian oil fired, home heating systems, with Bourdon tube actuated mercury switch for “pressure ignition control” and “Adjustatherm,” safety cut-out, marketed in Ottawa by Shaver Bros, Type SDP 22, , Mercoid Corp., Circa 1929. [partial assembly only]



Item: Combustion controller for oil
Manufacturer: Mercoid Corp. Chicago Ill.
Make: Mercoid
Model: Type SDP22
Features: – high style, brass name plate with logo and graphics in red and black
– Stencilled for Shaver Bros Ottawa

Technical Significance:
– Representative of the earliest automatic combustion control technology for oil fired domestic heating systems marketed in Canada, using oil pressure to actuate electric ignition transformer at predetermined set point, and a temperature sensing stack switch, as safety device, in case of flame failure. See schematic diagram.
– Representative, too, of the earliest complex systems introduced into the Canadian home. See Note #1

Industrial Significance:
– Mercoid, a name no doubt derived from the company’s reliance on mercury bulb switching, would prove to be a time honoured one in the HVACR field as it evolved over the 20th century and into the 21st. Current catalogues show similar Bourdon tube driven mercury bulb switching, as used in this 1920’s device [See Dwyer Instruments Web site]


Combustion controller for oil

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.103
Exhibit: Heating

A 1920’s automated combustion controller for Canadian oil fired, home heating systems, with oil pressure actuated, pancake style bellows safety switch, electric thermal safety lock-out with manual reset and flapper valve actuated mercury bulb switch, enclosed in stylish, heavy cast steel enclosure with highly decorated cover plate, Hart Oil Heat, Preferred Oil burners Inc., Circa 1929.



Item: Combustion controller for oil
Manufacturer: Hart Oil Heat, Preferred Oil burners Inc., Peoria, Ill.
Make: Hart Oil Heat, Preferred Oil Burners
Model: Partially obliterated
Features:
– high style, painted stencilled cover plate in red, gold and black
– Original wiring harness
– Original oil piping connectors

Technical Significance:
– Representative of the earliest automatic combustion control technology for oil fired domestic heating systems marketed in Canada
– Characteristic of a period of embryonic technological development in any field, this automated combustion controller and safety switch further demonstrates the array of mechanisms, new and novel being experimented with. From the perspective of the early 21st century, without the benefit of documentation or schematic diagram, it is not at all clear even how the various interacting and mutually supporting component parts of this panel operated to variously provide the required level of automation and safety protection required for public comfort and safety.
– Representative, of the earliest complex systems introduced into the Canadian home. See Note #1


Combustion controller for oil

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.104
Exhibit: Heating

A 1920’s automated combustion controller for oil fired, home heating systems, equipped with electro-magnetic actuated, tilting mercury bulb line voltage contractor and thermal electric safety lock-out with manual reset. Paired with a stack mounted, bimetal, automatic heat-sensing switch, it would set a new standard of performance, comfort, reliability and safety for Canadian homeowners. Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., Model 77, Circa 1929. [1 of 2, See also ID# 231]



Item: Combustion controller for oil
Manufacturer: Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., Elkhart Ind.
Make: Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls
Model: Number 77, Model 125
Features:
– Gloss black cabinet
– Sophisticated name plate and logo in black, red and chrome
– Original wiring harness

Technical Significance:
– With the “Locksmith” system, compact and elegant in concept, design and construction the Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co. would introduce a new generation of advanced engineered combustion safety controls [c.f., ID # 226 and 227] and take over acknowledged leadership in the field of automatic oil heating for the Canadian home.
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp, moved to adopt an integrated systems approach, with its companion stack mounted heat sensor [ID # 229] and room thermostat [ID #215. The system stopped and started the oil burner, on call from the room thermostat, through a line voltage, electric solenoid actuated mercury bulb switch. Ne for the times, a compact thermally timed interlock, with manual reset performed the safety protection function.
– While simple, by contrast to the next generation of combustion controllers [See 234], these automated, electrical control devices were non-the-less something of a marvel, given the embryonic nature of engineering systems know-how of the times.
– Evident in this new generation of automated electrical devices was the introduction of electronic components, heralding the period, then 40 years or so ahead, in which combustion controllers would be primarily electronic devices, for example employing photo-electric sensing. Here a simple electronic condenser had been added to the analogue electrical switching mechanism, in order to help control arching, see Company Manual Ref #1 p.42
– These embryonic, electric automated systems were representative of the earliest introduction of complex systems into the Canadian home. See Note #2

Industrial Significance:
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., would launch a new generation of combustion control and safety technology with their “Locksmith” system. Compact and elegant in concept, design and construction it would prove to be the market leader. Later Time-O-Stat would be bought out by Honeywell to carry on in the position of widely acknowledged industry leader in HVACR automation and control
– Time-O-Stat Lockswitch and Stack Switch technology was widely used on both mechanical atomizing [See collection display item H2] and pressure atomizing [See collection display item H4] automatic oil heating systems in Canada throughout the early years of the industry.
– These control systems were a source of wonderment and no little fear for the Canadian public, as well as for many of the tradesmen who were called upon to understand, install and repair them, as well as to advise the homeowner on their proper, satisfactory operation.
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., would be among the first technology suppliers to the HVACR field, who understanding the increasing complexity of their automation technology, would provide service, installation and logic, trouble shooting guides.


Flame monitoring device

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.105
Exhibit: Heating

A 1920’s high tech, automated, flame monitoring device for oil fired, home heating systems. Paired with the manufacturer’s “Locksmith” electromagnetic combustion controller [see ID#228], it operated using a helical bimetal spring to actuate twin mercury bulb switches, in order to control starting and running operations, ignition duration, flame failure and safety recycling time, Model 48H, Time-O-Stat Controls Co., Elkhart Ind. [I of 2, see ID# 236]



Item: Flame monitoring device
Manufacturer: Time-O-Stat Controls Co., Elkhart Ind.
Make: Time-O-Stat Controls
Model: Model 48H
Features:
– Gloss black, pressed steel cabinet with built in electrical junction box
– Sophisticated name plate and logo in black, red and chrome
– Instructions stencilled to the inside of cover is a reminder of the complexity of the system, the dangers and risks of malpractice and the need for informed owners and operators
– Original wiring connector

Technical Significance:
– The controller, with twin, tilting mercury bulb switches, stands as a marker of the period in the development of early line voltage automated, alternating current switching devices for inductive loads [electric motors]. Here the mercury tube became the preferred switching medium.
– The charred inside surface of the control cover shows the effect of an electrical fire at one point, not uncommon in early switching devices used on high starting current A.C. induction loads [electric motors]
– With the “Locksmith” system, and stack located heat monitor, compact and elegant in concept, design and construction the Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co. would introduce a new generation of advanced engineered combustion safety controls [c.f., ID # 226 and 227] and take over acknowledged leadership in the field of automatic oil heating for the Canadian home.
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp, later Time-O-Stat Controls Co.moved to adopt an integrated systems approach, with its companion stack mounted heat sensor [ID # 229] and room thermostat [ID #215. The system stopped and started the oil burner, on call from the room thermostat, through a line voltage, electric solenoid actuated mercury bulb switch. New for the times, a compact thermally timed interlock, with manual reset performed the safety protection function.
– While simple, by contrast to the next generation of combustion controllers [See 234], these automated, electrical control devices were non-the-less something of a marvel, given the embryonic nature of engineering systems know-how of the times.
– These embryonic, electric automated systems were representative of the earliest introduction of complex systems into the Canadian home. See Note #2

Industrial Significance:
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., would launch a new generation of combustion control and safety technology with their “Locksmith” system. Compact and elegant in concept, design and construction it would prove to be the market leader. Later Time-O-Stat would be bought out by Honeywell to carry on in the position of widely acknowledged industry leader in HVACR automation and control
– Time-O-Stat Lockswitch and Stack Switch technology was widely used on both mechanical atomizing [See collection display item H2] and pressure atomizing [See collection display item H4] automatic oil heating systems in Canada throughout the early years of the industry.
– These control systems were a source of wonderment and no little fear for the Canadian public, as well as for many of the tradesmen who were called upon to understand, install and repair them, as well as to advise the homeowner on their proper, satisfactory operation.
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., would be among the first technology suppliers to the HVACR field, who understanding the increasing complexity of their automation technology, would provide service, installation and logic, trouble shooting guides.


Control and switch panel

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.106
Exhibit: Heating

An 1920’s, field assembled electrical control and switch panel for oil fired, home heating systems, equipped with Time-O-Stat, Locksmith control [See ID# 230] and Square D, fused, manual, safety, disconnect switch, mounted on handmade pine panel board with walnut finish and fire protective covering; an icon of its times reflecting something of the trade practices and public expectations of the period, as well as the attention given to public safety, Circa 1929.



Item: Control and switch panel
Manufacturer: Unknown, Possibly Howard Oliver Aurora Ontario
Make: Shop fabricated

Technical Significance:
– The panel board is an icon of its time, reflecting something of electric trade practices and public expectations for craftsmanship in the early years of the 20th century, an embryonic period in the electrification of Canadian homes and the installation of electric equipment.
– The attention to styling and detail in the construction of the panel reflected the culture of the day. While relatively crude in construction it reflected the expectation for craftsmanship of the period, including mitred corners, finishing mouldings and furniture style walnut finish
– Here evidence of what might be seen as “over design” is every where evident. And for good reason, the public were fascinated but nervous about new unfamiliar technology in the home, especially electrical equipment that operated automatically, without the touch of human hand.
– The danger of fire and electrocution were matters of public concern. The robustly designed equipment, the evidence of government certification and equipment testing standards, as well as evidence of competent field practices and craftsmanship were intended to demonstrate due care, caution and respect in the public good.
– With the “Locksmith” system, compact and elegant in concept, design and construction by Time-O-Stat Controls Co. would introduce a new generation of advanced engineered combustion safety controls [c.f., ID # 226 and 227] and take over acknowledged leadership in the field of automatic oil heating for the Canadian home.
– The heavy steel encased, fused “safety”, disconnect switch, mounted on fire proofed panel was designed to give the customer a feeling of perfect confidence that all possible steps had been taken for the safety of the household
– Approved field practice, enforced by electrical inspectors, required that such panel boards be installed at the entrance to the furnace or boiler room within easy reach, allowing the homeowner full control and access, in order to shut down the system manually in the case of emergency.
– These embryonic, electric automated systems were representative of the earliest introduction of complex systems into the Canadian home. See Note #2

Industrial Significance:
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., would launch a new generation of combustion control and safety technology with their “Locksmith” system. Compact and elegant in concept, design and construction it would prove to be the market leader. Later Time-O-Stat would be bought out by Honeywell to carry on in the position of widely acknowledged industry leader in HVACR automation and control
– Time-O-Stat Lockswitch and Stack Switch technology was widely used on both mechanical atomizing [See collection display item H2] and pressure atomizing [See collection display item H4] automatic oil heating systems in Canada throughout the early years of the industry.
– These control systems were a source of wonderment and no little fear for the Canadian public, as well as for many of the tradesmen who were called upon to understand, install and repair them, as well as to advise the homeowner on their proper, satisfactory operation.
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., would be among the first technology suppliers to the HVACR field, who understanding the increasing complexity of their automation technology, would provide service, installation and logic, trouble shooting guides.


Combustion controller for oil

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.107
Exhibit: Heating

A 1920’s automated combustion controller for oil fired, home heating systems, equipped with electro-magnetic actuated, tilting mercury bulb line voltage contractor and thermal electric safety lock-out with manual reset. Paired with a stack mounted, bimetal, automatic heat-sensing switch, it would set a new standard of performance, comfort, reliability and safety for Canadian homeowners. Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., Model 125, No. 77, Circa 1929, missing internal component parts. [2 of 2, See also ID# 228]



Item: Combustion controller for oil
Manufacturer: Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., Elkhart Ind.
Make: Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls
Model: Number 77, Model 125
Features:
– Condenser separately found with the control, likely removed for testing and or replacement, No, M-377; Capacity.15 to 20 M. F. , Date Feb 8, 1929
– Gloss black cabinet
– Sophisticated name plate and logo in black, red and chrome

Technical Significance:
– With the “Locksmith” system, compact and elegant in concept, design and construction the Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co. would introduce a new generation of advanced engineered combustion safety controls [c.f., ID # 226 and 227] and take over acknowledged leadership in the field of automatic oil heating for the Canadian home.
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp, moved to adopt an integrated systems approach, with its companion stack mounted heat sensor [ID # 229] and room thermostat [ID #215. The system stopped and started the oil burner, on call from the room thermostat, through a line voltage, electric solenoid actuated mercury bulb switch. Ne for the times, a compact thermally timed interlock, with manual reset performed the safety protection function.
– While simple, by contrast to the next generation of combustion controllers [See 234], these automated, electrical control devices were non-the-less something of a marvel, given the embryonic nature of engineering systems know-how of the times.
– Evident in this new generation of automated electrical devices was the introduction of electronic components, heralding the period, then 40 years or so ahead, in which combustion controllers would be primarily electronic devices, for example employing photo-electric sensing. Here a simple electronic condenser had been added to the analogue electrical switching mechanism, in order to help control arching, see Company Manual Ref #1 p.42
– These embryonic, electric automated systems were representative of the earliest introduction of complex systems into the Canadian home. See Note #2

Industrial Significance:
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., would launch a new generation of combustion control and safety technology with their “Locksmith” system. Compact and elegant in concept, design and construction it would prove to be the market leader. Later Time-O-Stat would be bought out by Honeywell to carry on in the position of widely acknowledged industry leader in HVACR automation and control
– Time-O-Stat Lockswitch and Stack Switch technology was widely used on both mechanical atomizing [See collection display item H2] and pressure atomizing [See collection display item H4] automatic oil heating systems in Canada throughout the early years of the industry.
– These control systems were a source of wonderment and no little fear for the Canadian public, as well as for many of the tradesmen who were called upon to understand, install and repair them, as well as to advise the homeowner on their proper, satisfactory operation.
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., would be among the first technology suppliers to the HVACR field, who understanding the increasing complexity of their automation technology, would provide service, installation and logic, trouble shooting guides.


Combustion controller for oil

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.108
Exhibit: Heating

A late 1920’s, one-piece, trend setting, automated combustion controller for oil fired, home heating systems, elegantly named the “Pyrotherm”, it was unitary in design, stack mounted, helical bimetal heat actuated, performing essentially the same functions as the earlier two-piece technology [See ID#231 and ID#229], but with greater precision. The device was a marvel of inter-connected mechanical, electrical and electro-magnetic components, operating three mercury bulb switches; Mercoid, Type 8M, Circa 1930.



Item: Combustion controller for oil
Manufacturer: The Mercoid Corp.,Chicago
Make: Mercoid
Model: Type 8M

Technical Significance:
– The “Pyrotherm”, introduced by Mercoid, an early innovator in the field of heating and refrigeration controllers, would trigger a world change, setting the stage for much of the next 30 years of combustion, safely control engineering
– The device was a marvel of inter-connected mechanical, electrical and electro-magnetic components, operating three mercury bulb switches
– A significant design consideration in the development of unitary, stack-mounted controls was the high ambient temperatures to which they were subjected. High temperature wiring and heat shielding were new design requirements to be dealt with.
– These embryonic, electric automated systems were representative of the earliest introduction of complex systems into the Canadian home. See Note #2

Industrial Significance:
– By the standards of that day the introduction of one-piece, compact, electro-magnetic combustion controllers represented a world change in precise engineering design and manufacture, requiring new materials and engineering know how.
– These control systems were a source of wonderment and no little fear for the Canadian public, as well as for many of the tradesmen who were called upon to understand, install and repair them, as well as to advise the homeowner on their proper, satisfactory operation.
– Mercoid, a name no doubt derived from the company’s reliance on mercury bulb switching, would prove to be a time honoured one in the HVACR field, as it evolved over the 20th century and into the next – see Dwyer Instruments web site


Radiant heat sensor

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.109
Exhibit: Heating

The “Protectostat”, a late 1940’s radiant heat sensor for combustion safety control. It would set new standard for combustion safety for higher firing rate, oil atomizing heating systems found in large Canadian estate homes, institutions and small industrial applications. Sited directly on the fire, it used a black metal diaphragm to mechanically actuate a low voltage control system through a Minneapolis Honeywell “Protectorelay”, Minneapolis Honeywell, Type A, Circa 1948.



Item: Radiant heat sensor
Manufacturer: Minneapolis Honeywell Regulator Co.
Make: Minneapolis Honeywell
Model: Type A
Features:
– Handsome corporate name plate and logo in red, black and chrome

Technical Significance:
– Mounted adjacent to the burner fire tube, the device immediately sensed the radiant heat of combustion, providing here-to-for unheard of rapid response needed for the safe and satisfactory operation of larger oil fired boilers and furnaces, operating in the range of 3 to 12 gallons per minute of number 2 or 3 fuel oil.
– The Protectostat operated a Minneapolis Protectorelay, consisting of electro-magnetic switches and a thermal safety, automatic cut out timing device.
– The Protectostat with Protectorelay would become the standard of the industry for institutional and small commercial and industrial, automatic oil fired systems until the introduction of photo-electric eye, electronic sensing technology in the 1950’s, see reference.
– These embryonic, electric automated systems were representative of the early introduction of complex systems into Canadian homes and places of business. See Note #2

Industrial Significance:
– The potential explosive power of several gallons per minute of high pressure vapourized fuel oil being sprayed into a combustion chamber is awesome and a source of fear to system owners, operators and service people alike. The importance of fast response for safety shut down in case of delayed ignition on unattended, automatic systems is paramount. The development of the radiant heat sensor opened up new applications for automatic operation of boilers, where operating engineers in constant attendance became unnecessary under certain conditions.


Combustion controller ‘Honeywell’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.110
Exhibit: Heating

An example of innovative, mid 20th century combustion safety control technology that would dominate the field of household automatic oil heating through much of the balance of the century; stack mounted, bimetal heat actuated safety switching, electro-magnetic relay controlled; equipped for intermittent ignition, heat anticipation, 3 wire room thermostat, Type RA117A, 25 cycle, Minneapolis Honeywell, Toronto Circa 1945. [See also ID#235]



Item: Combustion controller ‘Honeywell’
Manufacturer: Minneapolis Honeywell Regulator Co.
Make: Minneapolis Honeywell
Model: RA117A
Features:
– Pristine enclosure in high gloss grey, a break in tradition with the “black look” of heating control devices
– Handsome corporate monograph in distinctive Minneapolis Honeywell red
– Original wiring diagram on inside of cover

Technical Significance:
– Of special significance is the 25cycle engineering of this controller, built for the Ontario market in the period prior to frequency standardization, which took place in the closing years of the 1940’s in much of the province. These devices being electro-magnetic were frequency sensitive. The large rear mounted transformer used to provide control circuit power tells the story. The 6o cycle equivalent is shown on item ID#235.
– With the introduction of new generation of integrated, relatively reliable control systems for household heating in the early 1940’s a new era of mass produced technology had arrived, setting the stage for a new, Canadian mass market.
– It combined up-dated, bimetal combustion control technology with the three wire, heat anticipating thermostat, – providing comfort, safety and reliability levels unheard of a decade earlier.
– By the early 1940’s Minneapolis Honeywell’s unitary designed, combustion controller, the RA117A Protectorelay, had arguably become a kind of standard of achievement for the home, automatic, oil heating industry in much of Canada.
– The fragile and potentially poisonous mercury bulb switching of earlier combustion controls was replaced here with quiet, reliable, electro-magnetic and bimetal driven snap action contacts,
– A significant design consideration in the development of unitary, stack-mounted controls was the high ambient temperatures to which they were subjected. High temperature wiring and heat shielding were new design requirements to be dealt with.
– These embryonic, electric automated systems were representative of the earliest introduction of complex systems into the Canadian home. See Note #2

Industrial Significance:
– This pristine control, un-used, was a factory reconditioned, control by Minneaplolis Honeywell, Toronto. It exemplifying the great care taken in recycling of equipment, part of the practice and conservation ethic of the day, delivering
reliable reconditioned equipment to a market that desperately needed it .
– It was a period quite different from that which would exist towards the end of the century, where damaged and un-reliable equipment would be declared expendable, too costly or superseded, as a result of rapid technological, design or manufacturing changes.
– By the mid 1940’s the HVACR industry recognized that a new era in the popularization of automatic home heating equipment was under way. Unitary designed, oil home heating equipment had evolved into a “home appliance”, on which many householders would now become heavily dependent.
– This new, widespread dependency on automatic heating, throughout Canada’s long cold winters, would require the industry to strive for enhanced performance in matters of reliable, maintainable and readily serviceable equipment, with readily obtainable replacement parts.
– Public expectations for 24 hour emergency service was part of the new world of popular technology that had been created. Honeywell and other manufacturers would respond by providing a line of rebuilt controls for field service people to stock for emergency purposes.


Combustion controller ‘Honeywell’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.111
Exhibit: Heating

An example of innovative, mid 20th century combustion safety control technology that would dominate the field of household automatic oil heating through much of the balance of the century; stack mounted, bimetal heat actuated safety switching, electro-magnetic relay controlled; equipped for intermittent ignition, heat anticipation, 3 wire room thermostat, Type RA117, 60 cycle, Minneapolis Honeywell, Toronto Circa 1948. [See also ID#234]



Item: Combustion controller ‘Honeywell’
Manufacturer: Minneapolis Honeywell Regulator Co.
Make: Minneapolis Honeywell
Model: RA117A
Features:
– Cabinet in black “ripple” finish part of the look of the day, based on the metalic coatings technology of the day
– Handsome corporate monograph in distinctive Minneapolis Honeywell Red
– Original instruction sheet
– Original field installed wiring ends
– Original porcelain cable box connector
– Original wiring diagram on inside of cover

Technical Significance:
– Of special significance is the 60 cycle engineering of this controller, built for the Ontario market following frequency standardization, which took place in the closing years of the 1940’s in much of the province. These devices, being electro-magnetic, were frequency sensitive. The much smaller rear mounted transformer used to provide control circuit power tells the story. The 25 cycle equivalent is shown on item ID#234.
– With the introduction of new generation of integrated, relatively reliable control systems for household heating in the early 1940’s a new era of mass produced technology had arrived, setting the stage for a new, Canadian mass market.
– It combined up-dated, bimetal combustion control technology with the three wire, heat anticipating thermostat, – providing comfort, safety and reliability levels unheard of a decade earlier.
– By the early 1940’s Minneapolis Honeywell’s unitary designed, combustion controller, the RA117A Protectorelay, had arguably become a kind of standard of achievement for the home, automatic, oil heating industry in much of Canada.
– The fragile and potentially poisonous mercury bulb switching of earlier combustion controls was replaced here with quiet, reliable, electro-magnetic and bimetal driven snap action contacts,
– A significant design consideration in the development of unitary, stack-mounted controls was the high ambient temperatures to which they were subjected. High temperature wiring and heat shielding were new design requirements to be dealt with.
– These embryonic, electric automated systems were representative of the earliest introduction of complex systems into the Canadian home. See Note #2

Industrial Significance:
– The control cabinet cover in black “ripple” finish is representative of the trendy look of the day, based on the new, metallic coatings technology of the period
– By the mid 1940’s the HVACR industry recognized that a new era in the popularization of automatic home heating equipment was under way. Unitary designed, oil home heating equipment had evolved into a “home appliance”, on which many householders would now become heavily dependent.
– This new, widespread dependency on automatic heating, throughout Canada’s long cold winters, would require the industry to strive for enhanced performance in matters of reliable, maintainable and readily serviceable equipment, with readily obtainable replacement parts.
– Public expectations for 24 hour emergency service was part of the new world of popular technology that had been created. Honeywell and other manufacturers would respond by providing a line of rebuilt controls for field service people to stock for emergency purposes.


Flame monitoring device ‘Time-O-Stat’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Fuel Flow and Combustion Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.112
Exhibit: Heating

A 1920’s high tech, automated, flame monitoring device for oil fired, home heating systems. Paired with the manufacturer’s “Locksmith” electromagnetic combustion controller [see ID#228], it operated using a helical bimetal spring to actuate twin mercury bulb switches, in order to control starting and running operations, ignition duration, flame failure and safety recycling time, Model 48H, Time-O-Stat Controls Co., Elkhart Ind. [I of 2, see ID# 229]



Item: Flame monitoring device ‘Time-O-Stat’
Manufacturer: Time-O-Stat Controls Co., Elkhart Ind.
Make: Time-O-Stat Controls
Model: Model 48H
Features:
– Gloss black, pressed steel cabinet with built in electrical junction box
– Sophisticated name plate and logo in black, red and chrome
– Instructions stencilled to the inside of cover is a reminder of the complexity of the system, the dangers and risks of malpractice and the need for informed owners and operators

Technical Significance:
– The controller, with twin, tilting mercury bulb switches, stands as a marker of the period in the development of early line voltage automated, alternating current switching devices for inductive loads [electric motors]. Here the mercury tube became the preferred switching medium.
– The charred inside surface of the control cover shows the effect of an electrical fire at one point, not uncommon in early switching devices used on high starting current A.C. induction loads [electric motors]
– With the “Locksmith” system, and stack located heat monitor, compact and elegant in concept, design and construction the Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co. would introduce a new generation of advanced engineered combustion safety controls [c.f., ID # 226 and 227] and take over acknowledged leadership in the field of automatic oil heating for the Canadian home.
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp, later Time-O-Stat Controls Co.moved to adopt an integrated systems approach, with its companion stack mounted heat sensor [ID # 229] and room thermostat [ID #215. The system stopped and started the oil burner, on call from the room thermostat, through a line voltage, electric solenoid actuated mercury bulb switch. New for the times, a compact thermally timed interlock, with manual reset performed the safety protection function.
– While simple, by contrast to the next generation of combustion controllers [See 234], these automated, electrical control devices were non-the-less something of a marvel, given the embryonic nature of engineering systems know-how of the times.
– These embryonic, electric automated systems were representative of the earliest introduction of complex systems into the Canadian home. See Note #2

Industrial Significance:
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., would launch a new generation of combustion control and safety technology with their “Locksmith” system. Compact and elegant in concept, design and construction it would prove to be the market leader. Later Time-O-Stat would be bought out by Honeywell to carry on in the position of widely acknowledged industry leader in HVACR automation and control
– Time-O-Stat Lockswitch and Stack Switch technology was widely used on both mechanical atomizing [See collection display item H2] and pressure atomizing [See collection display item H4] automatic oil heating systems in Canada throughout the early years of the industry.
– These control systems were a source of wonderment and no little fear for the Canadian public, as well as for many of the tradesmen who were called upon to understand, install and repair them, as well as to advise the homeowner on their proper, satisfactory operation.
– Absolute Con-Tac-Tor Corp., later Time-O-Stat Controls Co., would be among the first technology suppliers to the HVACR field, who understanding the increasing complexity of their automation technology, would provide service, installation and logic, trouble shooting guides.


Double function temperature control

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – High Temperature Limit Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.113
Exhibit: Heating

A mid 20th century, state-of-the-art, double function, adjustable temperature control for home “winter air conditioner”. Used for automatically shutting down the system to prevent over heating, as well as to star and stop the furnace fan at air temperatures that would help ensure draft free comfort; equipped with helical bimetal heat sensor, twin, tilting mercury bulbs, mechanical brass linkage and manual fan on-off switch, fan and limit control, Type M80, Mercoid, 1938.



Item: Double function temperature control
Manufacturer: Mercoid Corporation, Chicago Ill.
Make: Mercoid
Model: Type M80
Features:
– Temperature calibration dial in red and gold
– Operating, adjustment instruction etched in gold on twin fibreboard insets
– Glass bezel
– Original wiring stubs with steel sheathed cable [BX] and heavy duty L box connectors

Technical Significance:
– A mid 20th century, dual function temperature controller, exquisitely crafted using the materials and engineering know-how of the immediate pre W.W.II years
– Designed for a new, emerging, yet still elite market for winter comfort, the “winter air conditioner”. Mercoid went to great lengths to show off its new, elite, automatic, dual temperature control technology, beautifully crafting with showy glass front panel and mechanical operating mechanism crafted in brass. It was to be a prestigious controller for the homeowner anxious, and able to afford the best that the HVACR industry of the times could provide, anxious too to be able to show it off for what it was, a piece of new technology ahead of its times.
– Air circulation was a matter of engineering concern, ensuring draft free comfort for homeowners not at all used to constantly moving air in the home. The key was the temperature at which the winter air conditioner’s fan would start circulating the pre-warmed air, and at what air temperature would the fan stop
– The manual fan switch was an important sales feature, too, allowing the homeowner to manually turn the system on in the summer time to circulate filtered air throughout the home [For an account of recommended industry practices of the time operation See, “Winter Air Heating and Winter Air conditioning”, John Norris McGraw-Hill 1950.
– It would be a period characterised by much research in the field of human comfort. its necessary and sufficient conditions and the means of creating it in Canada’s climate of weather extremes. Warm air heating research would become a legitimate topic for university, as well as industrial research with technical papers and how-to-do-it manuals to follow.
– Characteristic of the period and the emerging market for winter comfort was the creation of the National Warm Air Heating and Air Conditioning Association of Canada [forerunner of the Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Institute of Canada]. Their extensive set of engineering manuals produced through the 1950’and 60’s would be the standards of the field

Industrial Significance:
– The control of air movement in forced air, residential systems, to ensure safe comfortable conditions was and continues to be a challenge. With fixed, non modulating, forced air heating equipment, which characterizes the residential field, the control of air movement through the furnace and the home was accomplished with on-off switching of the fan motor. The goal is to ensure the furnace doesn’t over heat, as a result of low air quantity, but at the same time, the householder is not subject to the movement of unheated air through the house causing drafts.
– For the purpose of initially balancing the system, variable speed fan pulley drives were widely used to adjust fan speeds [see collection Group 12.11], until electrically variable speed, digital motor control technology became available.
– Two speed motors with double windings were also used in the 1950′ through 80’s, with two step controller to reduce air flow at low during start up and shut down.


Single function temperature control

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – High Temperature Limit Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.114
Exhibit: Heating

A mid 20th century, single function, adjustable temperature safety control for home “winter air conditioner”. Used for automatically shutting down the system to prevent over heating if, for example, the fan failed to come on allowing heat to build up in the furnace plennum beyond the safe operating point; equipped with helical bimetal heat sensor, single tilting mercury bulb line voltage switch, LA419, Minneapolis Honeywell, 1946. [1 of 2, similar to ID#239]



Item: Single function temperature control
Manufacturer: Minneapolis Honeywell Regulator Co. Toronto 17
Make: Minneapolis Honeywell
Model: LA419A1X
Features:
– Complete with original T. H. Oliver tag, marketed used LA419, H limit, operation OK
– Original label with wiring diagram and specifications
– With original swivel compression mounting device allowing the postioning of the temperature sensor in the furnace hot air plennum

Technical Significance:
– A mid 20th century, single function temperature limit safety controller exemplifying the materials and engineering know-how of the immediate pre W.W.II years.
– The Post W.W.II market for “winter air conditioning” was enormous and the industry sensed the potential, but there was still the public concern over the safety of all automatic equipment operating unattended in the home.
– The development of affordable, reliable high temperature limit automatic shut off control was a key to achieving market potential. Sales people, installers and service people would make a point of pointing out the safety features, why and how they worked. Some sales people would carry one of these safety controllers with them to clinch a sale.

Industrial Significance:
– The simplicity of the controller is surely a hallmark of the times, reflecting sophisticated engineering and manufacturing methods, as well as the availability of the engineering materials needed
– This controller may be one of the first class of products to be built in Canada by Minneapolis Honeywell, for the then rapidly growing market – see dateline in side cover “Toronto 17”
– Also made as a fan on-off controller, this series of limit safety controls by Honeywell would become the work horse of the industry throughout the major growth years of the winter air conditioner market in Canada, from the 1940’s through 60’s
– The original tag on the control tells the stories of the time, where controls were repaired and held in stock by service shops for quick replacement as needed.


Single function temperature control

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – High Temperature Limit Controls

Accession # HHCC.2006.115
Exhibit: Heating

A mid 20th century, single function, adjustable temperature safety control for home “winter air conditioner”. Used for automatically shutting down the system to prevent over heating if, for example, the fan failed to come on allowing heat to build up in the furnace plennum beyond the safe operating point; equipped with helical bimetal heat sensor, single tilting mercury bulb line voltage switch, LA419, Minneapolis Honeywell, 1946. [1 of 2 similar to ID#238]



Item: Single function temperature control
Manufacturer: Minneapolis Honeywell Regulator Co. Toronto 17
Make: Minneapolis Honeywell
Model: LA419A1X
Features:
– Original cable connector
– Original wiring harness stubs
– Original label with wiring diagram and specifications
– With original swivel compression mounting device allowing the postioning of the temperature sensor in the furnace hot air plennum

Technical Significance:
– A mid 20th century, single function temperature limit safety controller exemplifying the materials and engineering know-how of the immediate pre W.W.II years.
– The Post W.W.II market for “winter air conditioning” was enormous and the industry sensed the potential, but there was still the public concern over the safety of all automatic equipment operating unattended in the home.
– The development of affordable, reliable high temperature limit automatic shut off control was a key to achieving market potential. Sales people, installers and service people would make a point of pointing out the safety features, why and how they worked. Some sales people would carry one of these safety controllers with them to clinch a sale.

Industrial Significance:
– The simplicity of the controller is surely a hallmark of the times, reflecting sophisticated engineering and manufacturing methods, as well as the availability of the engineering materials needed
– This controller may be one of the first class of products to be built in Canada by Minneapolis Honeywell, for the then rapidly growing market – see dateline in side cover “Toronto 17”
– Also made as a fan on-off controller, this series of limit safety controls by Honeywell would become the work horse of the industry throughout the major growth years of the winter air conditioner market in Canada, from the 1940’s through 60’s
– The original cable connector and wiring stubs tells the stories of the trade practices and materials of the times.


Room thermostat ‘Mercoid’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Room Temperature Thermostats

Accession # HHCC.2006.089
Exhibit: Heating

An early, automatic room temperature control device, using an hydraulic bellows, temperature sensor, with mercury bulb, line voltage switching, stencilled for Williams-Oil-Matic Heating, Bloomington, Ill., promoted as “the world’s largest producer of automatic oil burners”. Temperature control devices of this genre, would introduce automation into the Canadian house hold and become markers of profound social and cultural change; Type 0104111, Mercoid Corp., Circa 1927.



Item: Room thermostat ‘Mercoid’
Manufacturer: Mercoid Corp., Chicago, Federal Warranted
Make: Mercoid for Williams Oil-0-Matic
Model: Type 0104111
Features:
– built in line voltage connection junction box

Technical Significance:
* The competing, thermostat, technologies of the day were helical bimetal spring temperature and hydraulic bellows designs. The copper bellows with heavy spring ballast appears to be less responsive for household home applications, possibly better suited to commercial situations in which Mercoid had made its name. [See ID 215]
* Equipped with a finely calibrated scale, locking adjustment lever, and leveling adjustment screws, it uses a large, commercial type, 3″ mercury tube switch.
* Much larger and much less finely sculptured than its Time-O-Stat counterpart, and without the sales appeal, it appears to be targeted on a different market segment.
* Requiring a robust contact structure,capable of handling motor starting current, would make the device much less responsive to temperature changes than later developments would allow, see for example #ID 217 and 220

Industrial Significance:
* Mercoid’s concept of what a room thermostat should look like, in order to please the tastes of the well-to-do marketplace appears well behind those of their competitor, Time-O-Stat [See ID # 215].
* Considerably less elegant in appearance, this thermostat mirrors Mercoid’s experience in commercial and industrial controls of the period. It could well be the company’s initial foray into the residential, room thermostat market, where it would find that appearance was everything.


Room thermostat ‘Penn’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Room Temperature Thermostats

Accession # HHCC.2006.090
Exhibit: Heating

An early, automatic room temperature control device, using an hydraulic bellows, temperature sensor, with open contact, line voltage switching. Temperature control devices of this genre, would introduce automation into the Canadian household, set new standards of winter comfort and convenience for Canadians, and in so doing become markers of profound social and cultural change; Type A, Penn, Circa 1930.



Item: Room thermostat ‘Penn’
Manufacturer: Penn Electric Switch Co., Des Moines, Iowa
Make: Penn
Model: Type A

Technical Significance:
* The competing thermostat technologies of the day were helical bimetal spring [See ID 215] and hydraulic bellows designs, shown here.
* Much larger and much less finely sculptured than its Time-O-Stat counterpart [See ID#215], without the sales appeal, it appears to be targeted on a different market segment.
* While similar in many ways to the engineering and construction of the Mercoid thermostat [See ID #213], the Pen model employed open contact switching, a break with much of the practice of the field in this period.
* Requiring a robust contact structure, capable of handling motor starting current, would make the device much less responsive to temperature changes than later developments would allow, see for example #ID 217 and 220

Industrial Significance:
* Penn’s concept of what a room thermostat should look like, in order to please the tastes of the well-to-do marketplace appears well behind those of their competitor, Time-O-Stat [See ID # 215]. It could well have been the company’s initial foray into the residential, room thermostat market, where it would find that appearance was everything.
* Pen Electric, much like the Mercoid Company, came into the market with a hydraulic bellows, actuated room thermostat, hoping to capture a portion of the then rapidly expanding, household, automatic, oil heating business. But even in the early 1930 the automatic heating industry was entering an increasingly competitive market, although it likely appeared at the time to be almost unlimited.
* The competing thermostat designs of the 1920’s and early 30’s [See ID #213, 214, 215] amply demonstrate the immense inventiveness of the period in which a range of technologies were being experimented with for automating home heating systems.
* Simple devices, by 21st century standards, they were non-the-less products of great engineering ingenuity for their times. They required materials and manufacturing techniques and expertise, which challenged the best engineering minds of the day.


Room thermostat ‘Time-O-Stat’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Room Temperature Thermostats

Accession # HHCC.2006.091
Exhibit: Heating

An eye appealing, early automatic room temperature control device, using a helical by-metal spring temperature sensor, with mercury bulb, line voltage switching. Temperature control devices of this genre, would introduce automation into the Canadian household, set new standards of winter comfort and convenience for Canadians, and in so doing become markers of a new technology-based consumerism and thus of profound, Canadian, social and cultural change; Cat. No 135, Time-O-Stat, Circa 1928. [See also ID# 218]



Item: Room thermostat ‘Time-O-Stat’
Manufacturer: Time-O-Stat Controls, Elkhart, Ind.
Make: Time-O-Stat
Model: Cat No. 135

Technical Significance:
* The competing thermostat technologies of the day were helical bimetal spring, shown here, and hydraulic bellows designs, [See ID 214].
* Much smaller and more finely sculptured than its competitors [Penn and Mercoid] the Time-O-Stat would have greater eye appeal and potential sales appeal, as a result.
* Actuated by a hefty, eight turn, 3/8″, 1 13/16″ OD, helical bimetal, this control can be expected perform only modestly well. With substantial inertia, and with out heat anticipation features of future generations of such devices, the home owner will experience significant over and under run and slow system response. The good news is that, with a 2 degree operating differential, it will provide comfort home conditions unparalleled for its times.
* In an astonishingly simple configuration, a 3/8″ dia. x 1 3/4-mercury bulb is attached to the floating, rear centre point of the bimetal, to which a delicately shaped brass adjustment lever is also attached. This allowing the householder to set the desired home temperature by tipping the switch bulb manually to the desired temperature.

Industrial Significance:
* An elegant room thermostat that would be seen on the walls of the drawing rooms of the Canadian well-to-do in the 1920’s.
* Tastefully and delicately proportioned, in a modest, brown, molded Bakelite case, it was a masterpiece of industrial design, instantly attracting homeowners of the period to a new, modern lifestyle of comfort and convenience.
* With patent numbers shown in the manufacturers catalogue from 1918 to 1928, Time-O-Stat must surely be accorded the position of HVACR market leader in the development of electric, room thermostatic controls for automatic, oil-fired heating systems found in Canadian homes.
* Time-O-Stat would quickly become the market leader in the new Canadian consumer culture of the 20th century, where the company would find that appearance was everything.
* Time-O-Stat products would soon appear in the catalogues of a new industry leader, Minneapolis Regulator Co. under that company’s name.
* The competing thermostat designs of the 1920’s and early 30’s [See ID #213, 214, 215] amply demonstrate the immense inventiveness of the period in which a range of technologies were being experimented with for automating home heating systems.
* Simple devices, by 21st century standards, they were non-the-less products of great engineering ingenuity for their times. They required materials and manufacturing techniques and expertise, which challenged the best engineering minds of the day.
* The attention given by Time-O-Stat to the market place and to the consumer’s appetite for the new, novel, attractive and prestigious was seen in their portable “Thermoswitch”. It was configured in the form of a minature, classic mantel clock of the period. It was inteded to stand out in the living rooms of the well-to-do, as a conversation piece and object of desire [See cat F.277-15.429, Page 12]
* Time-O-Stat’s pension for innovation was also marked a nigh-time clock operated temperature set back control, likely the first of its kind [See cat F.277-15.429, Page 11], and an early forerunner of the classic Minneapolis Honeywell Chronotherm [See ID # 216.
* Time-O-Stat would be unique in its times, bringing to the market a systems approach, providing a comprehensive, integrated set of controls for residential and commercial heating applications. “Lockswitch” safety combustion control engineering by Time-O-Stat would be the standard of the industry throughout the 1920’s and early 30’s [ See series 12.8 artifacts]


“Chronotherm” room thermostat

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Room Temperature Thermostats

Accession # HHCC.2006.092
Exhibit: Heating

The “Chronotherm” room thermostat with “Telechron”, synchronous, electric motor driven automatic night set-back, helical bimetal temperature sensor, low voltage, snap action, open contact switching, and mercury glass stem thermometer, would prove to be iconic in its times, a precursor of much to come in layered, multi-functional, consumer technology for the Canadian home, Type T12, Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co, Minneapolis, Minn., Circa 1934.



Item: “Chronotherm” room thermostat
Manufacturer: Minneapolis Honeywell Regulator Co., Minneapolis
Make: Minneapolis Honeywell
Model: Type T12, See Note

Technical Significance:
* The T12 makes use of Series 10, three-wire thermostat circuitry with heat anticipator, bringing the heating system on sooner than otherwise, in order to reduce the thermal lag in the heating system.
* The introduction of the automatic, time/temperature actuated control systems for home heating was as much a marker of profound technologic change as it was socio-cultural change [see below]. They introduced layered, multi-functional, consumer technology to the Canadian home [devices that would perform more than one function].
* Such devices were iconic in their impact and consequences for Canadians, beginning to suggest the power of technology and its potential for shaping and constantly re-shaping the life of Canadians throughout the balance of the 20th century.
* With the introduction of automatic night set-back thermostats in the late 1920’s through early 30’s, by both Time-O-Stat and Honeywell, the automation of the Canadian household was ratchet up one more notch, It would seem, at the time, that the automation of home heating comfort, by the HVACR industry, had gone as far as it was likely to go. Such, however was not the case, however, with a myriad of new consumer devices to follow, with for example automatic: heat anticipation [See ID 220], humidity control [See ID 222], air filtration [See series 15.06, early air filtration technology, area temperature zone control and integrated heating/cooling controllers [See ID 217].

Industrial Significance:
* Earlier versions of the technology, using an 8-day wind-up clock, are shown in Time-O-Stat’s product catalogue with patent numbers sited back to 1928.
* The development of the miniature, self starting, synchronous, alternating current motor technology by Telechron, and the mass production of motors for electric clocks and timing devices, was in itself an significant scientific, engineering and manufacturing accomplishment for the period – with applications and benefits which would be far reaching.
* Following the introduction of small synchronous type motors for electric clocks in the early 1930’s Minneapolis-Honeywell introduced their “Chronotherm”, a basic technology that would appear in various forms through to the introduction of digital control technology in the 1990’s.


Room thermostat ‘Honeywell – 87F’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Room Temperature Thermostats

Accession # HHCC.2006.093
Exhibit: Heating

A room heating-cooling thermostat in the Honeywell classic round configuration popular throughout the latter 20th century; high style, gold plastic body, helical bimetal activated, low voltage, miniature mercury bulb switch, adjustable heat anticipator, with helical bimetal thermometer and heat-cool, fan on-off switch base, Type 87F, Honeywell, Circa 1975. [See also ID #220]



Item: Room thermostat ‘Honeywell – 87F’
Manufacturer: Honeywell Controls Limited, Toronto
Make: Honeywell
Model: T87F

Technical Significance:
* Household temperature control technology, analogue and largely electro- mechanical and electro-magnetic in character, had reached its highest point of development by the mid 20th century, as represented here by the Honeywell T87F.
* The stage had been set for the progressive evolution of solid state, digital control HVACR control technology, which would soon dominate the field.

Industrial Significance:
* With the development of packaged mechanical cooling equipment for residential and commercial applications, the thermostat would become a multi-functional device, controlling room temperature during the heating cycle, as well as the cooling cycle and allowing switching between heating and cooling, in addition to the control of the air circulating fan on forced air systems. All this was to be accomplished within a single integrated device – to be popularly affordable and mass-produced.
* The miniaturized, single pole, double throw, mercury bulb switch required for cooling as well as heating was a masterpiece of design and mass production engineering, as was the entire configuration with small helical, bimetal, actuator and adjustable heat anticipator. It was executed in an attractive, moulded plastic, round, gold-colored format.
* A series of matching, optional, switch bases was provided by the manufacturer, in order to accommodate various switching functions, here heating/cooling on-off, fan on/automatic, part of the movement of equipment manufacturers to a comprehensive systems approach required of the times.
* The development of quiet, hermetic compressors in large capacities needed for home air conditioning applications, as well as the production and successful marketing of attractive packaged condensing units and evaporator coils for residential use contributed to the significant growth of the Canadian HVACR industry starting in the 1960’s


Room thermostat ‘Time-O-Stat’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Room Temperature Thermostats

Accession # HHCC.2006.094
Exhibit: Heating

An eye appealing, earlyau tomatic room temperature control device, using a helical by-metal spring temperature sensor, with mercury bulb, line voltage switching. Temperature control devices of this genre, would introduce automation into the Canadian household, set new standards of winter comfort and convenience for Canadians, and in so doing become markers of a new technology-based consumerism and thus of profound, Canadian, social and cultural change; with original shop tag, Cat. No 135, Time-O-Stat, Circa 1928. [See also ID# 215]



Item: Room thermostat ‘Time-O-Stat’
Manufacturer: Time-O-Stat Controls, Elkhart, Ind.
Make: Time-O-Stat
Model: Cat No. 135

Technical Significance:
* The competing thermostat technologies of the day were helical bimetal spring, shown here, and hydraulic bellows designs, [See ID 214].
* Much smaller and more finely sculptured than its competitors [Penn and Mercoid] the Time-O-Stat would have greater eye appeal and potential sales appeal, as a result.
* Actuated by a hefty, eight turn, 3/8″, 1 13/16″ OD, helical bimetal, this control can be expected perform only modestly well. With substantial inertia, and with out heat anticipation features of future generations of such devices, the home owner will experience significant over and under run and slow system response. The good news is that, with a 2 degree operating differential, it will provide comfort home conditions unparalleled for its times.
* In an astonishingly simple configuration, a 3/8″ dia. x 1 3/4-mercury bulb is attached to the floating, rear centre point of the bimetal, to which a delicately shaped brass adjustment lever is also attached. This allowing the householder to set the desired home temperature by tipping the switch bulb manually to the desired temperature.

Industrial Significance:
* An elegant room thermostat that would be seen on the walls of the drawing rooms of the Canadian well to do in the 1920’s.
* Tastefully and delicately proportioned, in a modest, brown, molded Bakelite case, it was a masterpiece of industrial design, instantly attracting homeowners of the period to a new, modern lifestyle of comfort and convenience.
* With patent numbers shown in the manufacturers catalogue from 1918 to 1928, Time-O-Stat must surely be accorded the position of HVACR market leader in the development of electric, room thermostatic controls for automatic, oil-fired heating systems found in Canadian homes.
* Time-O-Stat would quickly become the market leader in the new Canadian consumer culture of the 20th century, where the company would find that appearance was everything.
* Time-O-Stat products would soon appear in the catalogues of a new industry leader, Minneapolis Regulator Co. under that company’s name.
* The competing thermostat designs of the 1920’s and early 30’s [See ID #213, 214, 215] amply demonstrate the immense inventiveness of the period in which a range of technologies were being experimented with for automating home heating systems.
* Simple devices, by 21st century standards, they were non-the-less products of great engineering ingenuity for their times. They required materials and manufacturing techniques and expertise, which challenged the best engineering minds of the day.
* The attention given by Time-O-Stat to the market place and to the consumer’s appetite for the new, novel, attractive and prestigious was seen in their portable “Thermoswitch”. It was configured in the form of a minature, classic mantel clock of the period. It was inteded to stand out in the living rooms of the well-to-do, as a conversation piece and object of desire [See cat F.277-15.429, Page 12]
* Time-O-Stat’s pension for innovation was also marked a nigh-time clock operated temperature set back control, likely the first of its kind [See cat F.277-15.429, Page 11], and an early forerunner of the classic Minneapolis Honeywell Chronotherm [See ID # 216.
* Time-O-Stat would be unique in its times, bringing to the market a systems approach, providing a comprehensive, integrated set of controls for residential and commercial heating applications. “Lockswitch” safety combustion control engineering by Time-O-Stat would be the standard of the industry throughout the 1920’s and early 30’s [ See series 12.8 artifacts]


Room thermostat ‘Mercoid’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Room Temperature Thermostats

Accession # HHCC.2006.095
Exhibit: Heating

An early, automatic room temperature control device, in large, decorated brass enclosure, using an hydraulic bellows, temperature sensor, with large mercury bulb, line voltage switching, and calibrated scale 60 to 80 degrees F. Temperature control devices of this genre, would introduce automation into the Canadian house hold and become markers of profound social and cultural change; Type 0104111, Mercoid Corp., Circa 1927. [See also ID # 213]



Item: Room thermostat ‘Mercoid’
Manufacturer: Mercoid Corp., Chicago, Federal Warranted
Make: Mercoid
Model: Type 010426
Features:
– built in line voltage connection junction box
– original box connector for shielded cable, used in the period
– original 3 inch toggle bolt used for mounting on lath and plaster walls of the period

Technical Significance:
* The competing, thermostat, technologies of the day were helical bimetal spring temperature and hydraulic bellows designs. The copper bellows with heavy spring ballast appears to be less responsive for household home applications, possibly better suited to commercial situations in which Mercoid had made its name.
* Equipped with a finely calibrated scale, locking adjustment lever, and leveling adjustment screws, it uses a large, commercial type, 3″ mercury tube switch.
* Much larger and much less finely sculptured than its Time-O-Stat counterpart, and without the sales appeal, it appears to be targeted on a different market segment.
* Requiring a robust contact structure, capable of handling line voltage motor starting current, would make this device much less responsive to room temperature changes than later, low inertia devices with heat anticipation features, see for example #ID 217 and 220

Industrial Significance:
* Mercoid’s concept of what a room thermostat should look like, in order to please the tastes of the well-to-do marketplace appears well behind those of their competitor, Time-O-Stat [See ID # 215].
* Considerably less elegant in appearance, this thermostat mirrors Mercoid’s experience in commercial and industrial controls of the period. It could well be the company’s initial foray into the residential, room thermostat market, where it would find that appearance was everything.


A/C room thermostat ‘Honeywell – 87C’

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Room Temperature Thermostats

Accession # HHCC.2006.096
Exhibit: Heating

A summer air conditioning, room thermostat, in the Honeywell classic round configuration, popularly found in the mid and latter 20th century on residential oil heating systems with add-on summer cooling; high style, gold coloured plastic body, helical bimetal temperature activated, low voltage, miniature mercury bulb switch, with helical bimetal thermometer, Type 87C, Honeywell, Circa 1964 [See also ID #217]



Item: A/C room thermostat ‘Honeywell – 87C’
Manufacturer: Honeywell Controls Limited, Toronto
Make: Honeywell
Model: T87C

Technical Significance:
The significance of the Honeywell T87 lay in a number of directions:
* It was representative of a new, exciting era, the early years of residential, year around air conditioning in Canada.
* While at the same time it marked the end of an era of household temperature control technology, which was analogue and largely electro- mechanical and electro-magnetic in character. This modus operandi had reached its highest point of development by the mid 20th century, as represented here by the Honeywell T87C. The stage had been set for the progressive evolution of solid state, digital control HVACR control technology, which would soon dominate the field.
* It would represent, too, a simplicity and precision only made possible, for the first time, by the cumulative engineering design, manufacturing and mass production experience and knowledge of the middle years of the 20th century.
* As well, there was in the Honeywell round a sophistication, maturity in styling and commitment to form, function and color that would set standards and turn heads in the field of industrial design.

Industrial Significance:
* The development of packaged, add-on, mechanical cooling equipment for residential and small commercial applications, triggered a new Canadian market starting in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s. The market targeted on those that already had an up-to-date forced air oil heating system.
* This then was the new “conversion market”, a market place which would be worked by much of the industry, very much as the industry had cut its teeth on the conversion business in the 1920’through 40’s. Then it sold oil burners and forced air fans for conversion of gravity, coal fed furnaces, making them into modern forced air automatic home heating systems.
* The movement triggered the demand for cooling thermostatic controls, as add-on’s to the existing heating system, already equipped with its own heating thermostat. The result was a hearing cooling, year round, elemental air conditioning system without the benefit of interlocks and automatic transfer function from heating to cooling. Honeywell responded to the market with the T87C, using the same thermostatic platform developed for their heating thermostat the T86A.
* A series of matching, optional, switch bases would also be made available from the manufacturer, in order to accommodate various switching functions, as needed, part of the movement of equipment manufacturers to a comprehensive systems approach required of the times.


Home humidistat

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.098
Exhibit: Heating

A mid 20th century, humidity controller, “humidistat”, for the Canadian home. A “low tech” device, using materials found in nature, it employed treated human hair for its actuating element. Stencilled for “RP”, Research Products, a leading manufacturer of humidifiers for forced air, oil fired heating applications in the post W.W.II years, it tells many stories of emerging humidification technology, through to the introduction of solid state humidity sensors, Penn, Type 842, circa 1952.



Item: Home humidistat
Manufacturer: Pen Electric Switch Co. Goshen, Ind.
Make: Pen for RP
Model: Type 842, Model1024
Features:
– actuating element of treated human hair
– classic gold metal sheath with RP, Aprilaire monograph, and
– customer recommended temperature humidity guide

Technical Significance:
– A mid 20th century, humidity controller, “humidistat”, for the Canadian home, developed in a period when engineers, without the range of high tech materials available at century’s end, would look to natural materials with the needed properties, and performance characteristics – here human hair
– Stencilled for “RP”, Research Products, a leading manufacturer of humidifiers designed for forced air, residential oil fired heating applications in the post W.W.II years through to the end of the century, it tells many stories of the emerging humidification technology of the mid 20th century, through to the introduction of solid state humidity sensors.
– It would be a period characterised by much research in the field of human comfort. its necessary and sufficient conditions and the means of creating it in Canada’s climate of weather extremes. Warm air heating research would become a legitimate topic for university, as well as industrial research with technical papers and how-to-do-it manuals to follow. In the field of winter humidity control, for example, see “Winter Air Heating and Winter Air conditioning”, John Norris McGraw-Hill 1950, Chapter 9, Humidity and the properties of Air.
– Characteristic of the period and the emerging market for winter comfort was the creation of the National Warm Air Heating and Air Conditioning Association of Canada [forerunner of the Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Institute of Canada]. Their extensive set of engineering manuals produced through the 1950’and 60’s would be the standards of the field

Industrial Significance:
– With the development of the forced air furnace “the winter air conditioner” came many new possibilities for winter comfort, automatic combustion control for solid and liquid fuels [coal and oil], automatic room temperature control, air distribution [well beyond that possible with natural convection], constant air circulation. air filtration, as well as automatic humidification . These features would be promoted by the warm air sector of the industry, as a competitive edge, over the “hot water heating systems [hydronic systems] of the times, once considered the preferred type of central heating for all that could afford it.
– During the 1940’s and 50’s the Howard Furnace Co of Toronto would be an acknowledged leader in the field of winter air conditioning equipment for the Canadian market, see reference. There promotion would read “Enjoy filtered, humidified, gently moving air throughout every part of your home”, “Have even temperature maintained in all rooms with lowest possible fuel costs and little attention”. This was surely new world experience for Canadians in the middle years of the 20th century


Temperature / humidity gauge

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.099
Exhibit: Heating

A pair of mid 1930’s room temperature and humidity dial read-out devices for locating around the home. With the promotion of coal and oil “winter air conditioning”, new expectations had been established by the Canadian HVACR industry about the winter human “comfort zone” now made possible [See ID#222]. It was a period, too, in which the popular mind was being increasingly bombarded with information on the wonders of modern science and the importance of scientific measurement – if you can’t measure it you can’t control it, Taylor, 1936.



Item: Temperature / humidity gauge
Manufacturer: Likely Taylor Instrument Co. Rochester N.Y.
Make: Taylor
Features:
– Modern styling reflecting the new modernism of the 1930’s, executed in black, red and chrome

Technical Significance:
– The immediate pre W.W.II years was a period of ever increasing expectations about the winter comfort that was now available for the Canadian home – for all those that could afford it. With the development of the forced air furnace, “the winter air conditioner”, came many new possibilities for winter comfort. Included were, automatic combustion control for solid and liquid fuels [coal and oil], automatic room temperature control, air distribution [well beyond that possible with natural convection], constant air circulation. air filtration, as well as automatic humidification. These features would be promoted with great success by the warm air sector of the industry, as a competitive edge, over the “hot water heating systems [hydronic systems] of the times – once considered the preferred type of central heating for all that could afford it.
– By the mid 1930’s many Canadians had become used to the new automated, in-door comforts now possible for the home. They had become used, also, to the glass stem thermometer conspicuously mounted on the wall thermostat and would check it regularly to make sure their heating system was operating properly. But what was new, here, with the advent of the “winter air conditioner”, with forced air circulation, was the suggestion that temperature and humidity conditions should be more or less uniform throughout the entire home, not merely at the thermostat.
– With the marketing and popularization of such remote temperature and humidity measuring devices, homeowners were being invited to check it out for themselves. They were encouraged to purchase a set of scientific air temperature and humidity measuring instruments, make their own scientific measurements and consequently make such changes in the operation of the system, largely by opening and closing registers and dampers, as needed to bring the entire home into one uniform comfort zone. Needless to say many would quickly find the limitations of the new technology – for automatic zone control was still several decades away for most Canadian’s with forced warm air heating systems.
– There was a sense that local heating technicians, such as Howard Oliver, Aurora, in marketing temperature and humidity, dial read-out devices such as these, was inviting the home owner to be part of a new “do it yourself generation”. They were invited to take their own scientific measurements and make their own adjustments, within their own ability and that of the system to respond.

Industrial Significance:
– The 1930’s and 40’s would be a period characterised by much research in the field of in-door human comfort, its necessary and sufficient conditions and the means of creating it in Canada’s climate of weather extremes. Warm air heating research would become a legitimate topic for university, as well as industrial research with technical papers and how-to-do-it manuals to follow. In the field of winter humidity control, for example, see “Winter Air Heating and Winter Air conditioning”, John Norris McGraw-Hill 1950, Chapter 9, Humidity and the properties of Air.
– Characteristic of the period and the emerging market for winter comfort was the creation of the National Warm Air Heating and Air Conditioning Association of Canada [forerunner of the Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Institute of Canada]. Their extensive set of engineering manuals produced through the 1950’and 60’s would be the standards of the field

– During the 1940’s and 50’s the Howard Furnace Co of Toronto would be an acknowledged leader in the field of winter air conditioning equipment for the Canadian market, see reference. There promotion would read “Enjoy filtered, humidified, gently moving air throughout every part of your home”, “Have even temperature maintained in all rooms with lowest possible fuel costs and little attention”. This was surely new world experience for Canadians approaching the middle years of the 20th century.


Automatic draft stabilizer

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.116
Exhibit: Heating

Employed to automatically bypassing air up the chimney, this automatic draft stabalizer, for use on home heating systems fired with coal, fuel oil or gas was equipped with cast iron frame with sheet metal boot. The brake-formed, pivoted damper blade is decorated in handsome red, wrinkled finish, with balancing weight affixed to a travelling screw, which is manually adjusted with a rotating knurled hand wheel, Draft-O-Stat, circa 1935.



Item: Automatic draft stabilizer
Manufacturer: Hotstream Heater Co, Cleveland, Ohio
Make: Hotstream
Model: Unspecified
Features:
– Equipped with gold lettering Accessories
– Handsome red, wrinkled finish
– Needle point pivot damper mounts
– Original installation instruction sheet

Technical Significance:
– The introduction of automation for home heating systems in Canada brought with it a range of engineering and operational challenges, which were often unexpected. A largely unanticipated requirement, in the early years, was the need for an over-the-fire automatic draft control.
– The performance, safety and efficiency of automated combustion was dependent on reasonably stable draft – not too high not too low. It was a period in which heating systems operated on conventional chimneys, which would produce a great range of draft conditions, depending on height, flue size, wind strength, direction and so forth.
– The simple, weighted, pivoted, bypass damper blade system opened to allow excess air [beyond what was required for clean combustion] to pass up the chimney, rather than be drawn over the fire.
– The system was ideal for the heating applications of the period, which were predominantly of the “conversion” type in which existing furnaces and boilers, operating on conventional chimneys were converted from manual to automated combustion
– The device, in various configurations, would become the standard of the industry for home heating systems, through to the introduction of forced draft and induced draft combustion in the latter part of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– With increasing sophistication in system design came the need for greater precision in the setting of draft regulators. The draft gauge and combustion efficiency test kit would become an essential tools in the installers and service technicians tool box [see Collection Group 12.12]
– An exemplary “Cadillac” version of the draft stabilizer, this device by Draft-O-Stat, decorated in black, red and gold, would soon appear in much lower cost versions, as the pressure for cost reduction and market forces began to be key factors in the development of automatic home heating equipment.


Oil furnace panel board

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.117
Exhibit: Heating

A 1920’s, field assembled panel board, typically found in homes equipped with automatic, oil heating of the period, used for mounting of manual disconnect switch and other controllers at the entrance to the furnace or boiler room. Crudely made of pine board with walnut finish and fire protective covering; an icon of its times reflecting something of the trade practices and the attention given to public appearance and safety, Circa 1929. [See also ID#230]



Item: Oil furnace panel board
Manufacturer: Unknown, Possibly Howard Oliver Aurora Ontario
Make: Shop fabricated

Technical Significance:
– The panel board is an icon of its time, reflecting something of electric trade practices and public expectations for craftsmanship in the early years of the 20th century, an embryonic period in the electrification of Canadian homes and the installation of electric equipment.


Safety disconnect switch

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.118
Exhibit: Heating

A 1920’s automatic oil heating, safety, disconnect switch, in heavy steel, 4 pound enclosure, telling many stories around a master narrative, dominant in the times. The prospect of home electrification brought with it widespread concern for public safety with steps taken by authorities to help ensure safe practice and to ally unnecessary public apprehension, Square D, Circa 1928 [See also ID#230]



Item: Safety; disconnect switch
Manufacturer: Square D Company Canada Ltd., Walkerville Ontario
Make: Square D
Model: Cat 96211
Features:
– Brass name plate, decorated in black with safety instructions
– Blue and white seal of the Hydro Electric Power Commission of Ontario, aproval No. 634
– Original box connector
– Field installed dual knock out cover in galvanized sheet metal stock, screwed in place with 2 no 8-32 x 3/4 inch machine screws, illustrates the adherence to the electrical code requirements of the day
– External # 8 solder lug affixed to the box, illustrates the grounding practice of the day in which much cable was not grounded and required a separate grounding network.

Technical Significance:
– The danger of fire and electrocution were matters of wide spread public concern in the 1920’s through 30’s. Robustly designed equipment, evidence of government certification and equipment testing standards, as well as evidence of competent field practices and craftsmanship were all-important indicators intended to demonstrate due care, caution and respect for public safety.
– Approved field practice, enforced by electrical inspectors, required that such panel boards be installed at the entrance to the furnace or boiler room within easy reach, allowing the homeowner full control and access, in order to shut down the system manually in the case of emergency [see ID#230].
– The switch provides an example of the use of terminology in the description and specification of safety switches in the early years of home electrification technology. The device is described prominently on the cover as “single throw fused bottom’.
– Of technological significance, in the history of emerging technology of home electrification , is this 120 volt, fused, disconnect switch designed with a fused neutral – a practice which would be rethought a few years later, and abandoned.

Industrial Significance:
– The device tells the stories of the widespread apprehension over the coming of home electrification and the steps taken by the underwriters, regulators [codes and practices], electric utilities and equipment manufacturers to ally public fears over home electrification – and in fact ensure public safety in an embryonic and rapidly developing field where there was little practical experience to draw on.
– The embryonic HVACR industry of the times was anxious to work with the electrical equipment manufacturers, regulators and underwriters in publishing re-assuring information on the many benefits and safety of home electrification, as well as educating the tradesmen of the day on electrical codes and safe practices. For these were seen as necessary prerequisites for the sale of automatic home heating equipment.


Hard fire brick

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.119
Exhibit: Heating

In the embryonic and early development years of automatic, oil heating systems in Canada, high temperature fire brick were the building blocks of the “fire box” [combustion chamber]. The firebox, holding a 2.600 degree F. flame in check, was a critical component, determining both system safety and performance. It would be skilfully crafted on-the-job, according to the size of the fire chamber, the combustion rate and the unique flame configuration of the oil burner, hard fire brick, A P Green, Circa 1938.



Item: Hard fire brick
Manufacturer: A P Green, Toronto
Make: A P Green
Model: A – Empire DP

Technical Significance:
In the embryonic and early development years of automatic, oil heating systems in Canada, high temperature “Hard” fire brick were the building blocks of the “fire box” [combustion chamber]. Shaped much like regular bricks, but made from clays withstanding high temperature.

The firebox, holding a 2.600 degree F. flame in check, was a critical component, determining both system safety and performance, a matter of concern for the installer and technician.

It would be skilfully crafted on-the-job, according to the combustion rate and the unique flame configuration of the oil burner the size of the fire chamber and the gut feel of the installer.

Industrial Significance:
The construction of fireboxes was an art form of the day, with all to often little for the installer to guide him in a wide range of decisions to be made, effecting the performance of the oil burner and the safety of the system see references.

Most heating automatic oil heating systems of the 1920’s on into the 40’s in Canada were of the “conversion” type, typically coal and wood fired furnaces and boilers in which oil burners were installed. Wood and coal grates were removed and firebrick used to build a box like configuration, typically, but not always, with a hole at one end to receive the blast tube of the oil burner.

With the evolution of the industry came softer lighter fire brick, see ID#244, as well as pre-cast moulded refractory materials, in a range of sizes, pre-shaped for certain firing rates and fire chambers, see ID#245.

The significant developments in ceramics engineering, reflected in the refractory materials of the period, should not be understated, for they made possible the evolution of automatic home heating and its seminal contribution to life in Canada. An unobtrusive technology in the public eye, the accomplishments in ceramics engineering tend to get lost in the midst of the Gee-Whiz technological achievements in combustion and electric control engineering of the 1920’s and 30’s.

By the 1960’s much ceramic-based combustion chamber engineering would give way to light weight stainless steel configurations, considered preferable for the new world of unitary equipment, pre-tested and shipped to the job site ready for installation.


‘Soft’ fire brick

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.120
Exhibit: Heating

In the embryonic and early development years of automatic, oil heating systems in Canada, high temperature fire brick were the building blocks of the “fire box” [combustion chamber]. The firebox, holding a 2.600 degree F. flame in check, was a critical component, determining both system safety and performance. It would be skilfully crafted on-the-job, according to the size of the fire chamber, the combustion rate and the unique flame configuration of the oil burner, “soft” fire brick, A P Green, Circa 1940.



Item: ‘Soft’ fire brick
Manufacturer: A P Green, Toronto
Make: A P Green

Technical Significance:
With the evolution of the industry came soft light weight fire brick, as well as pre-cast moulded refractory materials, in a range of sizes, pre-shaped for certain firing rates and fire chambers, see ID#245

In the embryonic and early development years of automatic, oil heating systems in Canada, high temperature fire brick were the building blocks of the “fire box” [combustion chamber]. Shaped much like regular bricks, but made from clays withstanding high temperature

The firebox, holding a 2.600 degree F. flame in check, was a critical component, determining both system safety and performance, a matter of concern for the installer and technician.

It would be skilfully crafted on-the-job, according to the combustion rate and the unique flame configuration of the oil burner the size of the fire chamber and the gut feel of the installer.

Industrial Significance:
The construction of fireboxes was an art form of the day, with all to often little for the installer to guide him in a wide range of decisions to be made, effecting the performance of the oil burner and the safety of the system see references

Most heating automatic oil heating systems of the 1920’s on into the 40’s in Canada were of the “conversion” type, typically coal and wood fired furnaces and boilers in which oil burners were installed. Wood and coal grates were removed and firebrick used to build a box like configuration, typically, but not always, with a hole at one end to receive the blast tube of the oil burner.

The significant developments in ceramics engineering, reflected in the refractory materials of the period, should not be understated, for they made possible the evolution of automatic home heating and its seminal contribution to life in Canada. An unobtrusive technology in the public eye, the accomplishments in ceramics engineering tend to get lost in the midst of the Gee-Whiz technological achievements in combustion and electric control engineering of the 1920’s and 30’s.

By the 1960’s much ceramic-based combustion chamber engineering would give way to light weight stainless steel configurations, considered preferable for the new world of unitary equipment, pre-tested and shipped to the job site ready for installation.


Fire box sections

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.121
Exhibit: Heating

Pre-cast, sectional, circular, high temperature refractory sections, made in a range of sizes and compositions, became widely used starting in the 1940’s for the construction of “fire boxes” [combustion chambers]. The firebox, holding a 2.600 degree F. flame in check, was a critical component, determining both system safety and performance, 2 sections, model 424, A P Green, Circa 1945.



Item: Fire box sections
Manufacturer: A P Green, Toronto
Make: A P Green
Model: 424

Technical Significance:
With the evolution of the industry came pre-formed, sectional, circular refractory sections in a range of sizes, pre-shaped for certain firing rates and fire chambers

The evolution of pre-formed, sectional, circular refractory was hastened by the development of unitary, factory made and assembled warm air furnaces, winter air conditioners and hot water home heating boilers. Shipped to the job site this equipment came complete with oil burner, refractory and control system reedy for installation.

Industrial Significance:
With the evolution of unitary equipment for residential heating in Canada came generally higher levels of system performance, reliability and safety, with much of the guess work required with the conversion of hand fired wood and coal fired systems gone.

The significant developments in ceramics engineering, reflected in the refractory materials of the period, should not be understated, for they made possible the evolution of automatic home heating and its seminal contribution to life in Canada. An unobtrusive technology in the public eye, the accomplishments in ceramics engineering tend to get lost in the midst of the Gee-Whiz technological achievements in combustion and electric control engineering of the 1920’s and 30’s.

By the 1960’s much ceramic-based combustion chamber engineering would give way to light weight stainless steel configurations, considered preferable for the new world of unitary equipment, pre-tested and shipped to the job site ready for installation.


Furnace air filter

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.122
Exhibit: Heating

Two inch air filter for winter air conditioner, in black heavy card board frame with decorative grill patterning and oil treated steel wool filler, set of four, Howard Furnace Company, Toronto, circa 1939.



Item: Furnace air filter
Manufacturer: Howard Furnace Company, Toronto
Make: Howard Furnace
Features: Decorated and imprinted in silver on black; With self contained user instructions for cleaning and replacing

Technical Significance:
Winter air conditioning was new for the Canadian home, in the late 1930’s. It was for the Canadian consumer, seen as one of the “big’ technologies of the day, like the radio and the automobile, for it would come to change the lives of people, what they did in the course of the day, the way they lived and went about there lives, as well as their expectations of the comforts, amenities, which life had in store for them

From the perspective of the early 21st century it would be difficult to imagine the euphoria with which these technologies were viewed, by those who could afford to dream about the joys and benefits they held for life and life’s ways.

The air filter was front and centre in the promotion of the winter air conditioner technology, an important component of the hyperbola used. What was new was not so much the promise of a warm home for a cold Canadian winter, but filtered, dust free air, circulated through the home at 1000 cubic feet per minute. See sales material by Howard furnace reference below

See also ID # 222 and 223 for companion technologies, targeted on improvements in air quality, humidification for the winter air conditioner in Canada

Industrial Significance:
The Howard Furnace Company of Toronto would be a widely acknowledged Canadian market leader in the field of winter air conditioning in the 1930’s through 50’s, setting industry design and innovative development standards.

The promise of filtered air would open up a massive market segment in Canada that would continue to grow, part of the promotion for both winter and summer air conditioning equipment, through to the early years of the 21st century.


Motor drive pulley

Pressure Atomizing Oil Burner Equipment and Systems – Other Components and Parts

Accession # HHCC.2006.123
Exhibit: Heating

The variable speed motor drive pulley would be a hero of the moment, a simple, unobtrusive, “low tech” means for controlling air quantity, temperature, and distribution velocity, on which much of the customer acceptance of forced warm air heating and winter air conditioning sales would rest in Canada, starting in the late pre W.W.II years; set of three pulleys in various design configurations, Circa 1945.



Item: Motor drive pulley
Features: Each showing different signs of use and misuse, telling stories of application, including patterns of ware, over painting and corrosion

Technical Significance:
The variable speed motor drive pulley was a “low tech”, solution for adjusting fan speed, on belted fan drives, used for balancing air volume circulated by winter air conditioners, starting in the late 1930’s through the introduction of direct drive centrifugal fans employing electrical motor speed adjustment technology.

The successful development and wide spread adoption of the winter air conditioner and forced warm air heating in the Canadian, starting in the late pre W.W.II years, brought with it a wide range of engineering and manufacturing challenges, Those related to combustion management and control [see historic artifacts of the period, Group 12.05 to 12.07], automatic temperature and safety control [Group 12.09 to 12.10] and air flow and air quality control [see Group 12.11]. Prior the development of forced air systems, a flow technology and controlwas of little consequence, the focus being on combustion systems and automatic safety control technology. But all that would quickly change as the 1940’s emerged.

Air quality and movement throughout the home and the technologies required to control and regulate it, including air quantity, temperature, humidity and draft free air distribution, quickly became a significant factors in ensuring customer comfort, product satisfaction and wide spread market acceptance.

The development of centrifugal fan and related drive technology, as well as manufacturing methods needed to help ensure affordability, high performance, efficient and reliable air handling were central factors in the race for market share.

It was the early years of fractional horse power electric motor development, suitable for reliable use on automatic home heating equipment, where fail could quickly produce hazardist conditions [see Group 16.00 artifacts]. The motor and drive for centrifugal fan application was a special challenge, met in part through the use of belted drive systems.

A system was urgently required to adjust fan speed and thus air volume, temperature and velocity for belted fan applications, in order to ensure comfort conditions, which were largely idiosyncratic, dependent on home configuration and occupancy response – the latter, often on an illusive sense of human comfort and well being. Home owners used to static air environments would be critical of spaces with rapid air change rates and accompanying drafts.

The variable speed pulley became the hero of the moment, a simple, unobtrusive, low tech solution, on which much of the customer acceptance of forced warm air heating and winter air conditioning equipment sales would rest in those early development years

See also ID # 222 and 223 for companion technologies, targeted on improvements in air quality, humidification for the winter air conditioner in Canada

Industrial Significance:
Practice of balancing forced air heating systems, to ensure customer comfort and satisfaction, evolved on trial and error basis. By the late 1940’s field manuals became available for the guidance of installers and technicians, for the adjustment and balancing of forced air heating systems. Among them were those produced by the National Warm Air Heating and Air conditioning Association, active in the training field in the 1950’s and beyond, see references.


Electric hot water heater

Electric Heating Equipment – Water Heating

Accession # HHCC.2003.083
Exhibit: Heating

In the early years of household electrification Canadians, next to valuing the benefits of the carbon filament, electric light bulb, would look to electricity to provide a constant, reliable flow of hot water for personal and domestic purposes. The Hotpoint, electric circulating, hot water heater would become a ubiquitous fixture in the homes of the nation, for all those who could avail themselves of this new found luxury, Canadian General Electric, Hotpoint, 1929.



Item: Electric hot water heater
Manufacturer: Canadian General Electric
Make: Hotpoint
Model: 2W25

Electric simulated fireside

Electric Heating Equipment – Space Heating

Accession # HHCC.2003.084
Exhibit: Heating

A quite remarkable piece of early 20th century styling and engineering of an electrical, room heating appliance by a small, uniquely Ontario, foundry company, branching out into the electric, home equipment business. Canadians, it is said, value their quintessential, winter, fireside, experience above all, So the electric, simulated fireside, with electric heating coils and flickering lights, filtered through amber chunks of glass was seen as a market winner in the early1930’s, Renfrew Electric Products, Renfrew Ont, 1935.



Item: Electric simulated fireside
Manufacturer: Renfrew Electric Products ltd., Renfrew Ont
Make: Renfrew
Model: 65B


Electric baseboard heater

Electric Heating Equipment – Space Heating

Accession # HHCC.2006.100
Exhibit: Heating

An electric baseboard style room heater, a marker of what would prove to be a relatively short blip in time when electrical energy in much of Canada was perceived as plentiful and highly promoted for residential space heating. Here shown in a 42 inch unit with simulated walnut metallic finish, built in thermostat and line cord, 1200 w, 120 volts; HeatFlo, Canada, Cat PB414, circa 196.0 [See also ID # 221]



Item: Electric baseboard heater
Manufacturer: Heatflo, Canada
Make: Heatflo
Model: Cat. PB414
Features:
– Company name on black on gold background, on inexpensive adhesive label

Technical Significance:
The significance of this artifact is two fold:
– First, as a representative of the class of portable room heaters that emerged in the late 1950’s and 1960’s, piggy backing on the popularity of central system, electric, resitance, base-board home heating. It would be a trend relatively short lived, as other forms of portable electric space heaters came along more convenient, compact, safer and with more inherent market appeal.
– Second, as a representative of the form and construction of the baseboard units used as components in central systems of the times.

Industrial Significance:
– As in any new, rapidly expanding field of engineering and production of consumer goods many new players are attracted to the field. Many hope to turn a quick profit under the market conditions of the moment, with a minimum investment, but often without the staying power needed for long term growth and participation in the field. “Heatflo” appears to have been of that nature, using very conventional low-tech cabinet manufacturing and assembly techniques, possibly purchasing their electric heaters from another major supplier of the period.


Electric space heating thermostat

Electric Heating Equipment – Room Temperature Thermostats

Accession # HHCC.2006.097
Exhibit: Heating

An electric space heating thermostat, a marker of what would prove to be a relatively short blip in time when electrical energy in much of Canada was plentiful and highly promoted for residential space heating. With 21 ampere capacity, conveniently configured for mounting on a standard electrical wall box, it is decorated with red logo and stencilled “Electric Heating”, in Honeywell’s then well known, high style gold-look, Honeywell T46, circa 1959. [See also ID # 224]



Item: Electric space heating thermostat
Manufacturer: Minneapolis Honeywell, Regulator Co
Make: Minneapolis Honeywell
Model: T460A or B
Features:
– decorated in the then familiar, sophisticated, high style gold-look established by Honeywell in their round series of thermostats,
– handsome Honeywell logo in red, and
– marked “Electric Heating”, a social prestige symbol of the period

Technical Significance:
– With high capacity 21 ampere, non inductive load rating, built on a simple all plastic platform, the thermostat exemplifies the sophistication of engineering and manufacturing methods achieved in the period.

Industrial Significance:
– The line voltage, electric space heating thermostat would be popular in many of the housing developments of the period. Much less costly then the low voltage counterparts, it would become a common place in the electrically heated housing developments of 60’s through 80’s, as well as in some custom building.


Single phase, 25 cycle motor motor

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.169
Exhibit: Ventilation

A rare, early 20th century, commutating, single phase, 25 cycle, alternating current motor, likely of the repulsion type, an early marker of vastly changing times to come, following the first wave of home electrification. It would herald the coming invasion of the Canadian home by electro-motive technology, manufacturer’s name partially obliterated, date unknown. [se also ID# 304]



Item: Single phase, 25 cycle motor motor
Make: Manufacturer’s name partially obliterated
Features:
– Oiler cap marked “The OK Mfg Co. Dayton O.”
– 6 inch pig tail leads illustrating electrical wiring practice of the times

Technical Significance:
– A rare example of an early communtating, alternating current motor design, engineering and manufacture, likely of the repulsion motor genre. See references 1, 2 and 5 for discussion of design and operation of early 20th century communtating AC motors.
– An early marker of vastly changing times to come, following the first wave of home electrification technology. An icon, it would herald the coming invasion of the Canadian home by electro-motive technology, starting in central Canada in the 1920’s.


Repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.170
Exhibit: Ventilation

Classic mid 20th century, heavy duty, repulsion induction, brush lifting motor, dual voltage and mechanically reversible. Canadian made, it would characterize much of the Canadian experience through middle and latter years of the century, a period which saw massive growth in the demand for such high torque motors following W.W.II and frequency standardization. Yet, paradoxically, the period also witnessed the progressive demise of the technology, Leland [new and unused], Circa 1960. [See also ID# 308]



Item: Repulsion induction motor ‘Leland’
Manufacturer: Leland Electric Canada Limited, Guelph Ont.
Make: Leland
Model: Form AKWJH, Type R
Features:
– Built-in well for the possible installation of “Klixon” motor overload protector with automatic reset.
– Shop tag in Howard Oliver’s hand writing, “checks OK, Jan 1975”

Technical Significance:
– With a built-in “well” making provision for “Klixon” inherent motor overload protector technology, this artifact is a marker of the advances made by mid century in personal and property protection for the FHP motor owners. By then, the inherent, automatic overload projector with automatic reset had become a mainstream technology, for which provisions were being built into the motor body, whether the particular application required it or not. Inherent, automatic overload motor protection was a universal truth for FHP motor design by the middle of the 20th century. It was yet another indicator of the new world of advances made through automation – as it existed in the mid 20th century.
– Canadian made, this motor would characterize much of the Canadian experience through middle and later years of the century, in high torque, FHP motor development. A period which saw massive growth in the demand for such high starting torque motors, typically for use on refrigeration equipment, which flooded the market in those years, following W.W.II and frequency standardization.
– Repulsion induction motor technology was above all a marvel of its time, a technology born of both science and the consumer market place, a classic formula for the innovation and diffusion of popular technology,throughout the balance of the 20th century and on in to the 21st. Scientifically, the work of Faraday and many others laid much of the theoretical foundations for electromagnetic devices, the marvel of the early 20th century [much in the same way digital devices became the marvel of the early years of the 21st]. The wonders made possible by alternating current energised, rotating magnetic fields and the electric and magnetic circuitry that made them possible would soon be exploited by those interested in their application in applied electro-motive technology, including Steinnmetz and others. [See References especially #I, 2, and 5]
– For the Canadian household and commercial refrigeration industry, pioneered by Kelvinator and Frigidaire, it would be a “just-in-time” technology, as well as an immensely enabling one – and what it enabled was considerable. Sir William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, had just set out the theoretical principles of the compression refrigeration, Carnot cycle [see Note #1]. But there existed no electro-motive devices with sufficient starting torque able to drive the compressor, making mechanical cooling practical for household and commercial uses – even for those who were otherwise able to enjoy the benefits of electrification. The push was on to develop such a device, the repulsion induction, single-phase motor would quickly follow.
– But paradoxically, by the mid 20th century the market for high torque, repulsion induction motors, for household and commercial refrigeration applications had peaked. A technology of its times, it represented immense achievement by early 20th century engineers and manufactures. Yet, as is typically the case, with the innovation, dissemination and popularization of technology come the seeds of its own demise. The very means by which its high torque performance had been achieved, through the use of an elaborate wound rotor, commentator and electrical brushes, made it costly, clumsy and noisy, as well as unsuitable for many embedded applications, such as hermetic refrigeration and air conditioning systems. Replacing the commentator and complex rotor windings with a “solid state, squirrel cage” rotor represented a giant engineering advancement. The development of capacitor start electric motor technology [see Classification 12.02] would now quickly replace repulsion induction technology for many applications, well before the end of the 20th century.

Industrial Significance:
– Well recognized for their performance, reliability and maitainability, the repulsion induction engineering designs employed by Leland Electric, Quelph Ontario, along with Wagner Electric Leaside would in many ways serve to characterizing best Canadian practice through middle and later years of the century.
– Because of the specialized nature of the technology, engineering and production costs, and the limited market, few companies would be seen as surviving in the popular, repulsion induction market beyond mid century.


Variable speed repulsion motor ‘Leland’

Electric Motors – Single Phase, Repulsion Induction and Repulsion Motors

Accession # HHCC.2006.171
Exhibit: Ventilation

A rarity, a variable speed repulsion motor, with mechanical speed, forward and reverse control lever. A classic, mid 20th century piece of speciality, repulsion induction technology, marking the apogee of the genre – in a period when the genre was still the wonder-boy of single phase, electric motor engineering. Canadian made, it would stand as a special time piece, marking the achievements and sophistication of the Canadian electric motor engineering and manufacturing, part of the “golden years” of the industry in Canada, Leland, 1948.